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Registros recuperados: 92
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A characterization of Chilean farmers based on their market-production orientation Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Echeverría,Rodrigo; Moreira,Víctor; Barrena,José; Gopinath,Munisamy.
Chile's open trade policy, implemented during the last few decades, has greatly transformed Chilean farmers and their production systems. As a result, farmers can be grouped into three categories based on their market-production orientation: domestic, transitional or export producers. The objective of this paper is to analyze the factors underlying the decision to produce for a particular market and compare the three groups of farmers based on data from the 2007 agricultural census. A generalized ordered logit model was used to analyze different methods of production, and non-parametric methods were used to compare the groups. Results show that some farmers change categories in sequence; farmers that produce for the domestic market can later produce for...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Export production; Generalized ordered logit model; Market.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202012000200002
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A PERSPECTIVE ON OREGON WHEAT GROWERS' INTERESTS IN THE MILLENNIUM ROUND OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS AgEcon
Young, Linda M..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Wheat and wheat trade; GATT; WTO; Seattle; Agricultural trade; International Relations/Trade; F1; Q1.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/29252
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Access to OECD Agricultural Market: A Gravity Border Effect Approach AgEcon
Olper, Alessandro; Raimondi, Valentina.
This paper uses the border effect estimate from a gravity model to assess the level of trade integration in agricultural markets between 22 OECD countries, over the 1995-2002 period. The empirical analysis shows that using a gravity equation derived from theory, in the estimation of the border effect, matters. A representative estimate of the border effect shows that crossing a national border into the OECD countries induces a trade-reduction effect by a factor of 8. This average value masks substantial differences in market access across the country groups considered, with higher value in trade between EU countries and lower in trade between CEEC countries. However, the trade integration between CEECs and others OECDs increases substantially in the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Border effect; Gravity equation; OECDs; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24543
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Accession of the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland to the European Union: Impacts on Agricultural Markets AgEcon
Fuller, Frank H.; Beghin, John C.; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Fang, Cheng; Kaus, Phillip J..
Using a world agricultural multimarket model, we analyze the consequences of enlargement of the European Union (EU) to include the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland for agricultural markets. We produce a market outlook through the year 2010 for two enlargement scenarios, which are based on different assumptions regarding the restrictions on grain and dairy production in the acceding countries. In both scenarios, accession of the three Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) leads to a permanent but moderate decrease in EU prices for virtually all commodities. For the three acceding CEECs, domestic prices increase dramatically. Their final consumption of agricultural products decreases in most instances, while production rises. Higher domestic...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: CAP; Economic integration; EU enlargement; Agricultural trade; Czech Republic; Hungary; Poland; Marketing.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18388
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Agricultural trade for food security in Africa: A Ricardian model approach AgEcon
Diagne, Mandiaye; Abele, Steffen; Diagne, Aliou; Seck, Papa Abdoulaye.
Regionalism and food security is a relatively neglected topic with very limited literature. We use a Ricardian trade model with multiple goods and countries which embeds a structure of gravity equation and yield variability. Our study shows that integration with African markets of staple foods is associated with higher growth, underpinning the need for growth strategies to emphasize scaling up and diversifying exports within Africa. Africa needs to unlock its high potential untapped land and fill up the yield gap. We found as well that enhanced competitiveness and reduced barriers to trade are the two critical areas of action.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Ricardian model; Yield variability; Agricultural trade; Staple foods; Africa; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123842
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Agricultural trade policy reform in South Africa AgEcon
Chitiga, Margaret; Kandiero, Tonia; Ngwenya, P..
