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3D Cameras: 3D Computer Vision of Wide Scope InTech
Stefan May; Kai Pervoelz; Hartmut Surmann.
First of all, a short comparison of range sensors and their underlying principles was given. The chapter further focused on 3D cameras. The latest innovations have given a significant improvement for the measurement accuracy, wherefore this technology has attracted attention in the robotics community. This was also the motivation for the examination in this chapter. On this account, several applications were presented, which represents common problems in the domain of autonomous robotics. For the mapping example of static scenes, some difficulties have been shown. The low range, low apex angle and low dynamic range compared with 3D laser scanners, raised a lot of problems. Therefore, laser scanning is still the preferred technology for this use case. Based...
Tipo: 11 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/3d_cameras__3d_computer_vision_of_wide_scope
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3D Face Recognition InTech
Theodoros Papatheodorou; Daniel Rueckert.
Tipo: 21 Palavras-chave: Face Recognition.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/3d_face_recognition
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3D Face Recognition in a Ambient Intelligence Environment Scenario InTech
Andrea F. Abate; Stefano Ricciardi; Gabriele Sabatino.
We presented a 3D face recognition method applied to an Ambient Intelligence Environment. The proposed approach to acquisition and recognition proved to be suited to the applicative context thanks to high accuracy and recognition speed, effectively exploiting the advantages of face over other biometrics. As the acquisition system requires the user to look at a specific target to allow a valid face capture, we are working on a multi-angle stereoscopic camera arrangement, to make this critical task less annoying and more robust to a wide posing range. This 3D face recognition method based on 3D geometry and color texture is aimed to improve robustness to presence/absence of beard and to expressive variations. It proved to be simple and fast and experiments...
Tipo: 1 Palavras-chave: Face Recognition.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/3d_face_recognition_in_a_ambient_intelligence_environment_scenario
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A 3-D Rehabilitation System for Upper Limbs "EMUL", and a 6-DOF Rehabilitation System "Robotherapist" and Other Rehabilitation Systems with High Safety InTech
Junji Furusho; Takehito Kikuchi.
High safety rehabilitation systems using functional fluid were introduced. Two units of EMUL were made in the 5-year NEDO project, and they were transferred from NEDO to Furusho Laboratory of Osaka University. We continue clinical evaluation of 3-D rehabilitation system and quasi-3-DOF rehabilitation system by using EMUL, Robotherapist and PLEMO. We have been studying rehabilitation robotics mainly from the standpoint of mechatronics and virtual reality. Now, we started to study it also from the standpoint of physical therapy and motion control of human beings.
Tipo: 8 Palavras-chave: Rehabilitation Robotics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_3-d_rehabilitation_system_for_upper_limbs_emul_and_a_6-dof
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A 4WD Omnidirectional Mobile Platform and its Application to Wheelchairs InTech
Masayoshi Wada.
Conventional electric wheelchairs can not meet requirements for both maneuverability and high mobility in rough terrain in a single design. Enhancing their mobility could facilitate the use of wheelchairs and other electric mobile machines and promote barrier-free environments without re-constructing existing facilities. To improve wheelchair step-climbing and maneuverability, we introduced a 4WD with a pair of normal wheels in back and a pair of omniwheels in front. A normal wheel and an omniwheel are connected by a transmission and driven by a common motor to make them rotate in unison. To apply the 4WD to a wheelchair platform, we conducted basic analyses on the ability to climb steps. After analyzing the original 4WD statics and kinematics and...
Tipo: 15 Palavras-chave: Climbing and Walking Robots: towards New Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_4wd_omnidirectional_mobile_platform_and_its_application_to_wheelchairs
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A Climbing Robot for Cleaning Glass Surface with Motion Planning and Visual Sensing InTech
Dong Sun; Jian Zhu; Shiu Kit Tso.
This chapter persents an application of a climbing robot for the glass cleaning service. The robot is constructed by two rodless cylinders and a rotation cylinder. The robot can adjust its orientation to maintain in the desired trajectory path. After finishing the cleaning work in one section of the glass wall, the robot can cross the window frame to enter another section. A visual sensing system, which is composed of an omnidirectional CCD camera and two laser diodes, is applied to measure the robot’s position and orientation on the glass wall. Experiments demonstrate that with the assistance of the proposed motion planning and visual sensing technologies, the climbing robot can perform cleaning work on the glass wall effectively. Future work will be...
Tipo: 10 Palavras-chave: Climbing and Walking Robots: towards New Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_climbing_robot_for_cleaning_glass_surface_with_motion_planning_and_visual_sensing
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A CMPSO Algorithm Based Approach to Solve the Multi-plant Supply Chain Problem InTech
Felix T. S. Chan; Vikas Kumar; Nishikant Mishra.
250
Tipo: 25 Palavras-chave: Swarm Intelligence; Focus on Ant and Particle Swarm Optimization.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_cmpso_algorithm_based_approach_to_solve_the_multi-plant_supply_chain_problem
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A Comparative Evaluation of Methods for Evolving a Cooperative Team InTech
Takaya Arita; Yasuyuki Suzuki.
