Sabiia Seb
PortuguêsEspañolEnglish
Embrapa
        Busca avançada

Botão Atualizar


Botão Atualizar

Ordenar por: 

RelevânciaAutorTítuloAnoImprime registros no formato resumido
Registros recuperados: 19
Primeira ... 1 ... Última
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
A comparative chemical and pharmacological study of standardized extracts and vanillic acid from wild and cultivated Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith. Repositório Alice
LEAL, L. K. A. M.; PIERDONÁ, T. M.; GÓES, J. G. S.; CANUTO, K. M.; SILVEIRA, E. R.; BEZERRA, A. M. E.; VIANA, G. S. B..
The objectives of this work were to carry out a comparative chemical study and to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts (EtOHE) and vanilic acid (VA) from cultivated and wild Amburana cearensis A.C. Smith (Fabaceae), an endangered species used in Northeast Brazil for the treatment of asthma. The HPLC analysis of EtOHE, showed that coumarin (CM) and VA were the major constituents from the cultivated plant, while in the extract from the wild plant the major constituents were amburoside A (AMB) and CM. Pharmacological tests were performed with male Swiss mice or male Wistar rats acutely administered with 100?400 mg/kg, p.o. of EtOHEs or 12.5?50 mg/kg, p.o. of VA. EtOHEs from A. cearensis with 4, 7 or 9 months of...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Amburana cearensis; Vanillic acid; HPLC; Antinociceptive activity; Anti-inflammatory activity.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/904909
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
A glycoprotein with anti-inflammatory properties secreted by an Aspergillus nidulans modified strain J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.
Queiroz,J. C. F.; Teixeira,C. F. P.; Lebrun,I.; Spencer,P. J.; Zucchi,T. M. A. D..
Total RNA from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat macrophages used to treat protoplasts from an Aspergillus nidulans strain originated the RT2 regenerated strain, whose culture supernatant showed anti-inflammatory activity in Wistar rats. The protein fraction presenting such anti-inflammatory activity was purified and biochemically identified. The screening of the fraction responsible for such anti-inflammatory property was performed by evaluating the inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema in male Swiss mice. Biochemical analyses of the anti-inflammatory protein used chromatography, carbohydrates quantification of the protein sample, amino acids content analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Total sugar...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Aspergillus nidulans; Protein purification and characterization; Glycoprotein; Anti-inflammatory activity.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992007000200010
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts BJMBR
Lucarini,R.; Tozatti,M.G.; Silva,M.L.A.; Gimenez,V.M.M.; Pauletti,P.M.; Groppo,M.; Turatti,I.C.C.; Cunha,W.R.; Martins,C.H.G..
This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP). It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Gochnatia pulchra; Anti-inflammatory activity; Antibacterial activity; Medicinal plants; Proinflammatory cytokines.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2015000900822
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Anti-inflammatory activity of propolis extracts: a review J. Venom. Anim. Toxins
Almeida,E. C. de; Menezes,H..
Since primeval times, the inflammatory process has been described in many different ways. Several anti-inflammatory therapies have been used in different biological models. However, in a recent "back to nature move", modern man is searching for natural products with medicinal properties, particularly those obtained from plants and bees. Propolis has been used in folk medicine for a very long time. The many compounds present in propolis require investigation.Physical-chemical analysis studies have not sufficiently established quality standards of propolis containing products. These standards should depend especially on their different pharmacological activities. There are few studies reporting on the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of propolis...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Propolis; Anti-inflammatory activity; Bees; Apis mellifera; Natural products.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-79302002000200002
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic activity of Ipomoea imperati (Vahl) Griseb (Convolvulaceae) BJMBR
Paula,A.C.B.; Hayashi,L.S.S.; Freitas,J.C..
Ipomoea imperati (Convolvulaceae) lives on the sandy shores of the Brazilian coast and in other areas of the world. The anti-inflammatory activity of a methanol-water extract of the leaves of I. imperati was investigated in experimental models of acute and subchronic inflammation. Topical application of the extract (10 mg/ear) inhibited mouse ear edema induced by croton oil (89.0 ± 1.3% by the lipid fraction with an IC50 of 3.97 mg/ear and 57.0 ± 1.3% by the aqueous fraction with an IC50 of 3.5 mg/ear) and arachidonic acid (42.0 ± 2.0% with an IC50 of 4.98 mg/ear and 31.0 ± 2.0% with an IC50 of 4.72 mg/ear). Phospholipase A2, purified from Apis mellifera bee venom, was also inhibited by the extract (5.0 mg/ml lipid and aqueous fraction) in vitro in a...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Anti-inflammatory activity; Antispasmodic activity; Arachidonic acid; Croton oil; Medicinal plants; Phospholipase A2.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2003000100014
