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Bt and Ht Corn versus Conventional Pesticide and Herbicide Use. Do Environmental Impacts Differ? AgEcon
Nillesen, Eleonora; Scatasta, Sara; Wesseler, Justus.
In this paper we empirically assess and compare the environmental impact of pesticide programs for Bt, Ht (glufosinate) and conventional corn in Europe, employing the Environmental Impact Quotient. We use field trial data from Narbons, France 2004 as well as secondary data. Our results show that management of Bt corn has a lower environmental impact than conventional corn programs. Herbicide treatment of the Ht variety also has a much lower environmental impact than that of the two conventional programs. Our empirical findings support the argument of lower environmental and health impacts with respect to pesticide use when growing Bt and Ht corn. The outcomes are relevant for environmental benefit-cost analysis of Bt and Ht corn.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: EIQ; Pesticide use; Bt; Ht corn; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q10; Q16.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25504
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Can Conventional Crop Producers Also Benefit From Bt Technology? AgEcon
Dun, Zhe; Mitchell, Paul D..
Transgenic plants producing insecticidal protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely adopted since their commercial introduction in 1996. In 2009, 25 countries planted 134 million ha of transgenic crops. The widespread adoption of such plants has reduced use of conventional insecticides while attaining yield gains, thus providing economic, environmental and human health benefits. Because of Bt crops’ high pest control efficacy, there is concern that pests will develop resistance to Bt toxins so that Bt crops are less or no longer effective. To delay the evolution of resistance, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) currently requires Bt crop growers to also plant non-Bt (conventional) crops on a minimum percentage of their...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Welfare; Bt; Pest suppression; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103584
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Caracterização físico-hídrica de um perfil de terra roxa estruturada latossólica pelo método do perfil instantâneo Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo
Costa,A. C. S. da; Libardi,P. L..
Em Terra Roxa Estruturada Latossólica do município de Piracicaba (SP), foram instalados tensiômetros a cada 15 cm, em triplicata, a partir de 30 cm até à profundidade de 240 cm, numa área de 25 m², para medida do potencial mátrico (φm) e, indiretamente, por meio da curva de retenção de água, a umidade volumétrica (θ). O método da umidade (Libardi et al., 1980) ajustou os dados de redistribuição de água (θ vs t) com coeficientes de determinação (R²) maiores que 0,98. A hipótese de gradiente do potencial hidráulico (δφh δz-1) unitário foi verificada somente no horizonte Bw. No horizonte Bt, o gradiente do potencial hidráulico variou de 1 a 3,89 m m-1, o que determinou valores de condutividade hidráulica maiores que os obtidos pelo método de Hillel et al....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Morfologia; Estrutura; Porosidade; Condutividade hidráulica; Bt; Bw.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-06831999000300021
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Chloroplast localization of Cry1Ac and Cry2A protein- an alternative way of insect control in cotton Biol. Res.
Muzaffar,Adnan; Kiani,Sarfraz; Khan,Muhammad Azmat Ullah; Rao,Abdul Qayyum; Ali,Arfan; Awan,Mudassar Fareed; Iqbal,Adnan; Nasir,Idrees Ahmad; Shahid,Ahmad Ali; Husnain,Tayyab.
BACKGROUND: Insects have developed resistance against Bt-transgenic plants. A multi-barrier defense system to weaken their resistance development is now necessary. One such approach is to use fusion protein genes to increase resistance in plants by introducing more Bt genes in combination. The locating the target protein at the point of insect attack will be more effective. It will not mean that the non-green parts of the plants are free of toxic proteins, but it will inflict more damage on the insects because they are at maximum activity in the green parts of plants. RESULTS: Successful cloning was achieved by the amplification of Cry2A, Cry1Ac, and a transit peptide. The appropriate polymerase chain reaction amplification and digested products confirmed...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Chloroplast transient peptide; Cry1Ac; Cry2A; Bt; CTP; Cry genes; Endotoxins; GUS; Transgenic plants.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602015000100014
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CROP BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR AFRICA: WHO WILL GAIN FROM BT MAIZE IN KENYA? AgEcon
Owuor, George; Smale, Melinda; De Groote, Hugo.
