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Adjustment is Much Slower than You Think AgEcon
Caballero, Ricardo J.; Engel, Eduardo M.R.A..
In most instances, the dynamic response of monetary and other policies to shocks is infrequent and lumpy. The same holds for the microeconomic response of some of the most important economic variables, such as investment, labor demand, and prices. We show that the standard practice of estimating the speed of adjustment of such variables with partial-adjustment ARMA procedures substantially overestimates this speed. For example, for the target federal funds rate, we find that the actual response to shocks is less than half as fast as the estimated response. For investment, labor demand and prices, the speed of adjustment inferred from aggregates of a small number of agents is likely to be close to instantaneous. While aggregating across microeconomic units...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Speed of adjustment; Discrete adjustment; Lumpy adjustment; Aggregation; Calvo model; ARMA process; Partial adjustment; Expected response time; Monetary policy; Investment; Labor demand; Sticky prices; Idiosyncratic shocks; Impulse response function; Wold representation; Time-to-build; Financial Economics; C22; C43; D2; E2; E5.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28419
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Aerodynamical, immunological and pharmacological properties of the anticancer antibody cetuximab ArchiMer
Maillet, A; Congy Jolivet, N; Le Guellec, S; Vecellio, L; Hamard, S; Courty, Y; Courtois, Anthony; Gauthier, F; Diot, P; Thibault, G; Lemarie, E; Heuze Vourc' H, N.
Purpose. Despite an increasing interest in the use of inhalation for local delivery of molecules for respiratory diseases and systemic disorders, methods to deliver therapy through air-ways has received little attention for lung cancer treatment. However, inhalation of anticancer drugs is an attractive alternative route to systemic administration which results in limited concentration of the medication in the lungs, and triggers whole-body toxicity. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of nebulization for therapeutic antibodies, a new class of fully-approved anticancer drugs in oncology medicine. Materials and methods. Cetuximab, a chimeric IgG1 targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGER), was nebulized using three types of delivery...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Nebulizer; Lung cancer; Cetuximab; Anticancer antibody; Aggregation; Aerosol.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-4201.pdf
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Aggregate stability as affected by short and long-term tillage systems and nutrient sources of a hapludox in southern Brazil Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo
Veiga,Milton da; Reinert,Dalvan José; Reichert,José Miguel.
The ability of a soil to keep its structure under the erosive action of water is usually high in natural conditions and decreases under frequent and intensive cultivation. The effect of five tillage systems (NT = no-till; CP = chisel plowing and one secondary disking; CT = primary and two secondary distings; CTb = CT with crop residue burning; and CTr = CT with removal of crop residues from the field), combined with five nutrient sources (C = control, no nutrient application; MF = mineral fertilizers according to technical recommendations for each crop; PL = 5 Mg ha-1 y-1 fresh matter of poultry litter; CM = 60 m³ ha-1 y-1 slurry cattle manure; and SM = 40 m³ ha-1 y-1 slurry swine manure) on wet-aggregate stability was determined after nine years (four...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Soil tillage; Manure; Sampling time; Soil structure; Aggregation.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-06832009000400003
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Aggregate stability by the "high energy moisture characteristic" method in an oxisol under differentiated management Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo
Silva,Érika Andressa da; Oliveira,Geraldo César de; Silva,Bruno Montoani; Carducci,Carla Eloize; Avanzi,Junior Cesar; Serafim,Milson Evaldo.
Studies testing the High Energy Moisture Characteristic (HEMC) technique in tropical soils are still incipient. By this method, the effects of different management systems can be evaluated. This study investigated the aggregation state of an Oxisol under coffee with Brachiaria between crop rows and surface-applied gypsum rates using HEMC. Soil in an experimental area in the Upper São Francisco region, Minas Gerais, was studied at depths of 0.05 and 0.20 m in coffee rows. The treatments consisted of 0, 7, and 28 Mg ha-1 of agricultural gypsum rates distributed on the soil surface of the coffee rows, between which Brachiaria was grown and periodically cut, and compared with a treatment without Brachiaria between coffee rows and no gypsum application. To...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Aggregation; Coffee production; Management systems; Method.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-06832014000500028
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Aggregation and Calibration of Agricultural Sector Models Through Crop Mix Restrictions and Marginal Profit Adjustments AgEcon
Wiborg, Torben; McCarl, Bruce A.; Rasmussen, Svend; Schneider, Uwe A..