This paper empirically investigates the impact of agricultural trade reform in South Africa. Using UNCTAD’s Agricultural Trade Policy Simulation Model (ATPSM), the study investigates two specific scenarios that capture the magnitude of (i) the economic impact of global agricultural trade reform in South Africa and (ii) the economic impact if the reform in South Africa is coupled with agricultural reforms in the European Union (EU). Trade reform focuses on substantial tariff reduction; although in the case of the EU, scenarios also include reduction in domestic support and export subsidies. The results show that a unilateral tariff reduction in a selected number of agricultural products amounts to welfare gains of US$21 million. These gains are three times...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Trade policy reform; Welfare; Agricultural Trade Policy Simulation Model; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/5967
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Agricultural Trade Preferences and the Developing Countries AgEcon
Wainio, John; Shapouri, Shahla; Trueblood, Michael A.; Gibson, Paul R..
Nonreciprocal trade preference programs originated in the 1970s under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) as an effort by high-income developed countries to provide tariff concessions for low-income countries. The goal of the programs was to increase export earnings, promote industrialization, and stimulate economic growth in the lower income countries. This study analyzes detailed trade and tariff data for the United States and the European Union (the two largest nonreciprocal preference donors) to determine the extent to which the programs have increased exports from beneficiary countries. For those products where the margins of preference are large and where beneficiaries have a comparative advantage and the capacity to expand production, these...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Tariff; Agricultural trade; Preferences; Least developed countries; Market access; World Trade Organization; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7258
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Agriculturally Related Environmental Issues in Free Trade Agreements AgEcon
Colyer, Dale.
The consideration of environmental matters in trade liberalization agreements has become an issue since they were included in NAFTA and recognized Uruguay round agreement that created the WTO. Many WTO members, especially the less developed countries, remain opposed to including environmental issues in trade agreements. However, Canada, the U.S. and a few other countries now include environmental provisions in their bilateral and regional trade agreements; the U.S. is required to do so under its 2002 Trade Promotion Act (PL 107-210). Furthermore, the declaration establishing the Doha Round of multilateral negotiations recognizes a role, albeit a limited one, for the environment in negotiating the next multilateral trade liberalization agreement....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade and environment; Agricultural trade; Trade liberalization; Doha Round; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25756
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An Analysis of Latin American Peanut Trade AgEcon
Lee, Dae-Seob; Kennedy, P. Lynn; Fletcher, Stanley M..
The U.S. export share in the world peanut market has decreased due to heavy competition. In this paper, the Latin American peanut industry is modeled using seemingly unrelated regression (SUR). Based on these estimations, a scenario analysis was conducted. The results show that the Latin American demand is not affected dramatically by either domestic of world price shocks. The effects of price changes on net trade are noticeable. However, the world price does not significantly affect the Latin American peanut supply. The results imply that Latin American peanut farmers are more sensitive to changes in domestic prices than world price changes.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Latin America; Peanuts; Scenario analysis; SUR; Demand and Price Analysis; International Relations/Trade; Q11; Q17.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43744
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Are The Poverty Effects of Trade Policies Invisible? AgEcon
Verma, Monika; Valenzuela, Ernesto; Hertel, Thomas W..
With the advent of the WTO’s Doha Development Agenda, as well as the Millennium Development Goals aiming to reduce poverty by 50 percent by 2015, poverty impacts of trade reforms have attracted increasing attention. This has been particularly true of agricultural trade reform due to the importance of food in the diets of the poor, relatively higher protection in agriculture, as well as the heavy concentration of global poverty in rural areas where agriculture is the main source of income. Yet some in this debate have argued that, given the extreme volatility in agricultural commodity markets, the additional price and poverty impacts due to trade liberalization might well be undetectable. This paper formally tests this “invisibility hypothesis” via...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade policy reform; Agricultural trade; Computable general equilibrium; Developing countries; Poverty headcount; Volatility; Stochastic simulation; Non-parametric hypothesis testing; Financial Economics; Risk and Uncertainty; C68; F17; I32; Q17; R20.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61793
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Assessing the Effects of NAFTA ON Canada/US Agricultural Trade AgEcon
Deng, Hugh; Nzuma, Jonathan M..
While there seems to be an agreement that Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUSTA)/North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have benefited member countries, some analysts have argued that the agreements had little effect on the bilateral Canada/US agricultural trade as many other factors have contributed to the increased trade flows. Results from this study reveal that the aggregate bilateral agricultural trade flows have generally experienced a steady growth since the implementation of NAFTA with trade flows seemingly favoring Canada more than the US since 1992. At the industry level, the impacts of NAFTA on Canada/US agricultural trade were varied with the sub-sectors analyzed responding differently to the bilateral trade liberalization.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: CUSTA/NAFTA; Agricultural trade; Liberalization; Integration; Trade flows; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24704
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CHALLENGES IN AGRICULTURAL TRADE UNDER CUSTA: HIGHLIGHTS AgEcon
Koo, Won W.; Mattson, Jeremy W..
The report summarizes highlights of papers presented in the conference entitled "Challenges in Agricultural Trade under CUSTA" held in Fargo, North Dakota on October 26-27, 2000. The main objective of the conference was to analyze emerging issues in agricultural trade between the United States and Canada under the U.S./Canada Free Trade Agreement (CUSTA). Specific themes include: (1) changes in trade patterns under CUSTA, (2) CUSTA's impact on bilateral agricultural trade, (3) recent evolution of the U.S. and Canadian marketing systems, (4) major issues for future commercial integration, and (5) trade disputes and negotiations.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Free trade agreement; Wheat; Barley; Cattle; Beef; Trade disputes; Trade negotiations; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23552
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China's Accession to the WTO: What Is at Stake for Agricultural Markets? AgEcon
Fuller, Frank H.; Beghin, John C.; de Cara, Stephane; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Fang, Cheng; Matthey, Holger.
We analyze the impact of China's accession to the World Trade Organization on major crop and livestock markets using the FAPRI modeling framework. We incorporate expected changes in consumer income, textile production, and trade policies as exogenous shocks to the baseline model. Following accession, revenues decline in China's livestock, grain, and oilseed industries, while cotton production prospers despite increased cotton imports. Chinese consumers benefit from lower food prices, with vegetable oil, dairy, and meat consumption increasing significantly. Argentina, Brazil, Canada, the European Union, and the United States are the greatest beneficiaries from expanded agricultural trade with China.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Accession; Agricultural trade; China; Policy analysis; Simulation models; Trade liberalization; World Trade Organization; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18522
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CHINA'S COTTON POLICY AND THE IMPACT OF CHINA'S WTO ACCESSION AND BT COTTON ADOPTION ON THE CHINESE AND U.S. COTTON SECTORS AgEcon
Fang, Cheng; Babcock, Bruce A..
In this paper we provide an analysis of China's cotton policy and develop a framework to quantify the impact of both China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton adoption on Chinese and U.S. cotton sectors. We use a Chinese cotton sector model consisting of supply, demand, price linkages, and textiles output equations. A two-stage framework model provides gross cropping area and total area for cotton and major substitute crops from nine cotton-producing regions in China. Cotton demand, total fiber demand, and cotton share are estimated for each end user. The estimated parameters from the Chinese model are then used with the Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) modeling system to simulate various...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Bt technology; China and cotton policy; U.S. cotton exports; World Trade Organization; WTO accession; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18556
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China's Ongoing Agricultural Modernization: Challenges Remain After 30 Years of Reform AgEcon
Lohmar, Bryan; Gale, H. Frederick, Jr.; Tuan, Francis C.; Hansen, James M..
Thirty years ago, China began implementing a series of reforms to improve efficiency in agricultural production. These, and subsequent, reforms reshaped China’s position in the world economy. China’s rapid economic development and transformation from a planned to a market-oriented economy, however, has reached a stage where further efficiency gains in agricultural production will likely hinge on the development of modern market-supporting institutions. The development of market-supporting institutions in China will bring about long-term and sustainable benefits to producers and consumers in China and the global agricultural economy. This report provides an overview of current issues in China’s agricultural development, policy responses to these issues, and...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: China; Economic reform; Economic development; Agricultural production; Agricultural trade; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; Production Economics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58316
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Conceptualizing Multifunctional Agriculture from a Global Perspective AgEcon
Moon, Wanki.
The notion of multifunctional agriculture has been actively researched from diverse disciplines including economics, ecology, sociology, and geography since emerged out of the Uruguay Round in the 1990s. In particular, the economics approach represents an attempt to tailor the concept of multifunctional agriculture to market-oriented WTO trade regime. The economics approach has been fundamentally troubled by the lack of concord among WTO member countries on the question of what constitutes multifunctional agriculture. Upon examining how differently the notion of multifunctional agriculture is perceived across the US, the EU, the Cairns group, the LDCs, and the developed food-importing countries (the G10), this article theorizes that multifunctional...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Multifunctional agriculture; Global governance of agriculture; WTO; Agricultural trade; International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119751
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Concessions and Exemptions for Developing Countries in the Agricultural Negotiations: The Role of the Special and Differential Treatment AgEcon
Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Jean, Sebastien; Matthews, Alan.
The main provisions of the special and differential treatment (SDT) granted to developing countries in the agriculture and food sector under the present World Trade Organization agreements are presented. The different provisions seem to have had a limited impact on developing countries, and revision is needed. The positions of the various developing countries regarding the SDT in the negotiations are summarized. Recent simulations of the consequences of a plausible agreement under the Doha negotiations suggest that there is a case for a special treatment for poorest countries, but also for a subset of countries that are likely to lose at multilateral liberalization, because of the erosion of existing preferences. Suggestions are made in order to make...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Developping countries; Agricultural trade; WTO; Trade preferences; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18858
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Costos de transacción en la agricultura peruana: una primera aproximación a su medición e impacto AgEcon
Escobal D'Angelo, Javier.
El objetivo de esta investigación es evaluar empíricamente los factores que determinan las estrategias de vinculación al mercado de los productores agrarios en el Perú. Asimismo, estudia el papel de los costos de transacción en el comportamiento de los hogares rurales. Además, la investigación plantea e implementa una propuesta metodológica para cuantificar los costos de transacción. Los resultados muestran que los costos de transacción en el área bajo estudio (los distritos de Pazos y Huaribamba, en Tayacaja, Huancavelica) equivalen a 50 % del valor de venta y son apreciablemente más altos (60 %) para los productores conectados al mercado a través de caminos de herradura que para aquellos vinculados al mercado a través de caminos carrozables, confirmando...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultura; Costos de transacción; Comercio agrícola; Perú; Agriculture; Transaction costs; Agricultural trade; Peru; Agricultural Finance; Q12; Q13.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37770
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Country of Origin Labeling: Evaluating the Impacts on U.S. and World Markets AgEcon
Jones, Keithly G.; Somwaru, Agapi; Whitaker, James B..
A provision of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 requires country of origin labeling (COOL) for certain agricultural commodities. To comply with the law, producers, processors, and retailers face additional production costs associated with labeling, separating, and tracking commodities. Using estimated costs provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), we simulate the impacts of mandatory COOL on U.S. and global agricultural markets using a global static general equilibrium model (STAGEM). The results show resource adjustments that lead to decreases in production, consumption, and trade flows. The results assume no demand premium for labeled commodities relative to unlabeled commodities.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Country of origin labeling; Agricultural trade; Global general equilibrium; Marketing.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59253
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Cultural Barriers and Agricultural Trade in the Western Hemisphere AgEcon
Susanto, Dwi; Rosson, C. Parr, III.
This study analyzes the impacts of cultural distance on bilateral trade flows in the Western Hemisphere using a Fixed Effects Vector Decomposition (FEVD). Four cultural dimensions of Hofstede are used to capture cultural distance. The results found that the effects of each dimension vary considerably with three of four dimensions (UAI, PDI, and MFI) have a negative impact and one dimension (ICI) has a positive effect. The magnitude of ICI is large enough to offset the negative effects of the other three dimensions resulting in a net positive effect of cultural distance, suggesting that culturally-dissimilar countries trade more than less.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Cultural distance; Gravity model; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56352
Registros recuperados: 92
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