Bt maize in Kenya is promising biotechnology innovation for poor households. Econometric prediction from a trait-based model of variety adoption indicates that the choice of host variety has equity and efficiency implications related to heterogeneity in maize growing environments and pest pressures, as well as the differences among farm households in terms of wealth, income, and market access.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Maize; Bt; Adoption; Area allocation; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20379
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Especies del género Euxesta Loew (Diptera: Ulidiidae (= Otitidae)) plagas de maíces dulces Bt en la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent.
Bertolaccini,Isabel; Bouzo,Carlos; Larsen,Nicholas; Favaro,Juan C..
Los maíces dulces Bt son atacados por especies del género Euxesta Loew, antes consideradas como plagas secundarias, lo que provoca daños severos en los maíces dulces del cinturón hortícola santafesino. Se han identificado dos especies del género, E. mazorca Steykal y E. eluta Loew, que aparecen en forma simultánea y causan severas pérdidas. En los ataques, las larvas comienzan a dañar los estigmas, luego se produce el vaciado de los granos, especialmente los apicales, aunque el daño pueden extenderse a toda la espiga. La acción de estas larvas constituye además una vía de ingreso de microorganismos saprofíticos, lo que se traduce en la pérdida del producto e impide su comercialización para consumo directo. El género Dettmeria Borgmeier (Hymenoptera:...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/report Palavras-chave: Maíz; Bt; Plagas; Euxesta; Dettmeria.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0373-56802010000100012
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Farm Level Impacts of Bt Corn Adoption in a Developing Country: Evidence from the Philippines AgEcon
Mutuc, Maria Erlinda M.; Pan, Suwen; Rejesus, Roderick M.; Yorobe, Jose M., Jr..
This article examines the ex post farm-level impacts of Bt corn adoption in the Philippines. Using an econometric approach that addresses simultaneity, selection, and censoring problems, we show that Bt corn adoption provides modest but statistically significant increases in farm-level yields and profits. Furthermore, our results suggest that farm-level yield and profit impacts of Bt corn adoption are underestimated when censoring in the pesticide application variable is not considered in the estimation procedures. Previous literature have emphasized the importance of simultaneity and selection problems but this is the first study that have raised the issue of censoring problems in estimating the farm-level effects of Bt corn adoption.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Bt; Censoring; Corn; Farm level impacts genetically modified crops; Pesticide use; Technology adoption; Crop Production/Industries; Q12; Q16.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9891
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First record of Cotesia scotti () (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) comb. nov. parasitising Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk, 1858) and Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil Rev. Bras. entomol.
Freitas,Josiane Garcia de; Takahashi,Tamara Akemi; Figueiredo,Lara L.; Fernandes,Paulo M.; Camargo,Luiza Figueiredo; Watanabe,Isabela Midori; Foerster,Luís Amilton; Fernandez-Triana,José; Shimbori,Eduardo Mitio.
ABSTRACT This is the first report of Cotesia scotti (Valerio and Whitfield) comb. nov. in Brazil, attacking larvae of the black armyworm, Spodoptera cosmioides, and the southern armyworm, S. eridania. The moth larvae were found respectively, infesting a protected cropping of organic tomato in Hidrolândia, Goiás, Brazil, and a transgenic soybean crop in São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brazil. Biological, molecular and morphological characters were used to confirm the identity of the specimens. Parasitoid identification presented a challenge since the species has most diagnostic characters of the genus Cotesia Cameron, but few in the poorly defined genus Parapanteles Ashmead. Based on morphological and molecular evidence, we transfer Parapanteles scotti to the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Biological control; Bt; Parasitoid; Pest; Taxonomy.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0085-56262019000300238
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Genes de Bacillus thuringiensis: uma estratégia para conferir resistência a insetos em plantas Ciência Rural
Bobrowski,Vera Lucia; Fiuza,Lidia Mariana; Pasquali,Giancarlo; Bodanese-Zanettini,Maria Helena.
