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A continuous model of biomass size spectra governed by predation and the effects of fishing on them ArchiMer
Benoit, Eric; Rochet, Marie-joelle.
A new time-dependent continuous model of biomass size spectra is developed. In this model, predation is the single process governing the energy flow in the ecosystem, as it causes both growth and mortality. The ratio of predator to prey is assumed to be distributed: predators may feed on a range of prey sizes. Under these assumptions, it is shown that linear size spectra are stationary solutions of the model. Exploited fish communities are simulated by adding fishing mortality to the model: it is found that realistic fishing should affect the curvature and stability of the size spectrum rather than its slope.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Predation; Mortality; Growth; Biomass size spectrum; Allometry.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2004/publication-665.pdf
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A lognormal distribution of the lengths of terminal twigs on self-similar branches of elm trees OAK
Koyama, Kohei; Yamamoto, Ken; Ushio, Masayuki.
Lognormal distributions and self-similarity are characteristics associated with a wide range of biological systems. The sequential breakage model has established a link between lognormal distributions and self-similarity and has been used to explain species abundance distributions. To date, however, there has been no similar evidence in studies of multicellular organismal forms. We tested the hypotheses that the distribution of the lengths of terminal stems of Japanese elm trees (Ulmus davidiana), the end products of a self-similar branching process, approaches a lognormal distribution. We measured the length of the stem segments of three elm branches and obtained the following results: (i) each occurrence of branching caused variations or errors in the...
Palavras-chave: Allometry; Fractal; Phenotypic plasticity; Shoot size; Stochastic process; WBE theory.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://ir.obihiro.ac.jp/dspace/handle/10322/4577
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A test of Allen's rule in ectotherms: the case of two south American Melanopline Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) with partially overlapping geographic ranges Neotropical Entomology
Bidau,Claudio J.; Martí,Dardo A..
We studied the geographic variation of three morphometric characters in relation to body size in two South American grasshoppers (Acrididae), Dichroplus vittatus Bruner and D. pratensis Bruner to test Allen's rule in these ectotherms. Since both species follow the converse to Bergmann's rule owing to latitudinal and/or altitudinal variation in time available for growth and reproduction, geographic variation in body size proportions of protruding parts may obey to differential allometric growth in different geographic areas. Alternatively, it could reflect true Allenian variation related to thermoregulation. Body proportions were studied by correlation/regression analyses with geographic and climatic variables. In D. pratensis, body proportions increased...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Allometry; Body proportion; Body size; Dichroplus; Geographic variation.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1519-566X2008000400004
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Allometric growth of non-carcass components in crossed lambs Ciência Rural
Garcia,Iraides Ferreira Furusho; Alvarenga,Tharcilla Isabella Rodrigues Costa; Perez,Juan Ramon Olalquiaga; Almeida,Amelia Katiane de; Gallo,Sarita Bonagurio; Pereira,Idalmo Garcia; Alves,Nadja Gomes; Alvarenga,Flávio Augusto Pereira.
Males and females, including purebred Santa Inês lamb (SI) and crosses between Santa Inês dams and Texel (TxSI), Ile de France (IFxSI) and Bergamasca (BxSI) sires were feedlot finished and slaughtered at 15, 25, 35 and 45kg live weight. After slaughter, the following non- carcass components were weighed and calculated the allometric growth. Lungs of BxSI males grew faster than those of SI and TxSI. Trachea/esophagus in SI and TxSI males grew slower than IFxSI and BxSI. Kidneys BxSI males grew faster than TxSI and IFxSI. Livers of female TxSI lamb grew more rapidly than those of females in the other genetic groups. In both males and females, the rumen/reticulum grew faster in the TxSI group than SI and BxSI groups.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Allometry; Growth; Crossbreed; Body development; Sheep.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782014000701229
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Allometric models for estimating the phytomass of a secondary Atlantic Forest area of southeastern Brazil Biota Neotropica
Burger,Déborah Moreira; Delitti,Welington Braz Carvalho.
