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10. Wissenschaftstagung Ökologischer Landbau Organic Eprints
Alföldi, Thomas; Dubois, David; Fried, Padruot; van der Heijden, Marcel; Kreuzer, Michael; Lüscher, Andreas; Mayer, Jochen; Strasser, Fredi; Willer, Helga; Zerger, Uli.
Die 10. Wissenschaftstagung zum ökologischen Landbau findet 2009 in der Schweiz statt. Ausgerichtet wird sie von der Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon ART, dem Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau (FiBL), dem Departement Agrar- und Lebensmittelwissenschaften der Eidgenössischen Technischen Hochschule (ETH) sowie der Stiftung Ökologie & Landbau (SÖL). Unter dem Motto «Werte – Wege – Wirkungen» präsentieren und diskutieren die Teilnehmenden aktuelle ethische Aspekte, produktionstechnische Fortschritte und gesellschaftspolitisch relevante Auswirkungen des biologischen Landbaus. Zusätzlich ist geplant, mit ausgewählten Veranstaltungen speziell auch Bioberaterinnen und Praktiker anzusprechen. Einzelne Veranstaltungen der Konferenz...
Tipo: Project description Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/8603/1/2009%2D02%2D11%2DCall%2Dfor%2Dpapers.pdf
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Application of Mycorrhiza and Soil from a Permaculture System Improved Phosphorus Acquisition in Naranjilla Organic Eprints
Symanczik, Sarah; Gisler, Michelle; Thonar, Cécile; Schlaeppi, Klaus; van der Heijden, Marcel; Kahmen, Ansgar; Boller, Thomas; Mäder, Paul.
Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense) is a perennial shrub plant mainly cultivated in Ecuador, Colombia, and Central America where it represents an important cash crop. Current cultivation practices not only cause deforestation and large-scale soil degradation but also make plants highly susceptible to pests and diseases. The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can offer a possibility to overcome these problems. AMF can act beneficially in various ways, for example by improving plant nutrition and growth, water relations, soil structure and stability and protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the impact of AMF inoculation on growth and nutrition parameters of naranjilla has been assessed. For inoculation three European reference AMF...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/33353/1/Symanczik-etal-2017_FrontPlantSci_Vol8_Article1263_pp1-12.pdf
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Arbuskuläre Mykorrhizapilze als Bioindikatoren in Schweizer Landwirtschaftsböden Organic Eprints
Oehl, Fritz; Jansa, Jan; Ineichen, Kurt; Mäder, Paul; van der Heijden, Marcel.
Die meisten Nutz- und Wildpflanzen bilden eine Symbiose mit einer speziellen Gruppe von Bodenpilzen, den Arbuskulären Mykorrhizapilzen (AM-Pilze). AM-Pilze übernehmen in allen von Pflanzen besiedelten Ökosystemen wichtige Funktionen. Sie bilden ein engmaschiges Pilzfadengeflecht im Boden und geben lebensnotwendige Nährstoffe aus dem Boden an die Pflanzen weiter und schützen diese gegen Stress und Trockenheit. Sie reduzieren Nährstoffverluste aus dem Boden und können durch Lebendverbauung Erosion vermindern und somit die Stabilität on Ökosystemen erhöhen. AM-Pilze scheinen als Bioindikatoren besonders geeignet zu sein, da diese Pilzgruppe mit bisher bekannten 230 Arten überschaubar klein ist und sowohl häufige als auch seltene Arten enthält. In der Schweiz...
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Indicators and other value-laden measures; Nutrient turnover.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/21813/1/oehl-etal-2011-agrarforschungSchweiz-2-0708-p304-311.pdf
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Bedeutung von Mykorrhiza-Pilzen für Rotklee-Gras-Mischungen Organic Eprints
van der Heijden, Marcel; Wagg, Cameron; Lukasiewicz, Kasia; Olbrecht, Luise.
Grass-clover pastures form an essential part of organic farming systems. It is well known that nitrogen fixing bacteria play a key role in determining productivity of grass-clover pastures. Yet, the impact of other plant symbionts, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, on grass-clover is still poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that AM fungi enhanced red clover biomass and enabled red clover to coexist with grass. Moreover, the diversity of AM fungi in the soil promoted productivity of grass-clover mixtures. Inoculation experiments in a range of field soils with native AM fungi showed that addition of AM fungi promoted clover biomass in several (but not all) soils. This study shows that AM fungi can be important for clover establishment in pastures.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/21551/1/21551_vanHeijden.pdf
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Die vielen Facetten von Zwischenfrüchten Organic Eprints
Wittwer, Raphaël; Jossi, Werner; van der Heijden, Marcel.