Os insetos constituem uma das principais causas de danos à produção agrícola no mundo. O controle de insetos tem sido realizado por meio de agroquímicos e, em muito menor escala, pelo emprego de inseticidas biológicos. As plantas transgênicas resistentes a insetos representam uma nova alternativa no combate aos insetos-praga das lavouras. A bactéria entomopatogênica Bacillus thuringiensis Berlinier (Bt) é a fonte dos genes de resistência nas chamadas plantas-Bt, produzidas comercialmente. No presente trabalho de revisão, são abordados os aspectos relacionados à bactéria Bt como fonte de genes de resistência a insetos-pragas, plantas geneticamente modificadas, vantagens do uso de plantas-Bt, bem como perspectivas dessa ferramenta biotecnológica.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Bacillus thuringiensis; Bt; Plantas transgênicas; Resistência a insetos; Insetos-praga; Delta-endotoxina.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782003000500008
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Impact Assessment of Bt Corn Adoption in the Philippines AgEcon
Mutuc, Maria Erlinda M.; Rejesus, Roderick M.; Pan, Suwen; Yorobe, Jose M., Jr..
This article examines the impact of Bt corn adoption in the Philippines using an econometric approach that addresses simultaneity, selection, and censoring problems. Although previous literature emphasizes the importance of simultaneity and selection problems, this is the first study that addresses the issue of censoring in estimating the effects of Bt corn adoption at the farm in a developing country context. We show that Bt corn adoption provides modest but statistically significant increases in farm yields and profits. Furthermore, our results provide some evidence of inference errors that can potentially arise when censoring in the pesticide application variable is ignored in the estimation procedures.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Bt; Censoring; Corn; Farm level impacts; Genetically modified crops; Pesticide use; Technology adoption; International Development; Production Economics; Q12; Q16.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120452
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IMPACTS OF THE ADOPTION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CROPS ON FARM FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE AgEcon
McBride, William D.; El-Osta, Hisham S..
The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) crops by U.S. farmers suggests that these technologies have been perceived to improve farm financial performance. This study develops and applies an econometric model to data from corn and soybean producers in order to evaluate the financial impacts of the adoption of GE crops. Results indicate that the adoption of GE crops has had a limited impact on financial performance that varies by crop, type of technology, type of farm, and region of the nation. Factors other than the financial impacts appear to be important reasons for the rapid adoption of GE crops.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Bt; Corn; Farm financial performance; Genetically engineered crops; Herbicide-tolerant; Soybeans; Technology adoption; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15514
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Milho Bt: vantagens para a cadeia produtiva e a viabilidade da coexistência. Infoteca-e
PURCINO, A. A. C.; WAQUIL, J. M.; CRUZ, J. C.; DUARTE, J. de O.; GARCIA, J. C.; MENDES, S. M..
2009
Tipo: Artigo de divulgação na mídia (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Milho; Bt.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/580360
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Relationship between chemical properties of the soil and the occurrence of Bacillus thuringiensis Ciência Rural
Polanczyk,Ricardo Antonio; Zanúncio,José Cola; Alves,Sérgio Batista.
The soil and other substrates such as mushroom compounds are the main sources of new Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates for Integrated Pest Management programs. This study describes the relationship between chemical properties of the soil (pH, OM, P3+, K1+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H1++Al3+, B3+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+) and the occurrence of Bt in Brazil. A total of 1,197 bacterial colonies were obtained, being 512 of them identified as Bt. The Bt index (iBt), which is the relation between Bt colonies and bacterial counts ranged from 0.18 to 0.86. The iBt may be expressed with the formula: iBt= -0.4 + 0.6Ca2+ + 0.07Cu2+ + 0.009Fe2+ - 0.53Mg2+ -0.12Mn2+ + 1.26Zn2+. A cluster of samples with fewer colonies and a high negative correlation (antagonism) between Mn2+...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Bt; Chemical elements; Entomopathogen; Soil; Biological control.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782009000100001
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