All agricultural sector models must deal with aggregation and calibration somehow. The aggregation problem involves treating a group of producers as if they all responded in the same way as a single representative unit. The calibration problem concerns making a model reproduce as closely as possible an empirically observed set of decision maker actions. This paper shows how both calibration and aggregation are addressed through crop mix restrictions combined with marginal profit adjust-ments.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Mathematical programming; Aggregation; Calibration; Crop mix; Marginal cost; Agricultural sector model; Agribusiness; C6; C61; Q1; Q11; Q17; Q18; R12; R13; R14.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24567
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Aggregation Issues in the Estimation of Linear Programming Productivity Measures AgEcon
Shaik, Saleem; Mishra, Ashok K.; Atwood, Joseph A..
This paper demonstrates the sensitivity of the linear programming approach in the estimation of productivity measures in the primal framework using Malmquist productivity index and Malmquist total factor productivity index models. Specifically, the sensitivity of productivity measure to the number of constraints (level of dis-aggregation) and imposition of returns to scale constraints of linear programing is evaluated. Further, the shadow or dual values are recovered from the linear program and compared to the market prices used in the ideal Fisher index approach to illustrate sensitivity. Empirical application to U.S. state-level time series data from 1960-2004 reveal productivity change decreases with increases in the number of constraints. Further,...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Aggregation; Share-weights; Single and multiple output and input; Malmquist productivity index; Malmquist total factor productivity index; Agribusiness; Production Economics.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101783
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Aggregation of Tariff-Rate Quotas AgEcon
Lips, Markus; Rieder, Peter.
For an analysis of Tariff-Rate Quotas the question arises how to aggregate them. In this paper, two alternative aggregation methods are compared, based on the magnitude of aggregated tariffs or the aggregated quota rent.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Tariff-Rate Quota; Aggregation; General Equilibrium Modeling; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97325
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Aggregation Theory for Incomplete Systems AgEcon
LaFrance, Jeffrey T.; Beatty, Timothy K.M.; Pope, Rulon D..
Gorman's theory of demand is extended comprehensively to incomplete systems. The incomplete systems approach dramatically increases this class of models. The separate roles of symmetry and adding up are identified in the rank and the functional form of this class of models. We show that symmetry determines rank and the maximum rank is three. We show that adding up and 0o homogeneity determines the functional form and there is no functional form restriction for an incomplete system. We prove that every full rank system and reduced rank systems with a minimal level of degeneracy can be written as a polynomial in a single function of income. A complete set of closed form solutions for the indirect objective functions of this class of models is derived. A...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Aggregation; Rank; Functional form; Integrability; Incomplete systems; Weak integrability; Demand and Price Analysis; D12; E21.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25033
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AGGREGATION WITHOUT SEPARABILITY: TESTS OF U.S. AND MEXICAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION DATA AgEcon
Lin, Ni; Davis, George C.; Shumway, C. Richard.
The generalized composite commodity theorem (Lewbel 1996) is used to test for consistent aggregation of U.S. and Mexican agricultural production data in each of the categories for which earlier tests rejected homothetic separability. All U.S. agricultural outputs can be justifiably aggregated into as few as four categories. All Mexican agricultural outputs can be aggregated into as few as five categories. The aggregation of all outputs into a single output cannot be supported in either country by sufficient conditions provided by the generalized composite commodity theorem and/or a homothetically separable technology.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Aggregation; Separability; Generalized composite commodity theorem; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20927
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Agregação de Latossolo vermelho distrófico típico relacionada com o manejo na região dos cerrados no Estado de Minas Gerais. Repositório Alice
BEUTLER, A.N.; SILVA, M.L.N.; CURI, N.; FERREIRA, M.M.; PEREIRA FILHO, I. A.; CRUZ, J. C..
As consequencias diretas do manejo inadequado do solo sao a erosao, a reducao da produtividade e a perda de sua sustentabilidade. Os indicadores da qualidade da estrutura do solo sao importantes ferramentas para avaliar a sustentabilidade dos sistemas de manejo. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a agregacao de um Latossolo Vermelho distrofico tipico sob diferentes sistemas de manejo na regiao dos cerrados em Sete Lagoas (MG). Dentre os sistemas de manejo estudados, a semeadura direta foi o que apresentou a maior percentagem de agregados nas classe > 2mm, menores nas classes < 2mm e < 1mm e maior diametro medio geometrico dos agregados na camada superficial (0-5 cm). A materia organica apresentou correlacao significativa (P < 0,01) e positiva com o...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Cerrado; Agregacao; Estrutura; Plantio direto; Savanna; No tillage; Structure; Aggregation; Indices; Sete Lagoas; Minas Gerais; Brasil; Brazil.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/484716
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Ambiguous Aggregation of Expert Opinions: The Case of Optimal R&D Investment AgEcon
Athanassoglou, Stergios; Bosetti, Valentina; Maere d'Aertrycke, Gauthier de.