This chapter has focused on the methods for evolving a cooperative team by conducting a comparative evaluation of 18 methods. We have found that some methods performed well, while there are complex correlations among design decisions. Also, further analysis has
Tipo: 1 Palavras-chave: Frontiers in Evolutionary Robotics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_comparative_evaluation_of_methods_for_evolving_a_cooperative_team
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A Complete Family of Kinematically-Simple Joint Layouts: Layout Models, Associated Displacement Problem Solutions and Applications InTech
Scott Nokleby; Ron Podhorodeski.
Tipo: 08 Palavras-chave: Industrial Robotics: Theory; Modelling and Control.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_complete_family_of_kinematically-simple_joint_layouts__layout_models__associated_displacement_prob
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A Comprehensive Framework for Perception in Robotic Soccer InTech
Luciano Oliveira; Augusto Loureiro; Leizer Schnitiman.
A framework for perception in robotics soccer has been presented. The proposed framework has shown been effective in recognize coloured objects in the soccer field but it might be slightly changed to be used in different approaches, through a new set of training samples and fuzzy rules. A TS fuzzy engine has been used to integrate information from different sensors, particularly, an IR distance sensor and a camera. To integrate these sensor data, a novel calibration method, based on a regression SVM, was developed and it has shown a robust mapping between the calibration map and the obtained values in camera space, with a low average error of 1.88 degrees. Also, the vision system was evaluated, and the new scheme, with an addition of a cascade of boost...
Tipo: 12 Palavras-chave: Robotic Soccer.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_comprehensive_framework_for_perception_in_robotic_soccer
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A Design Framework for Sensor Integration in Robotic Applications InTech
Dimitrios I. Kosmopoulos.
In this chapter we have introduced a design framework for developing software for integrating sensors to robotic applications, provided that open controller architecture is available. The design is general enough and enables the integration of the popular sensors to any open controller using a wide variety of control schemes. By keeping some simple
Tipo: 1 Palavras-chave: Industrial Robotics: Programming; Simulation and Applications.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_design_framework_for_sensor_integration_in_robotic_applications
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A Designing Method of the Passive Dynamic Walking Robot via Analogy with Phase Locked Loop Circuits InTech
Masatsugu Iribe; Koichi Osuka.
In this paper we ascertained the analogous behavior between Phase locked loop circuit and the passive dynamic walking robot, and showed the effective property to get set-up parameters and initial conditions. Then we proposed one method to fix the physical parameters and conditions which cause the desired walking gaits, and at last we showed the compensation method which is effective to stabilize the bifurcated gait of the robot. The proposed method which is inspired by the analogy with Phase locked loop circuit is probably valuable for designing the passive dynamic walking robot before beginning the actual prototyping. For the future work, we try to investigate the characteristic behavior of the passive dynamic walking robot which is similar to the Lock...
Tipo: 6 Palavras-chave: Bioinspiration and Robotics Walking and Climbing Robots.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_designing_method_of_the_passive_dynamic_walking_robot_via_analogy_with_phase_locked_loop_circuits
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A Designing of Humanoid Robot Hands in Endo Skeleton and Exoskeleton Styles InTech
Ichiro Kawabuchi.
To contribute on the evaluative process of searching the appropriate designing paradigms as a mechanical engineer, I bring up in this paper some of my ideas about the robot hand design concretely. While the designs of my robot hands may seem to be filled with eccentric, vagarious and serendipitous ideas for some people, I believe they are practical outcomes of flexible ingenuity in mechanical designing, so that they can take on pre-programmed but robust actuating roles for helping the programmable but limited actuators, and realize higher total balance in mechatronics. At the same time, for examining their practicability, reasonability and inevitability through the eyes of many persons, it will need to establish a standard definition and evaluation items...
Tipo: 23 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots: New Developments.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_designing_of_humanoid_robot_hands_in_endo_skeleton_and_exoskeleton_styles
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A Dynamic Resource Allocation on Service Supply Chain InTech
Soo Wook Kim; Kanghwa Choi.
Through the study, 6 variables for interactions between causes and effects are found, related to the profit maximization of an internet based company in management aspect from the internet bookstore, which is one of the most common types of internet shopping malls. And by connecting all the variables in complex, the map for the cause and effect is systematically constructed. Furthermore, by verifying the necessary information of system dynamics model for the purpose of testing the resource distributed decision making model, it made the resource distributed decision making possible. Based on these contents, the relation between the variable, related to the level of customer's purchase / loyalty in the internet bookstore, and the resource distribution...
Tipo: 19 Palavras-chave: Supply Chain.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_dynamic_resource_allocation_on_service_supply_chain
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A Facial Expression Imitation System for the Primitive of Intuitive Human-Robot Interaction InTech
Do Hyoung Kim; Kwang Ho An; Yeon Geol Ryu; Myung Jin Chung.
