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A structuralist approach in the study of evolution and classification Naturalis
Hammen, L. van der.
A survey is given of structuralism as a method that can be applied in the study of evolution and classification. The results of a structuralist approach are illustrated by examples from the laws underlying numerical changes, from the laws underlying changes in the chelicerate life-cycle, and from the laws underlying the evolution of the chelicerate appendages. Suggestions are given for the study of the laws underlying the transformation of form, and some notes are made on structuring forces and the early stages of organic evolution. Some concluding remarks are finally made on deep structure, phylogenetic classification and evolution.
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Appendages; Chelicerata; Classification; Evolution; Increasing complexity; Individual; Laws of form; Life-cycle; Numerical changes; Primordial life; Segmentation; Sexuality; Structuralism; 42.21; 42.70.
Ano: 1985 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/319130
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European bounty for taxonomists Naturalis
Fontaine, B.; Achterberg, C. van; Alonso-Zarazaga, M.A.; Araujo, R.; Asche, M.; Aspöck, H.; Aspöck, U.; Audisio, P.; Aukema, B.; Bailly, N.; Balsamo, M.; Bank, R.A.; Belfiore, C.; Bogdanowicz, W.; Boxshall, G.; Burckhardt, D.; Chylarecki, P.; Deharveng, L.; Dubois, A.; Enghoff, H.; Fochetti, R.; Fontaine, C.; Gargominy, O.; Gomez Lopez, M.S.; Goujet, D.; Harvey, M.S.; Heller, K.-G.; Helsdingen, Peter van; Hoch, H.; Jong, Y. de; Karsholt, O.; Los, W.; Magowski, W.; Massard, J.A.; McInnes, S.J.; Mendes, L.F.; Mey, E.; Michelsen, V.; Minelli, A.; Nieto Nafria, J.M.; Nieukerken, E.J. van; Pape, Th.; Prins, W. De; Ramos, M.; Ricci, C.; Roselaar, C.; Rota, E.; Segers, H.; Timm, T.; Tol, J. van; Bouchet, Ph..
Non-professional taxonomists have been responsible for describing more than half of the animal species discovered in Europe from 1998 to 2007 (see also Nature 467, 788; 2010). The extraordinary current rate of description of new species makes Europe an unexpected frontier for biodiversity exploration. The Fauna Europaea database (http://www.faunaeur.org), released in 2004, lists more than 125,000 European species of multicellular terrestrial and freshwater animals. More than 700 new species are described each year in Europe — four times the rate of two centuries ago. However, we have not yet reached saturation in the inventory of European fauna, and we cannot accurately estimate the total number of species living in the continent's ecosystems.
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Taxonomy; Amateur taxonomists; Citizen science; 42.70.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/364235
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Evolution of species-specific major seminal fluid proteins in placental mammals by gene death and positive selection Naturalis
Meslin, C.; Laurin, M.; Callebaut, I.; Druart, X.; Monget, P..
The seminal fluid is a complex substance composed of a variety of secreted proteins and has been shown to play an important role in the fertilisation process in mammals and also in Drosophila. Several genes under positive selection have been documented in some rodents and primates. Our study documents this phenomenon in several other mammalian taxa. We study the evolution of genes that encode for 20 proteins that are quantitatively predominant in the seminal fluid of at least one out of seven domestic animal species. We analyse the amino acid composition of these proteins for positive selection and for the presence of pseudogenes. Genes that disappeared through pseudogenisation include KLK2 in cattle, horse and mice. Traces of positive selection are found...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Molecular evolution; Multivariate phylogenetic pairwise comparisons; Reproductive isolation; Speciation; Comparative biology; Pseudogenisation; 42.64; 42.13; 42.70.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/575180
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From taxonomic literature to cybertaxonomic content Naturalis
Miller, J.A.; Dikow, T.; Agosti, D.; Sautter, G.; Catapano, T.; Penev, L.; Zhang, Z.-Q.; Pentcheff, D.; Pyle, R.; Blum, S.; Parr, C.; Freeland, C.; Garnett, T.; Ford, L.S.; Muller, B.; Smith, L.; Strader, G.; Georgiev, T.; Bénichou, L..