Several studies indicate that cover crops can be used to enhance agricultural sustainability as they provide numerous ecological services in agro-ecosystems. They protect soil against erosion and nutrient losses and compete weeds. Moreover, legume species fix nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere and contribute to next crop nutrition. Hence, cover crops complement the ecological aims of organic agriculture. We investigated the impact of cover crops in different cropping systems (organic and conventional) and soil tillage intensities (plough, reduced and no-tillage) in various field experiments. Moreover, results from an experimental network, which has investigated the behavior of more than 11 cover crops, is included. Results show that the effects of cover...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Crop combinations and interactions.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/31868/1/Die%20vielen%20Facetten%20von%20Zwischenfr%C3%BCchten.pdf
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Drohnenbilder zur Untersuchung von Pflanzenwachstum und Nährstoffdynamik Organic Eprints
Wittwer, Raphaël; Tombez, Grégoire; van der Heijden, Marcel.
Ein besseres Verständnis der Dynamik hinter der Freisetzung von pflanzenverfügbaren Nährstoffen aus Boden oder organischen Dünger und eine Verbesserung der Nährstoffverwertung von Ackerfrüchten sind zwei wichtige Herausforderungen, um die Produktivität im ökologischem Ackerbau zu erhöhen. Doch diese Prozesse sind stark sowohl von biotischen (z.B. Bodenmikroben) als auch abiotischen (z.B. Temperatur, Niederschlag, Bodenfeuchtigkeit, Bodenstruktur) Faktoren beeinflusst und erschweren effiziente Untersuchungen. Fernbilderkundung-Technologien (remote sensing) haben sich in den letzten Jahren stark weiterentwickelt und bieten heute neue Ansätze und Methoden, um der Ernährungsstatus von Pflanzen sowie die Dynamik des Pflanzenwachstums nicht destruktiv zu...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Surveys and statistics; Specific methods; Nutrient turnover; Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/27132/1/27132_wittwer.pdf
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Dschungel unter den Füßen Unterirdisches Leben bestimmt das Funktionieren von Agrarökosystemen Organic Eprints
van der Heijden, Marcel; Bender, Sophia; Wagg, Cameron.
This work demonstrates that soil biodiversity plays an important role in agroecosystems. The presence of an enriched soil community in large outdoor lysimeters enhanced plant yield and reduced nutrient leaching losses. Moreover, soil biodiversity loss and simplification of soil communities reduced ecosystem multifunctionality. Further analysis revealed that promotion of soil biodiversity and soil ecological engineering can help to reduce the reliance on external inputs and is especially suitable for a transition to organic agriculture. This work points to the need to support soil life for a sustainable agriculture.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil biology; Nutrient turnover.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/31954/1/Dschungel%20unter%20den%20F%C3%BCssen%20%E2%80%93%20Unterirdisches%20Leben.pdf
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Langzeitversuch Burgrain: Ertrag und Qualität von biologisch und integriert angebauten Ackerkulturen im Vergleich Organic Eprints
Zihlmann, Urs; Tschachtli, Ruedi; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; van der Heijden, Marcel; Oehl, Fritz.
The effect of integrated and organic farming on crop yield as well as on environmental and economic performance was investigated in a large scale field experiment near Lucerne (Switzerland), which was running for 18 years. Crop yield in organically managed fields was, depending on crop species, between 3% and 36% lower compared to conventionally managed fields. Only slight variations in crop quality were observed between the farming systems, probably as a result of the high nitrogen mineralization potential of the soils in this experiment. Our results show that organic farming on fertile soils provides good yields and is – under the given Swiss agricultural policy – economically beneficial.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/17594/3/Oehl_17594.pdf
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Leguminosen als Zwischenbegrünung im ökologischen Ackerbau mit konservierender Bodenbearbeitung Organic Eprints
Dorn, Brigitte; Jossi, Werner; van der Heijden, Marcel.
In large-plot field trials leguminous cover crops were examined under conservation tillage systems in organic farming conditions for their ability to suppress weeds. Cover crops were directly drilled after wheat harvest into the field. Suitability of cover crop was estimated by assessing their growth, soil coverage, biomass, biomass of weeds, mulch layer and yield of the main crop, which was either maize or sunflower. Fast growing cover crops, which had a high biomass, reduced weed growth most. Any cover crops grown reduced weed biomass significantly compared to the control without cover crop. Effects on the main crops will be determined after harvest in autumn 2010.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Weed management.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/17405/3/Dorn_17405.pdf
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No Till and Organic Farming Improve Soil Properties but Reduce Crop Yield Compared to Conventional Farming in a Swiss Farm Network Organic Eprints
Büchi, Lucie; Walder, Florian; Banerjee, Samiran; Colombi, Tino; Hirte, Juliane; Mayer, Jochen; Keller, Thomas; Six, Johan; van der Heijden, Marcel; Charles, Raphael.