This Chapter has attempted to deal with the issues on establishing a facial expression imitation system for natural and intuitive interactions with humans. Several real-time cognition abilities are implemented to a robotic system such as face detection, face tracking, and facial expression recognition. Moreover, a robotic system with facial components is developed, which is able to imitate human's facial expressions. A method of recognizing facial expressions is proposed through the use of an innovative rectangle feature. Using the AdaBoost algorithm, an expanded version of Viola and Jones' method has been suggested as a new approach. We deal with 7 facial expressions: neutral, happiness, anger, sadness, surprise, disgust, and fear. For each facial...
Tipo: 11 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_facial_expression_imitation_system_for_the_primitive_of_intuitive_human-robot_interaction
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A Factored Language Model for Prosody Dependent Speech Recognition InTech
Ken Chen; Mark A. Hasegawa-Johnson; Jennifer S. Cole.
In this chapter, we proposed a novel approach that improves the robustness of prosody dependent language modeling by leveraging the dependence between prosody and syntax. In our experiments on Radio News Corpus, a factorial prosody dependent language model estimated using our proposed approach has achieved as much as 31% reduction of the joint perplexity over a prosody dependent language model estimated using the standard Maximum Likelihood approach. In recognition experiments, our approach results in a 1% improvement in word recognition accuracy, 0.7% improvement in accent recognition accuracy and 1.5% improvement in intonational phrase boundary (IPB) recognition accuracy over the baseline prosody dependent recognizer. The study in the chapter shows that
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Robust Speech Recognition and Understanding.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_factored_language_model_for_prosody_dependent_speech_recognition
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A Feature-Level Fusion of Appearance and Passive Depth Information for Face Recognition InTech
Jian-Gang Wang; Kar Ann Toh; Eric Sung; Wei-Yun Yau.
In this paper, we contributed a stereo face recognition formulation which combines appearance and disparity/depth at feature level. We showed that the present-day passive stereovision in combination with 2D appearance images can match up to other methods which rely on active depth data. A Reduced Multivariate Polynomial Model was adopted to fuse the appearance and disparity images. RMPM is extended so that the problem of newuser registration can be overcome. We evaluated the performance of such fusion on XM2VTS face database. The evaluation results, which included results from appearance alone, depth alone and fusion of them respectively, using XM2VTS database, showed improvement of recognition rate from combining 3D information and 2D information. The...
Tipo: 28 Palavras-chave: Face Recognition.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_feature-level_fusion_of_appearance_and__passive_depth_information_for_face_recognition_
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A Framework for Assessing and Managing Large Purchaser - Minority Supplier Relationships in Supplier Diversity Initiatives InTech
Nicholas Theodorakopoulos; Monder Ram.
Supplier diversity initiatives can function as platforms for EMSs strategic learning (Theodorakopoulos et al., 2005; Theodorakopoulos & Ram, 2006) and the scant research in supplier diversity underscores the importance of relationship factors to the success of supplier diversity/development programmes (e.g. Pearson et al., 1993). However, purchaser-supplier relationship management as a vehicle for enhancing EMSs learning and supply capabilities has not been examined to any length within the context of supplier diversity. Hence, the aim of this chapter was to consider the characteristics of the relationship between LPO and EMS that enable or constrain such learning. Our emerging tentative
Tipo: 3 Palavras-chave: Supply Chain.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_framework_for_assessing_and_managing_large_purchaser_-_minority_supplier_relationships_in_supplier
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A Fuzzy Logic Controller for Autonomous Wheeled Vehicles InTech
Mohamed B. Trabia; Linda Z. Shi; Neil E. Hodge.
This chapter presents a fuzzy logic control system for steering a two-axle vehicle. Two controllers are presented individually: the steering controller and the velocity controller. Each fuzzy controller is divided into several modules to represent the distributed way in which humans deal with different driving tasks. All of these modules are of the Mamdanitype and use sigmoid or product of sigmoid membership functions. The outputs of the various modules are added together to control the steering angle and the speed of the vehicle, respectively. Two fuzzy modules in the steering controller are designed to meet the basic driving requirement: Target Steering Fuzzy module and Collision Avoidance Steering Fuzzy module. The first module steers the vehicle toward...
Tipo: 10 Palavras-chave: Mobile Robotics; Moving Intelligence.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_fuzzy_logic_controller_for_autonomous_wheeled_vehicles
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A General Approximation-Optimization Approach to Large Margin Estimation of HMMs InTech
Hui Jiang; Xinwei Li.
In this paper, we have proposed a general Approximation-optiMization (AM) approach for large margin estimation (LME) of Gaussian mixture HMMs in speech recognition. Each iteration of the AM method consists of A-step and M-step. In A-step, the original LME problem is approximated by a simple convex optimization problem in a close proximity of initial model parameters. In M-step, the approximate convex optimization problem is solved by using efficient convex optimization algorithms. The AM method is a general approach which can be easily applied for discriminative training of statistical models with hidden variables. In this paper, we introduce two examples to apply the AM approach to LME of Gaussian mixture HMMs. The first method uses V-approx and is...
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Robust Speech Recognition and Understanding.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_general_approximation-optimization_approach_to_large_margin_estimation_of_hmms
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