Taxonomy is a fundamental science that provides the scaffolding for biology. But the true value of taxonomic data remains unrealized because basic biodiversity information remains fragmented and unevenly accessible. Taxonomy helps us recognize species and map their distributions by generating text descriptions, images, and records of when and where they have been observed. Current rates of species extinction, habitat loss, and climate change mean that taxonomy has never been more relevant. Biodiversity is one of the most information-rich fields of human knowledge, but advances in basic cybertaxonomic infrastructure have only recently provided the tools to organize biodiversity information in ways that respond to a wide range of user groups, including...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Cybertaxonomy; Open access publishing; Semantic content; XML markup; 42.70; 54.84.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/434476
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New and redescribed encrusting species of Alcyonium from the Atlantic Ocean (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea: Alcyoniidae) Naturalis
Stokvis, F.R.; Ofwegen, L.P. van.
Three new species of Alcyonium are described and illustrated: Alcyonium megasclerum and A. rubrum from the Cape Verde Islands, and A. profundum from the Mid Atlantic Ridge. Two species are redescribed and figured: A. grandiflorum Tixier-Durivault & d’Hondt, 1975 and A. maristenebrosi Stiasny, 1937. Pseudoalcyonium novum Tixier-Durivault & d’Hondt, 1975 is synonymized with Alcyonium bocagei (Saville Kent, 1870).
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Octocorallia; Alcyonacea; Alcyoniidae; Alcyonium; New species; Redescriptions; Atlantic Ocean; Deep water; 42.72; 42.70.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/198498
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New species in the Old World: Europe as a frontier in biodiversity exploration, a test bed for 21st century taxonomy Naturalis
Fontaine, B.; Achterberg, C. van; Alonso-Zarazaga, M.A.; Araujo, R.; Asche, M.; Aspöck, H.; Aspöck, U.; Audisio, P.; Aukema, B.; Bailly, N.; Balsamo, M.; Bank, R.A.; Belfiore, C.; Bogdanowicz, W.; Boxshall, G.; Burckhardt, D.; Chylarecki, P.; Deharveng, L.; Dubois, A.; Enghoff, H.; Fochetti, R.; Fontaine, C.; Gargominy, O.; Lopez, M.S.G.; Goujet, D.; Harvey, M.S.; Heller, K.-G.; Helsdingen, P. van; Hoch, H.; Jong, Y. de; Karsholt, O.; Los, W.; Magowski, W.; Massard, J.A.; McInnes, S.J.; Mendes, L.F.; Mey, E.; Michelsen, V.; Minelli, A.; Nafria, J.M.N.; Nieukerken, E.J. van; Pape, Th.; Prins, W. de; Ramos, M.; Ricci, C.; Roselaar, C.; Rota, E.; Segers, H.; Timm, T.; Tol, J. van; Bouchet, P..
The number of described species on the planet is about 1.9 million, with ca. 17,000 new species described annually, mostly from the tropics. However, taxonomy is usually described as a science in crisis, lacking manpower and funding, a politically acknowledged problem known as the Taxonomic Impediment. Using data from the Fauna Europaea database and the Zoological Record, we show that contrary to general belief, developed and heavily-studied parts of the world are important reservoirs of unknown species. In Europe, new species of multicellular terrestrial and freshwater animals are being discovered and named at an unprecedented rate: since the 1950s, more than 770 new species are on average described each year from Europe, which add to the 125,000...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Taxonomy; Biodiversity; Species; 42.48; 42.70.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/420238
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Over het belang van Temminck's „Discours préliminaire" voor de zoologische Nomenclatuur Naturalis
Mees, G.F..
Het gewoonlijk als „Discours préliminaire" aangeduide artikel van Temminck heeft nimmer die aandacht van dierkundigen getrokken, die het, wegens zijn systematisch belang, verdient. Ten dele vindt dit stellig zijn oorzaak in de betrekkelijke zeldzaamheid van het werk, ten dele ook in het feit dat het gewoonlijk is ingebonden met de afleveringen over Reptielen en Amphibieën van de „Fauna Japonica", terwijl het voornaamste belang van de publicatie op mammologisch gebied is gelegen. De aanwezigheid van een exemplaar in het Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie geeft mij gelegenheid het vrij grote aantal diagnosen van diersoorten dat er in wordt gegeven te bespreken. Het artikel omvat 30 bladzijden, waarvan het titelblad de eerste is, genummerd I-XXX. De...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: 42.01; 42.70.
Ano: 1957 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/318501
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Some bibliographical findings on Notes from the Leyden Museum Naturalis
Dickinson, E.C..