How should a decision-maker allocate R&D funds when a group of experts provides divergent estimates on a technology's potential effectiveness? To address this question, we propose a simple decision-theoretic framework that takes into account ambiguity over the aggregation of expert opinion and a decision-maker's attitude towards it. In line with the paper's focus on R&D investment, decision variables in our model may affect experts' subjective probability distributions of the future potential of a technology. Using results from convex optimization, we are able to establish a number of analytical results including a closed-form expression of our model's value function, as well as a thorough investigation of its differentiability properties. We apply...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Ambiguity; Expert Opinions; R&D; Convex/Conic Optimization; Aggregation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C61; D81; Q42.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121719
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An assemblage of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea) in southern Brazil and its contribution to leaf litter processing Zoologia
Quadros,Aline F.; Araujo,Paula B..
We present an assemblage of terrestrial isopods in Parque Estadual de Itapuã, southern Brazil, and estimate the contribution of two species to the leaf litter processing. After one year of sampling, we obtained 3748 individuals of six species and four eco-morphologic groups (in order of abundance): Balloniscus glaber Araujo &amp; Zardo, 1995, Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940), Pseudodiploexochus tabularis (Giambiagi de Calabrese, 1939), Trichorhina sp., Alboscia itapuensis Araujo &amp; Quadros, 2005 and Novamundoniscus gracilis Lopes &amp; Araujo, 2003. Total monthly density corresponded to 368 individuals per square meter. The species A. itapuensis and N. gracilis represented less than 1% of total individuals. All the others showed...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Aggregation; Eco-morphological groups; Feeding rates; Isopoda; Species association.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-81752008000100009
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AN ECONOMETRIC MODEL OF THE DEMAND FOR FOOD AND NUTRITION AgEcon
LaFrance, Jeffrey T..
A flexible, full rank two model of food consumption that is globally consistent with economic theory, aggregates across income, demographic variables, and variations in micro demand parameters, and accommodates tradeoffs between tastes and nutrition is derived. The econometric demand model is estimated with per capita U.S. consumption of 21 foods on the time period 1919-1994, excluding the World War II years 1942-1946. An approach for inferring the percentage of nutrients available from individual commodities in the U.S. food supply is derived and implemented empirically on the time period 1949-1995 for the nutrients energy, protein, total fat, carbohydrates, and cholesterol. The two sets of model results are combined to generate time paths for income...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Aggregation; Demand; Food; Nutrition; Hicksian Compensated Price Elasticities; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25004
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Association between bluefin tuna schools and oceanic features in the western Mediterranean ArchiMer
Royer, Francois; Fromentin, Jean-marc; Gaspar, P.
We present an analysis of the distribution of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus schools spotted during aerial surveys in the Gulf of Lions, in relation to oceanographic features. Bio-optical and thermal properties of the sea surface derived from high-resolution sensors (AVHRR and SeaWiFS) were studied on a daily basis, and an edge-detection technique was applied to detect frontal zones. Geostatistics and point-process analyses were used to evaluate the role of the environment in structuring the spatial pattern of bluefin tuna (BFT). The distribution of schools spotted was strongly non-stationary both in space and time; this is believed to be an effect of the survey design (transect sampling) and the influence of transient oceanographic structures (surface...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Thunnus thynnus; Gulf of Lions; Point process analysis; Front detection; Sea surface temperature; Ocean colour; Aggregation.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00000/10786/7585.pdf
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Atributos químicos e físicos de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo em sistema integrado de produção agroecológica. Repositório Alice
LOSS, A.; PEREIRA, M.G.; SCHULTZ, N.; ANJOS, L.H.C. dos; SILVA, E.M.R. da..
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de sistemas de manejo agroecológico sobre os atributos físicos e químicos de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Foram selecionadas as seguintes áreas: preparo convencional (milho/feijão); plantio direto (berinjela/milho); consórcio maracujá/Desmodium sp.; área cultivada com figo; e sistema agroflorestal (SAF). Amostras indeformadas de solo foram coletadas em duas profundidades (0?5 e 5?10 cm) e em duas épocas (verão/2005 e inverno/2006). As propriedades edáficas analisadas foram: densidade do solo (Ds); volume total de poros; diâmetro médio ponderado (DMP) e diâmetro médio geométrico (DMG) de agregados; pH, Al, Ca+Mg, K, H+Al, P e carbono orgânico total (COT). Os maiores valores de Ds, P e K foram verificados...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Agregação; Densidade do solo; Fertilidade do solo; Manejo agroecológico; Qualidade do solo; Aggregation; Bulk density; Soil fertility; Agroecological management; Soil quality.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/125747
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Building Gorman's Nest AgEcon
LaFrance, Jeffrey T.; Beatty, Timothy K.M.; Pope, Rulon D..