Soils are of vital importance for sustainable food production. In order to maintain or improve soil quality, it is necessary to develop strategies for a sustainable use of soil. Alternative cropping practices such as reduced tillage and improved crop rotation are more and more adopted with the aim of decreasing the impact of agriculture on the environment. However, their on-the-ground impact in Swiss farming systems still has to be assessed. In this study, we quantified the impact of three farming systems (conventional farming, no-till, and organic farming) on plant and soil chemical, biological and physical properties. Our study included 20 fields for each farming system. All selected fields were cultivated with winter wheat the year of sampling. Soil was...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Soil tillage.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/34558/1/buechi-etal-2018-ESA2018_FinalAbstractBook_p36.pdf
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Potentials to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from Swiss agriculture Organic Eprints
Necpalowa, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Skinner, Colin; Büchi, Lucie; Wittwer, Raphaël; Gattinger, Andreas; van der Heijden, Marcel; Mäder, Paul; Charles, Raphaël; Berner, Alfred; Mayer, Jochen; Six, Johan.
There is an urgent need to identify and evaluate management practices for their biophysical potential to maintain productivity under climate change while mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from individual cropping systems under specific pedo-climatic conditions. Here, we examined, through DayCent modeling, the long-term impact of soil management practices and their interactions on soil GHG emissions and GHG intensity from Swiss cropping systems. Based on experimental data from four long-term experimental sites in Switzerland (Therwil, Frick, Changins, and Reckenholz), we robustly parameterized and evaluated the model for simulating crop productivity, soil C dynamics and soil N2O emissions across a range of management practices and pedo-climatic...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions; Switzerland.
Ano: 2018
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Soil quality grouping variables in OSCAR-MEE Organic Eprints
Marinari, S.; Papp, R.; Sripada, U.; Thami-Alami, I.; Campiglia, E.; Pearce, Bruce; Bergkvist, Göran; van der Heijden, Marcel; Baresel, Jörg Peter; Finckh, Maria R..
Soil chemical properties were correlated with microbial biomass and its activity. Different correlations were found at the beginning of the first and second cycles, respectively. Soil samples were grouped with respect to the different climate zones. The main variables that separated the countries were organic Carbon, total Nitrogen, pH and clay content.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil biology; Nutrient turnover; Soil.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/29643/1/poster%20OSCAR%202.pdf
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Welchen Einfluss hat die Dauer der biologischen Bewirtschaftung auf den Ertrag und die Biodiversität im Maisanbau? Ergebnisse einer Praxisstudie Organic Eprints
van der Heijden, Marcel; Wittwer, Raphael; Honegger, Adi; Hegglin, Django.
Organic farming is popular, and an increasing number of conventional farmers consider to convert to organic farming. For those converting, and for policy makers, it is important to know whether plant yield changes with the duration of organic management and whether other aspects of organic management (e. g. weed abundance or enhanced weed diversity) increase over time. In order to test this, we compared maize yield on 34 farms: 9 conventional farms, 9 farms which recently converted to organic farming as well as 16 farms which were managed organically for 9-32 years. We also determined the number and abundance of weed species in each field. Maize yield was not affected by the duration of organic management, although N input was approximately 35 % lower on...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Weed management.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/21468/1/21468_vanHeijden.pdf
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Wirtschaftlichkeit von pfluglosen Anbausystemen: Resultate für Winterweizen aus einem Anbauversuch Organic Eprints
Wittwer, Raphaël; Dorn, Brigitte; Mouron, Patrik; Lips, Markus; van der Heijden, Marcel.
There is an increased interest in Europe to develop organic farming systems with reduced tillage intensity. Besides technical and agronomical aspects, the profitability of these systems has to be viable for farmers to achieve a successful implementation in practice. A long-term trial was set up in 2009 at the research station Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon (ART) to compare conventional and organic farming systems with and without ploughing including a full cost calculation to assess the profitability of the different systems. First results show that the highest benefit was obtained under organic cultivation under Swiss legislation. Moreover, production costs were reduced with the adoption of conservation tillage.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Farm economics; Soil tillage.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/21242/1/21242_RaphaelWittwer.doc
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