Although the wrappers appear to list the contents they are occasionally inaccurate; in addition some papers that were published in two parts were explained in the wrappers but there are a few cases where they were not. With the help of a full set of wrappers, the backs of which were sometimes used to complete the text, it is possible to explain all the inconsistencies (except two, one in Vol. 11 and one in Vol. 29).
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Dates of publication; Signatures; Wrappers; Notes from the Leyden Museum; 42.70.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/210726
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Some notes on taxonomic methodology Naturalis
Hammen, L. van der.
The present paper constitutes an introduction to taxonomic methodology. After an analysis of taxonomic practice, and a brief survey of kinds of attributes, the paper deals with observation, description, comparison, arrangement and classification, hypothesis construction, deduction, model, experiment, abstraction, and synthesis. The methodological aspects of the species-concept and of biological classification are dealt with in two final sections.
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Abstraction; Classification; Comparison; Deduction; Description; Experiment; Hypothesis; Methodology; Model; Observation; Species-concept; Synthesis; Systematics; Taxonomy; 42.03; 42.70.
Ano: 1986 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/318283
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The early specimens of the potto Perodicticus potto (Statius Müller, 1776) in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, with the selection of a neotype Naturalis
Smeenk, C.; Godfrey, L.R.; Williams, F.L..
The potto was first recorded and figured by Willem Bosman in 1704. The name Lemur potto Statius Müller, 1776 is exclusively based upon Bosman’s account and figure, which are reproduced in full. The type locality is Elmina on the Gold Coast, the present Ghana. No type specimen was collected. The early pottos in the Leiden Museum are listed and their history is given, with special reference to the animals obtained by H.S. Pel. The publications on this material are reviewed. An adult female, RMNH 39375: mounted skin and skeleton acquired by Pel in 1849 at Dabocrom (Dabo Krom) near Sekondi, coastal Ghana, is designated the neotype of Lemur potto Statius Müller, 1776. The neotype is extensively described and figured. Taxonomic notes on the putative (sub)species...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Primates; Lorisidae; Perodicticus potto; History; Nomenclature; Neotype; Ghana; Africa; 42.82; 42.70.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/198497
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Unexpected diversity of slow lorises (Nycticebus spp.) within the Javan pet trade: implications for slow loris taxonomy Naturalis
Nekaris, K.A.I.; Jaffe, S..
Since the 1950s, Sundaland (Borneo, Java, Sumatra and their surrounding islands) was thought to be inhabited by a single slow loris species, the greater slow loris Nycticebus coucang. Early taxonomies as well as recent morphological and genetic studies, however, point to at least three species native to this region: N. coucang, N. menagensis, and N. javanicus. In the light of this taxonomy, all Sundaland slow lorises, previously considered Least Threatened, have been listed as Vulnerable or Endangered. Of particular concern is the fact that slow lorises are the most common protected primate species in the rampant Southeast Asian pet trade, resulting in their recent transferral to CITES Appendix I precluding all international commercial trade. Due to lack...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Indonesia; Java; Slow loris; Pet trade; Morphological variability; Taxonomy; Conservation; 42.82; 42.70.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/256131
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ZooKeys, unlocking Earth's incredible biodiversity and building a sustainable bridge into the public domain: From "€œprint-based"€ to "web-based" taxonomy, systematics, and natural history Naturalis
Penev, L.; Erwin, T.; Thompson, F.C.; Sues, H.-D.; Engel, M.S.; Agosti, D.; Pyle, R.; Ivie, M.; Assmann, T.; Henry, T.; Miller, J.; Ananjeva, N.B.; Casale, A.; Lourenco, W.; Golovatch, S.; Fagerholm, H.-P.; Taiti, S.; Alonso-Zarazaga, M.; Nieukerken, E. van.
Publishing taxonomic and systematics studies in the digital era faces major challenges and requires new approaches, many of which are currently stimulating spirited discussions amongst taxonomists and systematists. New amendments to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature are expected to regulate electronic publishing of new taxa and create a standard form for their registration (ZooBank). Responding to a perceived need, this editorial announces establishment of ZooKeys – a new online and print journal in zoological taxonomy and systematics, which aims to quickly respond and adapt to the newest developments in taxonomic publishing. Open Access is accepted as mandatory for ZooKeys. The rationale for and concept of ZooKeys is discussed in detail.
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Taxonomy; Systematics; Online publishing; ZooBank; Open access; 42.70; 54.84.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/434734
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