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate equations to estimate the aboveground phytomass of a 30 years old plot of Atlantic Forest. In two plots of 100 m², a total of 82 trees were cut down at ground level. For each tree, height and diameter were measured. Leaves and woody material were separated in order to determine their fresh weights in field conditions. Samples of each fraction were oven dried at 80 °C to constant weight to determine their dry weight. Tree data were divided into two random samples. One sample was used for the development of the regression equations, and the other for validation. The models were developed using single linear regression analysis, where the dependent variable was the dry mass, and the independent variables...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Biomass; Allometry; Carbon; Secondary Atlantic Forest; Forest biomass estimation.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1676-06032008000400012
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Allometric models to estimate tree height in northern Amazonian ecotone forests Acta Amazonica
BARBOSA,Reinaldo Imbrozio; RAMÍREZ-NARVÁEZ,Perla Natalia; FEARNSIDE,Philip Martin; VILLACORTA,Carlos Darwin Angulo; CARVALHO,Lidiany Camila da Silva.
ABSTRACT Allometric models defining the relationship between stem diameter and total tree height in the Amazon basin are important because they refine the estimates of tree carbon stocks and flow in the region. This study tests different allometric models to estimate the total tree height from the stem diameter in an ecotone zone between ombrophilous and seasonal forests in the Brazilian state of Roraima, in northern Amazonia. Stem diameter and total height were measured directly in 65 recently fallen trees (live or dead). Linear and nonlinear regressions were tested to represent the D:H relation in this specific ecotone zone. Criteria for model selection were the standard error of the estimate (Syx) and the adjusted coefficient of determination (R²adj),...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Allometry; Amazon forest; Hypsometric relationships; Dendrometry; Seasonal forest.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0044-59672019000200081
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Biomass and mineralmass estimates in a "cerrado" ecosystem Rev. Bras. Bot.
Delitti,Welington Braz Carvalho; Meguro,Marico; Pausas,Juli Garcia.
This work aimed to develop allometric equations for tree biomass estimation, and to determine the site biomass in different "cerrado" ecosystems. Destructive sampling in a "campo cerrado" (open savanna) was carried out at the Biological Reserve of Moji-Guaçu, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. This "campo cerrado" (open savanna) grows under a tropical climate and on acid, low nutrient soils. Sixty wood plants were cut to ground level and measurements of diameter, height and weight of leaves and stems were taken. We selected the best equations among the most commonly used mathematical relations according to R² values, significance, and standard error. Both diameter (D) and height (H) showed good relationship with plant biomass, but the use of these...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Allometry; Carbon; Cerrados; Nutrient; Savannas.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-84042006000400003
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Biomass equations for forest regrowth in the eastern Amazon using randomized branch sampling Acta Amazonica
Ducey,Mark Jonathan; Zarin,Daniel Jacob; Vasconcelos,Steel Silva; Araújo,Maristela Machado.
Forest regrowth occupies an extensive and increasing area in the Amazon basin, but accurate assessment of the impact of regrowth on carbon and nutrient cycles has been hampered by a paucity of available allometric equations. We develop pooled and species-specific equations for total aboveground biomass for a study site in the eastern Amazon that had been abandoned for 15 years. Field work was conducted using randomized branch sampling, a rapid technique that has seen little use in tropical forests. High consistency of sample paths in randomized branch sampling, as measured by the standard error of individual paths (14%), suggests the method may provide substantial efficiencies when compared to traditional procedures. The best fitting equations in this...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Allometry; Allometric equations; Secondary growth; Tropical forest.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0044-59672009000200013
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Biometry of neotropical invertebrates inhabiting floodplain rivers: unraveling bionomy Iheringia, Sér. Zool.
Zilli,Florencia; Barco,Julia del; Vanzetti,Agustín.