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolic extract from Bowdichia virgilioides H.B.K stem bark Anais da ABC (AABC)
Barros,Wander M.; Rao,Vietla S.N.; Silva,Regilane M.; Lima,Joaquim C.S.; Martins,Domingos T.O..
Bowdichia virgilioides H.B.K stem bark (Fabaceae), locally known as "sucupira-preta", is a reputed folk-remedy to treat some inflammatory disorders. To validate its traditional claim, the ethanolic extract from B. virgilioides was evaluated in several animal models of inflammation and nociception. The extract at oral doses of 100 to 1000 mg/kg body weight caused a significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema, suppression of exudate volume and leukocyte immigration in rat pleurisy induced by carrageenan, and reduction of granuloma weights in the model of subcutaneous granulomas promoted by cotton pellets. In addition, the plant extract significantly inhibited the vascular permeability increase induced by intraperitoneal acetic acid. It also...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Bowdichia virgilioides; Fabaceae; Stem bark extract; Anti-inflammatory activity.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652010000300008
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Atividade nematicida in vitro de resíduos agroindustriais. Repositório Alice
BRAGA, A. C. L.; SOUSA, A. M. P.; VOLTOLINI, T. V.; CAVALCANTE, A. C. R.; VIEIRA, L. da S.; ANDRADE, L. B. da S.; SALLES, H. O..
2014
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Resíduo agroindustrial; Compostos bioativos; Torta de mamona; Bagaço de uva; Anti-inflammatory activity; Nematoide; Nematicida; Bagaço; Uva; Torta; Mamona; Antiinflamatório.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1006410
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Bioprospection of Petit Verdot grape pomace as a source of anti-inflammatory compounds. Repositório Alice
DENNY, C.; LAZARINI, J. G.; FRANCHIN, M.; MELO, P. S.; PEREIRA, G. E.; MASSARIOLI, A. P.; MORENO, I. A. M.; PASCHOAL, J. A. R.; ALENCAR, S. M.; ROSALEN, P. L..
The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Petit Verdot Extract and hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions obtained from grape pomace, in addition to identifying active compounds. The PVE and EAF reduced significantly paw edema and neutrophil migration when compared with control groups. The PVE reduced levels of TNF-α and IL1-β in the peritoneal fluid, whereas the EAF did not reduce cytokines significantly. Two hydroxybenzoic acids, two proanthocyanidins, three flavan-3-ol monomers and three anthocyanins were identified in the PVE and EAF by LC-MS/MS. The stilbene transresveratrol was identified only in the EAF. The phenolic compounds were quantified using HPLC-DAD analysis, except for the stilbenes,...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Subprodutos; Citocinas; Petit Verdot; Bagaço de uva; Vitis vinifera; Uva; Antiinflamatorio; Composto fenolico; Anti-inflammatory activity; Phenolic compounds; Grapes.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/991125
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Bioprospection of Petit Verdot grape pomace as a source of anti-inflammatory compounds Repositório Alice
DENNY, C.; LAZARINI, J. G.; FRANCHIN, M.; MELO, P. S.; PEREIRA, G. E.; MASSARIOLI, A. P.; MORENO, I. A. M.; PASCHOAL, J. A. R.; ALENCAR, S. M.; ROSALEN, P. L..
The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Petit Verdot Extract and hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions obtained from grape pomace, in addition to identifying active compounds. The PVE and EAF reduced significantly paw edema and neutrophil migration when compared with control groups. The PVE reduced levels of TNF-α and IL1-β in the peritoneal fluid, whereas the EAF did not reduce cytokines significantly. Two hydroxybenzoic acids, two proanthocyanidins, three flavan-3-ol monomers and three anthocyanins were identified in the PVE and EAF by LC-MS/MS. The stilbene transresveratrol was identified only in the EAF. The phenolic compounds were quantified using HPLC-DAD analysis, except for the stilbenes,...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Petit Verdot; Uva; Bagaço; Antiinflamatorio; Composto fenolico; Grape pomace; Anti-inflammatory activity; Phenolic compounds.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/986684
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss partitions promote gastroprotection against peptic ulcers and improve healing through antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. Repositório Alice
SANTOS, R. de C. dos; BONAMINA, F.; PÉRICO, L. L.; RODRIGUES, V. P.; ZANATTA, A. C.; RODRIGUES, C. M.; SANNOMIYA, M.; RAMOS. M. A. dos S.; BONIFÁCIO, B. V.; BAUAB, T. M.; TAMASHIRO, J.; ROCHA, L. R. M. da; VILEGAS, W.; HIRUMA-LIMA, C. A..
Byrsonima intermedia is a species of bush popularly used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastric ulcers, gastritis, and diarrhea. Previous studies have revealed that the methanolic crude extract of B. intermedia leaves has gastroprotective and healing properties. In this new study, we specifically investigated two purified partitions, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and water (AcoAq), obtained from the crude extract to characterize the antiulcer effects of these two partitions and the mechanisms of action of this medicinal plant. The healing effects of these partitions on the gastric and duodenal mucosa were assessed after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) or acetic acidinduced injury. The involvement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Healing effect; Peptic ulcer; Anti-inflammatory activity.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1107125