Gorman Engel curves are extended to incomplete systems. The roles of Slutsky symmetry and homogeneity/adding up are isolated in the rank and functional form restrictions for Gorman systems. Symmetry determines the rank condition. The maximum rank is three for incomplete and complete systems. Homogeneity/adding up determines the functional form restrictions in complete systems. There is no restriction on functional form in an incomplete system. Every full rank and minimal deficit reduced rank Gorman system has a representation as a polynomial in a single function of income. This generates a complete taxonomy of indirect preferences for Gorman systems. Using this taxonomy, we develop models of incomplete Gorman systems that nest rank and functional form and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Aggregation; Functional form; Gorman Engel curves; Incomplete demand systems; Rank; Weak integrability; Demand and Price Analysis; D12; E21.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25027
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Charge sparsity: An index to quantify cation effects on clay dispersion in soils Scientia Agricola
Melo,Thadeu Rodrigues de; Machado,Wesley; Tavares Filho,João.
ABSTRACT: Few approaches have been developed to measure the isolated effect of exchangeable cations on clay dispersion in soils. In this study, the charge sparsity (CS) index was proposed using the ratio between the cations hydrated ionic radius and valence. The index capacity to measure cation effects on clay dispersion in soils was also evaluated. Three Ferralsols, sampled at different sites in Paraná State, Brazil, were homoionized with Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, or Na+ prior to evaluation of the clay dispersion degree. Published independent data for two soils and clays were also used. We tested the capacity of CS and II, the latter proposed by Marchuck and Rengasamy (2011), to predict clay dispersion in soils. The CS predicted the dispersion degree more...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Colloids; Electrical double layer; Aggregation; Flocculation; Zeta potential.
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162020000101400
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Coastal migratory connections of humpback whales, Megaptera Novaeangliae Borowski, 1871, southern Chile OceanDocs
Galleti, Bárbara; Capella, Juan; Gibbons, Jorge; Cabrera, Elsa.
There is not published information on a comparative analysis about interchange of individual humpback whales between coastal areas of aggregation of the species along southern Chilean coast. Here we present a comparison of individually photo-identified humpback whales obtained off northwestern Chiloé Island, in Patagonian and Fuegian fjords and in the Strait of Magellan near Carlos III Island , to discover movements and interchange of individuals. Comparison of photographs resulted in conclusive matches of four individuals within the four study locations: two whales from Canal Wide (49°55’S, 74°30’W), one whale from Canal Cockburn (54°18’S, 72°15’W) and a mother-calf pair off northwestern Chiloé Island matched whales found near Carlos III. The minimum...
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Marine mammals; Migratory species; Aggregation; Cetacea; Megaptera novaeangliae; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_1482; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_49019.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/4165
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Constant market shares analysis: uses, limitations and prospects AgEcon
Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z..
In this paper, we generalise the constant market shares (CMS) framework, with particular attention to the underlying theoretical conditions required for diagnostic interpretation. The approach is applied to the analysis of the export performance of the Australian processed food sector in South-East Asia over the period 1980–2003. We conclude that the usefulness of CMS analysis for evaluating a country’s international trade performance depends upon the empirical validity of the aggregation assumptions implicit in the diagnostic interpretation.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Aggregation; Armington model; Competitiveness; Constant market shares; Marketing.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116983
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Data Aggregation and Vertical Price Transmission: An Experiment with German Food Prices AgEcon
von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Loy, Jens-Peter; Meyer, Jochen.
The impact of cross sectional aggregation over individual retail stores on the estimation and testing of vertical price transmission between the wholesale and retail levels is investigated using a unique data set of individual retail prices in Germany. Systematic differences between the results of estimations using aggregated data on the one hand, and disaggregated data on the other, are discussed theoretically and confirmed empirically. The results suggest that estimation with aggregated data generates misleading conclusions about price transmission behavior at the level of the individual units (i.e. retail stores) that underlie these aggregates.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Aggregation; Vertical Price Transmission; Food Prices; Germany; Demand and Price Analysis; Marketing; L11; D40.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25291
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