ABSTRACT Currently, it is widely recognized that invertebrates play key roles in neotropical floodplains and in many other environments worldwide. However, little information has been published concerning their biometry, in spite that it represents an essential tool for many different studies. Here, we provided length-mass and length-length relationships by fitting the linearized model (log10 Y = log10a + b log10 X) and several mean biomass ratios ± SE for bivalves, gastropods, quironomids, ephemeropterans, oligochaetes and hirudineans. We measured, weighed, oven dried and incinerated to ashes specimens collected from 2005 to 2014 in the Paraná River, Argentina. The lineal equations had fit levels higher than 75% in most of the significant regressions....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Allometry; Organic matter; Paraná River; Wetlands; Benthos; Pleuston.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0073-47212017000100214
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Body mass and body weight: a dual reference system in biology RChHN
GÜNTHER,BRUNO; MORGADO,ENRIQUE.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to compare two different biological similarity criteria, one was based on body mass (M) as a theoretical reference system in accordance with the MLT-system of physics, while the other utilized the body weight (W) for the same purpose. The mass-dependent allometry should be applied during space flights as well as during fetal and newborn conditions of life, whereas the weight-dependence should prevail in earth-bound physiology. The above mentioned distinctions are relevant not only for the specific metabolic rates but also for numerous biological time functions, as for instance for the heart and respiratory rates of all mammals, whose allometric exponent is b = - 0.09 during fetal life, and b = - 0.25 in all adult...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Dimensional analysis; Biological similarity; Allometry; Biological time; Fetal life; Space physiology.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2003000100006
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Carcass quality, parts and tissue development of lambs finished in three systems R. Bras. Zootec.
Hashimoto,Juliano Hideo; Osório,José Carlos da Silveira; Osório,Maria Teresa Moreira; Bonacina,Marlice Salete; Lehmen,Rosilene Inês; Pedroso,Carlos Eduardo da Silva.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of finishing systems on natural pasture and gender on the carcass quality, parts and tissue development of lambs. Forty-five non-castrated males and forty-five females were distributed in a completely randomized design into three treatments: lamb with mother kept on pasture; weaned lamb kept on pasture and weaned lamb kept on pasture with supplementation (soybean hulls at 1% of body weight). The criteria for slaughter was body condition score (2.0 - 3.0). The carcass characteristics and parts composition were influenced by the sex. The finishing system with supplementation promoted greater carcass yield and longer leg length. The tissue composition was different only for the sex, with the males...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Allometry; Growth; Leg; Sheep; Shoulder; Tissue composition.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000200029
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Close relationship between diameters at 30cm height and at breast height (DBH) Acta Amazonica
Gehring,Christoph; Park,Soojin; Denich,Manfred.
This paper proposes the establishment of a second diameter measuring standard at 30cm shoot extension ('diam30') as input variable for allometric biomass estimation of small and mid-sized plant shoots. This diameter standard is better suited than the diameter at breast height (DBH, i.e. diameter at 1.30m shoot extension) for adequate characterization of plant dimensions in low bushy vegetation or in primary forest undergrowth. The relationships between both diameter standards are established based on a dataset of 8645 tree, liana and palm shoots in secondary and primary forests of central Amazonia (ranging from 1-150mm dbh). Dbh can be predicted from the diam(30) with high precision, the error introduced by diameter transformation is only 2-3% for trees...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Allometry; Measuring standard; Amazonia; Biomass estimation; Thin shoots.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0044-59672008000100008
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Curva crítica de diluição de nitrogênio da cultivar Asterix de batata. Repositório Alice
ANDRIOLO, J.L.; BISOGNIN, D.A.; PAULA, A.L. de; PAULA, F.L.M. de; GODOI, R. dos S.; BARROS, G.T..
O objetivo deste trabalho foi ajustar a curva crítica de diluição do nitrogênio (N) da batata 'Asterix' e avaliar o seu emprego no manejo da adubação nitrogenada. Tubérculos dessa cultivar foram plantados em sacolas de polietileno com 5 dm3 de substrato orgânico, na densidade de 4,4 sacolas m-2. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco soluções nutritivas, com concentrações de N de 5, 8,3, 11,3, 14,3 e 16,3 mmol L-1. Os demais nutrientes foram fornecidos nas concentrações: 8,3 de K+, 1,75 de Ca2+, 1,2 de H2PO4-, 0,7 de Mg2+ e 0,7 mmol L-1 de SO42-, complementados por micronutrientes. Em intervalos de sete dias, entre os 43 e 99 dias após o plantio, foram determinados: a massa de matéria seca (MS) e o teor de N nas folhas, hastes e tubérculos. Foi ajustada a...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Solanum tuberosum; Alometria; Adubação; Massa de matéria seca; Allometry; Fertilization; Dry matter.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/119094
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Dendrometry and litterfall of neotropical pioneer and early secondary tree species Biota Neotropica
Benvenuti-Ferreira,Glaci; Coelho,Geraldo Ceni; Schirmer,Jorge; Lucchese,Osório Antônio.
The increased forest cover loss in the tropical and subtropical regions has stimulated the development of restoration methods through tree plantations. Based on the successional model of forest development the use of different successional groups can be seen as a strategy to accelerate the re-composition of forests and an attempt to recover ecological conditions prior to disturbance. Tree species have particular growth rates and ecological needs, and this knowledge is important in the development of high diversity models of forest restoration. The objective of this study was to compare the initial growth and litterfall of native pioneer versus early secondary tree species in a mixed plantation system, and to determine the relationships between guilds and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Restoration ecology; Secondary succession; Allometry; Successional guilds.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1676-06032009000100008
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Description of growth and body composition of freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) by Gompertz model R. Bras. Zootec.
Espitia-Manrique,Carmen Helena; Fernandes,João Batista Kochenborger; Sakomura,Nilva Kazue; Arias-Vigoya,Ángel Andrés; Nascimento,Thiago Matias Torres do; Silva,Edney Pereira da; Mansano,Cleber Fernando Menegasso.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to describe the growth of freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) using the Gompertz model, determining the relative growth and allometric coefficients of body components in relation to body weight and protein weight. Six hundred animals were grown until 233 days of age. Data on chemical composition (water, lipid, protein, and ash) and weight measurements were obtained each 30 days. The Gompertz growth equation was used to analyze chemical allometry and to estimate growth parameters. The relationship between chemical components and body protein was estimated. Protein and body weight increased proportionally, with ash being the earliest nutrient (209.2 days), while lipid deposition occurred later. Linear...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Allometry; Growth curve; Ornamental fish.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982017000800631
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Evolution of bill size in relation to body size in toucans and hornbills (Aves: Piciformes and Bucerotiformes) Rev. Bras. Zool.
Hughes,Austin L..
Evidence that the bill of the Toco Toucan, Ramphastos toco Statius Muller, 1776, has a specialized role in heat dissipation suggests a new function for the large and light-weight bill of the toucan family (Piciformes: Ramphastidae). A prediction of this hypothesis is that bill length in toucans will increase with body mass at a rate greater than the isometric expectation. This hypothesis was tested in a phylogenetic context with measurements of skeletal elements in adult males of 21 toucan species. In these species, 64.3% of variance in relative skeletal measurements was accounted for by the contrast between bill and body size. Maxilla length and depth increased with body mass at a greater than isometric rate relative to both body mass and other linear...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Allometry; Heat dissipation; Ramphastidae.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-46702014000300007
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Fitomassa epigéa da mata ciliar do rio Mogi-Guaçu, Itapira - SP Rev. Bras. Bot.
MOREIRA-BURGER,DÉBORAH; DELITTI,WELINGTON B. C..
Este trabalho teve como objetivos estimar a fitomassa epigéa da mata ciliar do rio Mogi-Guaçu e determinar a melhor equação preditiva da fitomassa arbórea. O trabalho foi realizado num fragmento de mata localizado no município de Itapira - SP (22°21'S e 46°51'W). Foram delimitadas 12 parcelas de 25 m², para determinação da fitomassa através do método destrutivo. Os indivíduos arbóreos foram identificados e cortados ao nível do solo. De cada árvore, foram tomadas medidas de perímetro basal e altura. As folhas foram separadas manualmente dos ramos para determinação do peso fresco da porção foliar e lenhosa. A vegetação herbácea-arbustiva, de porte inferior a 1,3 m, existente em 3 m² de cada parcela, foi cortada ao nível do solo e tomadas as medidas de peso...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Allometry; Biomass; Gallery forest.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-84041999000300011
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Geographic variation of Moenkhausia bonita (Characiformes: Characidae) in the rio de la Plata basin, with distributional comments on M. intermedia Neotropical Ichthyology
Vanegas-Ríos,James Anyelo; Britzke,Ricardo; Mirande,Juan Marcos.
ABSTRACT Moenkhausia bonita occurs in numerous additional localities from the Bermejo, Paraná, Paraguay, and Uruguay river basins. Given that this finding greatly expands the distributional range of M. bonita, we carried out an intraspecific comparison, using multivariate methods for 18 morphometric and eight meristic characters taken from a comprehensive sample of 536 specimens. All localities were distributed in four major geographic groups as follows: Bermejo, Paraná, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Results of the morphometric comparisons showed significant differences among the studied groups except between the Paraguay and Uruguay groups. Statistical differences in meristic values were found for most between-group comparisons, especially in those resulting...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Allometry; Argentina; Moenkhausia; Morphological variation; Widespread species.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-62252019000100202
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Growth and leaf demography of two Cecropia species Rev. Bras. Bot.
SANTOS,FLAVIO A.M..
Allometry, growth and leaf demography of two Cecropia species, one with ant mutualist (C. glazioui) and another without it (C. hololeuca), were studied in an Atlantic Rain Forest area in the State of Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil. Stem diameter was allometrically related to height in both species. Cecropia glazioui showed higher annual growth rates and longer internodes than C. hololeuca. Leaf phenology showed a seasonal pattern in both species, but the number of leaves on each plant was more variable along the year in C. hololeuca than in C. glazioui. Survivorship curves for leaves were intermediate between Deevey's Type I and Type II curves, with young leaves of C. glazioui showing a greater survival rate and life expectancy than those of C. hololeuca. Low...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Allometry; Atlantic Rain Forest; Cecropia; Growth; Leaf demography.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-84042000000200003
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Growth curves of body weight and nutrient deposition and protein requirements for light and semi-heavy pullets Sci. Agrar.Paran. / SAP
Silva, José Humberto Vilar da; Filho, José Jordão; Silva, Edson Lindolfo da; Costa, Fernado Guilherme Perazzo; Naves, Patricia Emília Givisiez; Figueiredo-Lima, Denise Fontana; de Siqueira, Jefferson Costa; Lima, Rodrigo Barbosa.
Growth curves of pullets were adjusted to describe the deposition rates of body components and estimate the requirements in protein. Altogether 1500 poultry were randomly distributed in 30 repetitions of 25 birds. The experimental period was divided into four stages (1 to 4 weeks 5 to 11 weeks and 12 to 16 weeks old). The rations formulated based on corn and soybean meal were offered the will. Weekly, pullets were heavy and two birds separates by lineage to be in determining chemical composition of body nutrients. The informations was used to obtain the parameters of the Gompertz model. Allometric relationships were used to describe the changes in body composition in protein, lipid, ash and water in the body gutted and without feathers. The data of body...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Allometry; Bovans Goldline; Body chemical composition; Dekalb White; Modelling..
Ano: 2017 URL: http://e-revista.unioeste.br/index.php/scientiaagraria/article/view/14006
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