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Extract of Solidago chilensis Meyen inflorescences: cytotoxicity and inhibitory activity on nitric oxide synthesis in activated macrophage cell line J774A.1 BJPS
Brito,Thais Morais de; Amendoeira,Fabio Coelho; Oliveira,Temistocles Barroso de; Frutuoso,Valber da Silva; Ferraris,Fausto Klabund; Valverde,Simone Sacramento.
Solidago chilensis Meyen (= Solidago microglossa) popularly known as “Brazilian arnica” is used to treat of inflammatory disorders. S. chilensis is constant in the Therapeutic Memento of the Rio de Janeiro city and belongs to the medicinal species of Brazilian National List of Medicinal Plants of Interest of the Unified National Health System (SUS). There are no studies in the literature showing the direct activity of this plant species on immune system cells. The present study evaluated the chemical composition as well as the cytotoxic and pharmacological activity of the ether-ethanol extract from S. chilensis inflorescences (SCIE) in murine macrophage cell line J774A.1. The results showed that higher concentrations (50 to 200 µg/mL) of SCIE had...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Anti-inflammatory activity; Medicinal plant; Asteraceae; Diterpenes; Flavonoids.
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-82502020000100594
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Healing effect of the ointment made of Equisetum pyramidale in the treatment of cutaneous lesions in diabetic rats BABT
Corrêa,Andréia Cristina Lopes; Hans Filho,Guinter; Dourado,Doroty Mesquita; Matias,Rosemary; Silva,Iandara Schettert da; Sarragiotto,Maria Helena.
This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and repair effects of the ethanolic extract and ointment of Equisetum pyramidale on the skin lesions of rats induced to diabetes. After the induction of diabetes with alloxan, a surgical procedure was performed on the back of each rat. Then, they were separated into treatment groups: G1 ethanol extract of E. pyramidale; G2-ointment (extract of E. pyramidale 80g + 20g of vaseline:lanolin 1:1); G3 control (vehicle vaseline:lanolin 1:1); and G4-no treatment during 3, 7 and 14 days. The samples were embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histological analysis. The findings showed that the use of ethanolic extract as well as the ointment decreased the inflammatory cells at the site of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Diabetes; Skin lesions; Medicinal plants; Anti-inflammatory activity; Reepithelialization tissue.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132013000300005
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
In Silico Target Identification and Validation for Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Selective Phytochemicals. BABT
Rana,Shikha; Dixit,Savita; Mittal,Alok.
Abstract Phytochemicals present in plant extract include a number of biological active compounds which have shown promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in many animal studies. Present knowledge about the biochemical interactions of these compounds present in phytochemical extracts and target enzymes or proteins responsible for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity is limited. Present work is an attempt to identify and validate possible biological targets as enzymes or proteins involved in these targeted studies using molecular docking as computational method. IMPPAT: Indian Medicinal Plants, Photochemistry and Therapeutics (a curated database) has been used to retrieve various phytochemicals derived from selected plants which includes...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Target identification and validation; Phytochemicals; Antioxidant activity; Anti-inflammatory activity; Molecular docking.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132019000100431
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity by standardized hydroalcoholic extracts of four Asteraceae species from the Argentine Puna BJMBR
Alberto,M.R.; Zampini,I.C.; Isla,M.I..
We determined the anti-inflammatory activity of standardized extracts of four medicinal plant species (Baccharis incarum, B. boliviensis, Chuquiraga atacamensis, Parastrephia lucida) that grow in the Argentine Puna (3800 m above sea level) and that are used to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate gout and arthritic pain. The extracts of plant aerial parts were standardized in terms of total phenolic compounds and flavone/flavanone content and free radical scavenging activity. All extracts showed high phenolic compound concentration (0.5-1.6 mg/mL), mainly flavones and flavonols (0.1-0.8 mg/mL). The extracts showed hydrogen donating ability (DPPH and ABTS) and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity (O2●-, OH-, H2O2). The ability of the extracts to...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Baccharis incarum; Baccharis boliviensis; Chuquiraga atacamensis; Parastrephia lucida; Anti-inflammatory activity; Cyclooxygenase.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2009000900003
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Oxygenated Polyketides from Plakinastrella mamillaris as a New Chemotype of PXR Agonists ArchiMer
Festa, Carmen; D'Amore, Claudio; Renga, Barbara; Lauro, Gianluigi; De Marino, Simona; D'Auria, Maria Valeria; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Zampella, Angela; Fiorucci, Stefano.
Further purification of the apolar extracts of the sponge Plakinastrella mamillaris, afforded a new oxygenated polyketide named gracilioether K, together with the previously isolated gracilioethers E-G and gracilioethers I and J. The structure of the new compound has been elucidated by extensive NMR (H-1 and C-13, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY) and ESI-MS analysis. With the exception of gracilioether F, all compounds are endowed with potent pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) agonistic activity and therefore represent a new chemotype of potential anti-inflammatory leads. Docking calculations suggested theoretical binding modes of the identified compounds, compatible with an agonistic activity on hPXR, and clarified the molecular basis of their biological activities.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marine sponge; Plakinastrella mamillaris; Oxygenated polyketide; Nuclear receptors; Pregnane-X-receptor; Anti-inflammatory activity.
Ano: 2013 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00217/32781/31238.pdf
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Perfil alcaloídico de açucena (Hippeastrum elegans) e efeito anti-inflamatório em neutrófilo e micróglia. Repositório Alice
SOUZA, A. S. DE Q..
bitstream/item/224348/1/TS-2021.-005.pdf
Tipo: Tese/dissertação (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Hippeastrum elegans; CG-EM; Quimiometria; Anti-inflamatório; Alcaloides; Amaryllidaceae; Chemometrics; Anti-inflammatory activity; Alkaloids.
Ano: 2021 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1132852
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Studies of β-Cyclodextrin:Dexamethasone Acetate Complexes in Mice BABT
Rodrigues,Patrik Oening; Becker,Ana Cláudia; Dellagnelo,Viviane Aparecida; Benetti,Cibele Nabhan; Pereira,Eduardo Manoel; Wagner,Theodoro Marcel; Silva,Marcos Antonio Segatto.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo activity of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of a suspension of the complex composed of dexamethasone acetate (DMA) with β-cyclodextrin in comparison to a suspension of the pure DMA. Solid complexes prepared by different methods were evaluated in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics studies. The pharmacodynamic effect was investigated although the capacity of the inhibited the inflammation. Models of abdominal constriction, carrageenan-induced paw oedema and formalin induced licking were used. The study of the pharmacodynamic comparison of free DMA and products of β-CD:DMA demonstrated no significant difference in the majority of the tests performed. Plasma concentrations of DMA and DMA:β-CD...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Solubility; Dexamethasone acetate; Β-cyclodextrin; Bioavailability; Anti-inflammatory activity.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132014000600887
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Vernonia patensKunth, an Asteraceae species with phototoxic and pharmacological activity Phyton
Pérez-Amador,MC; Muñoz Ocotero,V; Pérez Benitez,S; García Jiménez,F.
The presence of phototoxic compounds in stems and leaves of young plants of Vernonia patens Kunth was confirmed by TLC. These compounds were in smaller amounts in younger than in adult plants of this species. Only the stems presented specific activity of these compounds from the two study plant organs. It included characteristic UV bands at 200 and 300nm, and phototoxic activity against Bacillus subtilis (ATCC-6633). Stems and leaves of Vernonia patens also showed anti-inflammatory activity and bactericide potential.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Asteraceae; Phototoxic compounds; Bactericide activity; Anti-inflammatory activity.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-56572008000100023
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Zn treatment effects on biological potential of fennel bulbs as affected by in vitro digestion process Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment.
MAJDOUB,Nesrine; KAAB,Leila Bettaieb Ben; VIEIRA,Ana Isabel; FALEIRO,Maria Leonor; EL-GUENDOUZ,Soukaina; MIGUEL,Maria Graça.
Abstract Zn treatment effects on the stability of polyphenols, MDA (malondialdehyde) content, antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibition activities of two varieties of fennel bulbs were studied by using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Likewise, the effect of Zn on viability cells of E. coli was also performed. The results revealed that high amounts of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were released during the digestion process, especially after the intestinal phase. Additionally, the antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity were affected by the gastrointestinal digestion process and seems to be correlated with total phenol contents. On the other hand, the viability of E. coli was not affected by the activity of our tested bulbs...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Foeniculum vulgare; Escherichia coli; Antioxidant activity; Anti-inflammatory activity.
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020005005211
Registros recuperados: 19
Primeira ... 1 ... Última
 

Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária - Embrapa
Todos os direitos reservados, conforme Lei n° 9.610
Política de Privacidade
Área restrita

Embrapa
Parque Estação Biológica - PqEB s/n°
Brasília, DF - Brasil - CEP 70770-901
Fone: (61) 3448-4433 - Fax: (61) 3448-4890 / 3448-4891 SAC: https://www.embrapa.br/fale-conosco

Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional