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A Cost Approach to Economic Analysis under Production Uncertainty AgEcon
Chavas, Jean-Paul.
This paper explores the economics of input decision by a firm facing production uncertainty. It relies on a state-contingent approach to production uncertainty. First, the paper develops a methodology to specify and estimate cost-minimizing input decisions under a state-contingent technology. Second, the analysis is applied to time series data on US agriculture. It finds strong empirical evidence that, in the analysis of input choices, expected output alone does not provide an appropriate representation of production uncertainty. The results provide empirical support for an output-cubical technology. This indicates that an ex post analysis of stochastic technology (as commonly found in previous research) appears appropriate. The analysis also provides...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Production uncertainty; State contingent; Cost; Cubical technology.; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C3; D21; D8.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21081
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A Dual Approach to Estimation With Constant Prices AgEcon
Paris, Quirino; Caputo, Michael R..
In a recent paper, Mundlak assumes that the price-taking, risk-neutral and profit-maximizing entrepreneur makes his decisions on the basis of a planning model that maximizes expected profit using expected prices. In the same paper, the author asserts that when there is no sample price variation across competitive firms, it is impossible to estimate the supply and factor demand functions from cross-section data using a dual approach. In a famous paper, titled “To Dual or not to Dual,” Pope asserted a similar opinion. This paper shows that, using Mundlak’s assumption about planning decisions based upon expected profit, it is possible to use a dual estimator to estimate supply and factor demand functions. This objective is achieved by using Mundlak’s...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Constant prices; Dual approach; Cobb-Douglas; Nonlinear errors-in-variables; Demand and Price Analysis; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; D0; C3.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93740
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A Nonlinear Generalized Additive Error Model of Production and Cost AgEcon
Paris, Quirino; Caputo, Michael R..
In 1944, Marschak and Andrews published a seminal paper on how to obtain consistent estimates of a production technology. The original formulation of the econometric model regarded the joint estimation of the production function together with the first-order necessary conditions for profit-maximizing behavior. In the seventies, with the advent of econometric duality, the preference seemed to have shifted to a dual approach. Recently, however, Mundlak resurrected the primal-versus-dual debate with a provocative paper titled “Production Function Estimation: Reviving the Primal.” In that paper, the author asserts that the dual estimator, unlike the primal approach, is not efficient because it fails to utilize all the available information. In this paper we...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Primal; Dual; Cobb-Douglas; Nonlinear errors-in-variables; Productivity Analysis; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; D0; C3.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93743
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ARE THE TOTAL DAILY COST OF FOOD AND DIET QUALITY RELATED: A RANDOM EFFECTS PANEL DATA ANALYSIS AgEcon
Carlson, Andrea; Dong, Diansheng; Lino, Mark.
There is a common perception that healthy food costs more than less healthy food. In this study we use a demand model for diet quality, rather than the quantity of food. Since in our data, total daily cost and diet quality are both calculated from the foods chosen, we account for the fact that cost is endogenous. We find that while total daily food cost is statistically significant in relation to diet quality, the degree of association is very small. Hence, it does not appear that cost alone prevents individuals in the United States from purchasing a healthy diet. Other factors such as food culture and environment, health behaviours, and demographics are more important. Our findings suggest that the choice to consume a healthy diet is very complicated.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Diet cost; Cost of food; Food culture; Diet quality; HEI-2005; Random effects model; Demand model; NHANES; MPED; CNPP Food Prices Database; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; D12; C3.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116395
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Assessing the Spatial and Temporal Variation of Output-Input Elasticities of Agricultural Production in Turkey AgEcon
Yu, Tun-Hsiang (Edward); Cho, Seong-Hoon; Koc, A. Ali; Gulden, Boluk; Seung Gyu, Kim.
Preliminary Draft
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Turkey; Agricultural Reform and Implementation Project; Geographically weighted regression; Agricultural and Food Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Q18; C3.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56544
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Consumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, matéria orgânica e proteína bruta da Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth por ovinos. Repositório Alice
MONTEIRO, E. M. M.; LOURENÇO JÚNIOR, J. de B.; GARCIA, A. R.; NAHUM, B. de S.; SANTOS, N. de F. A. dos; FERREIRA, G. D. G..
Amazônia Oriental, em Belém, Pará, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de quatro níveis (100%, 75%, 50% e 25%) da leguminosa Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth, em substituição ao quicuio-da-amazônia (Brachiaria humidicola), sobre o consumo voluntário e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (MS), matéria orgânica (MO) e proteína bruta (PB). Foi realizado um ensaio metabólico de 21 dias, sendo 14 dias de adaptação dos animais às dietas experimentais e sete dias de coleta. Foram utilizados dezesseis ovinos, de dez meses e média de 28 (± 2,44) kg de peso vivo, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os dados foram analisados pelo software SAS. A utilização da leguminosa Pueraria phaseoloides, proporciona maior...
Tipo: Separatas Palavras-chave: C3; Ruminantes.; Leguminosa; Valor Nutritivo.; Suplemento Alimentar.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/925585
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Determinants of Decision to Pay a Price Premium for Modified Food by Consumers of the Republic of Korea AgEcon
Kaya, Ozgur; Florkowski, Wojciech J.; Suh, Dong-Kyun.
The knowledge of the overall willingness-to-pay and the specific price premiums consumers accept when buying foods with less fat, saturated fat, sodium, sugar and more fiber shapes food manufacturer and distributor marketing strategies and supports the development of public health strategies. This study applies survey data collected in Korea to identify consumer profiles associated with the expressed willingness to pay a premium for foods with nutritionally desired attributes and, next, estimates the influence of consumer and household characteristics on the WTP a particular premium level for such foods. Results indicate the importance of socio-economic variables such as location, income and education, variables representing the risk of health problems...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Willingness to pay; Price premium; Modified food; Republic of Korea; Survey data; Logit; Generalized ordered logit; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; Q1; C3; D1.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61004
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Do Economic Restrictions Improve Forecasts? AgEcon
Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Norwood, F. Bailey; Wohlgenant, Michael K..
A previous study showed that imposing economic restrictions improves the forecasting ability of food demand systems, thus warranting their use even when they are rejected in-sample. This article evaluates whether this result is due to economic restrictions enhancing degrees of freedom or containing nonsample information. Results indicate that restrictions improve forecasting ability even when they are not derived from economic theory, but theoretical restrictions forecast best.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Demand systems; Economic restrictions; Forecasting; Representative consumer; B4; C1; C3; C5.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43447
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Efficient Estimates of a Model of Production and Cost AgEcon
Paris, Quirino; Caputo, Michael R..
In 1944, Marschak and Andrews published a seminal paper on how to obtain consistent estimates of a production technology. The original formulation of the econometric model regarded the joint estimation of the production function together with the first-order necessary conditions for profit-maximizing behavior. In the seventies, with the advent of duality theory, the preference seemed to have shifted to a dual approach. Recently, however, Mundlak resurrected the primal-versus-dual debate with a provocative paper titled “Production Function Estimation: Reviving the Primal.” In that paper, the author asserts that the dual estimator, unlike the primal approach, is not efficient because it fails to utilize all the available information. In this paper we argue...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Primal; Dual; Cobb-Douglas; Nonlinear errors-in-variables; Productivity Analysis; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; D0; C3.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93742
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Especificaciones y consideraciones muestrales en la estimacion de la demanda de un espacio natural singular: las Illa Cies en Galicia AgEcon
Gomez, Manuel Gonzalez; Polome, Philippe; Blanco, Albino Prada.
RESUMEN: En este trabajo se presentan estimaciones de diferentes especificaciones de demanda para un espacio recreativo singular a partir de la información de entrevis-tas a visitantes y no visitantes. Tenemos en cuenta los problemas de forma funcional, de medición del coste y demanda, de elección de una técnica de muestreo y de trata-miento de la muestra. La consideración de estas alternativas permite elegir una especi-ficación en mejores condiciones y nos aleja de supuestos iniciales restrictivos. Los resultados en términos de predicción de la demanda y estimación del excedente son bastante divergentes, resaltando la importancia de comparar diferentes especificacio-nes que incluyan el espectro de opciones potenciales. SUMMARY: In this paper, we present...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C3; Q26.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28737
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Factor-Augmenting Technical Change: An Empirical Assessment AgEcon
De Cian, Enrica.
Starting from a system of factor demands, an empirical model that allows estimating factor-augmenting technical change is derived. Factor-augmenting technical change is defined as the improvement in factor productivities that can occur either exogenously or endogenously, with changes in other macroeconomic variables. This paper provides additional estimates for the substitution possibilities among inputs and it offers new empirical evidence on the direction and sources of factor-augmenting technical change, an issue that has not yet been explored by the empirical literature on growth determinants. The empirical findings suggest that technical change is directed. Technical change tends to be more energy-saving than capital- and labour-saving. Both R&D...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Factor-Augmenting Technical Change; Technology Spillovers; Panel Data; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C3; O47; Q55; Q56.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50403
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IMPORT DEMAND FOR DISAGGREGATED FRESH FRUITS IN JAPAN AgEcon
Schmitz, Troy G.; Seale, James L., Jr..
Using annual Japanese fresh fruit import data from 1971 to 1997, this study analyzes the import patterns of Japan's seven most popular fresh fruits by implementing and testing a general differential dmand system that nests four alternative import demand specifications. When tested against the general system using the five-good case (bananas, grapefutis, oranges, and lemons and aggregating pineapples, berries, and grapes), the analysis rejects the Almost Ideal Demand System and National Bureau of Research specifications but does not reject Rotterdam and Central Bureau of Statistics models. When estimated using the six-good case (bananas, grapefuits, oranges, lemons, and pineapples and aggregating berries and grapes), the analysis rejects all...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Almost Ideal Demand System; Consumer demand; Fruit; Import demand; Japan; Rotterdam; Demand and Price Analysis; C3; F1; Q0.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15081
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INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: SUBSTITUTES OR COMPLEMENTS? AgEcon
Marchant, Mary A.; Cornell, Dyana N.; Koo, Won W..
International agricultural trade has evolved over time. Processed foods and developing countries have become major growth markets for U.S. agricultural exports, and foreign direct investment (FDI) has become even more important than exports as a means of accessing foreign markets. The critical question is whether FDI is a substitute for or a complement of exports. This research builds upon an existing theoretical FDI model and contributes to the literature through the development of a simultaneous equation system for FDI and exports, which is estimated using two-stage least squares. Empirical analyses were used to examine the relationship between U.S. FDI and exports of processed foods into East Asian countries - China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea,...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: East Asia; Exports; Foreign direct investment; International trade; Processed foods; International Relations/Trade; F47; Q17; C3; F17.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15471
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Modeling Electricity Prices: From the State of the Art to a Draft of a New Proposal AgEcon
Serati, Massimiliano; Manera, Matteo; Plotegher, Michele.
In the last decades a liberalization of the electric market has started; prices are now determined on the basis of contracts on regular markets and their behaviour is mainly driven by usual supply and demand forces. A large body of literature has been developed in order to analyze and forecast their evolution: it includes works with different aims and methodologies depending on the temporal horizon being studied. In this survey we depict the actual state of the art focusing only on the recent papers oriented to the determination of trends in electricity spot prices and to the forecast of these prices in the short run. Structural methods of analysis, which result appropriate for the determination of forward and future values are left behind. Studies have...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity Spot Prices; Autoregressive Models; GARCH Models; Regime Switching Models; Dynamic Factor Models; Demand and Price Analysis; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C2; C3; Q4.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44426
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Modelo teórico e experimental da reciclagem do Carbono-13 em tecidos de mamíferos e aves Scientia Agricola
Ducatti,Carlos; Carrijo,Alfredo Sampaio; Pezzato,Antônio Celso; Mancera,Paulo Fernando de Arruda.
A diferença entre fontes alimentares da ordem de 14‰, originárias de plantas com ciclos fotossintéticos Carbono-3 (C3) e Carbono-4 (C4) e seus subprodutos, abre novas perspectivas para o estudo do metabolismo do carbono em aves e animais de pequeno porte. Os autores propõem um modelo teórico e experimental capaz de exprimir os resultados de enriquecimento relativo, delta per mil (delta‰) da razão 13C/12C versus tempo em diferentes tecidos. Utilizou-se a equação y(t) = (y0 -- q/k) e-kt + q/k onde, y(t) é a concentração isotópica no tempo desejado, y0 a concentração isotópica inicial existente no tecido, k é uma constante de troca isotópica com unidade 1/tempo, t é unidade de tempo e q é a taxa de entrada de metabólitos que contém carbono, com valores de...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Aves de postura; C3; Metabolismo nutricional; Delta13C; Modelo teórico-experimental.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162002000100003
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Multi-input Multi-output Farm-level Cost Function: A Comparison of Least Squares and Entropy Estimators AgEcon
Polome, Philippe; Fernagut, Bruno; Harmignie, Olivier; Frahan, Bruno Henry de.
We introduce a modification of the quadratic-Leontieff multi-output cost function that is particularly suitable for the data of the Farm Accountancy Data Network. We present least squares and entropy estimates of that function and compare their results for a sample of crop farms. Our results are encouraging for the use of entropy estimators in cases in which farms are not assumed to share the same technology. Our approach can be seen as an extension of the Positive Mathematical Programming approach (Howitt, 1995). The extension consists in an explicit specification of inputs in the cost function and in the possibility of modeling several farms simultaneously.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Cost function; Least squares estimator; Entropy estimator; Heterogeneity; Farm Management; C3; D61; Q12.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24727
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Price Transmission and Marketing Margins in the Slovenian Beef and Pork Markets During Transition AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan.
As in many other transition countries processing and marketing margins are also larger in the Slovenian meat market than respective margins in market economies. In addition, margin of the Slovenian pork chain is greater than in the beef chain. Its decline in the pork market indicates an adjustment to more competitive markets. Co-integration models are applied to estimate vertical price transmission and to examine margins and degree of competition in the meat marketing chains. Results indicate the existence of a long run equilibrium regarding vertical price transmission in the beef and pork sectors. Both the farm-gate beef and pork prices are identified as weakly exogenous in the long run. The structural tests imposing a homogeneity restriction suggest a...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Price transmission; Marketing margin; Co-integration; Competition; Marketing; D4; L1; C3; Q1.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24789
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Prognoseleistung von Fruhindikatoren: Die Bedeutung von Fruhindikatoren fur Konjunk-turprognosen - Eine Analyse fur Deutschland AgEcon
Hinze, Jorg.
Das Papier untersucht die Rolle von Frühindikatoren bei der Erstellung von Konjunkturprognosen. Gegenstand der Analyse sind die Fragen: Welche Kriterien sollten Frühindikatoren generell erfüllen bzw. was sollten Frühindikatoren leisten? Inwieweit erfüllen die gängigen Indikatoren diese Anforderungen? Wie ist die Prognosegüte der verschiedenen Frühindikatoren zu beurteilen? Die theoretischen Überlegungen und ökonometrischen Untersuchungen kommen zu dem Ergebnis, dass die gängigen Frühindikatoren die in sie gesetzten Erwartungen nur eingeschränkt erfüllen können. Der Verlauf einzelner Frühindikatoren lässt keine eindeutigen Schlußfolgerungen auf die reale Wirtschaftsentwicklung zu und der Vorlauf der Frühindikatoren vor der realen Entwicklung beträgt...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Konjunktur; Wirtschaftspolitik; Agricultural and Food Policy; C3; C5; E1; E3.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26253
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Testing the Order of Integration with Low Power Tests. An Application to Argentine Macro-variables AgEcon
Carrera, Jorge Eduardo; Feliz, Mariano; Panigo, Demian.
The low power of available econometric tests is an important problem in applied research on unit roots and related issues. Based on the principle of methodological triangulation, the problem should be analyzed from different points of view in order to increase the validity of the results. Following this approach a strategy to test the order of integration in time series is presented using a sequence of eleven consolidated tests. In this way it is possible to determine the persistence of shocks, to specify the best strategy for trend-cycle decomposition and to obtain additional information useful for public policies. As an application of the methodology, the integration properties in the main 14 Argentine macroeconomic variables are studied. A...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Unit root; Persistence; Cycles; Structural breaks; Argentine macroeconomic variables; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C3; C5; E3.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43989
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The Impact of Temperature Change on Energy Demand: A Dynamic Panel Analysis AgEcon
De Cian, Enrica; Lanzi, Elisa; Roson, Roberto.
This paper presents an empirical study of energy demand, in which demand for a series of energy goods (Gas, Oil Products, Coal, Electricity) is expressed as a function of various factors, including temperature. Parameter values are estimated econometrically, using a dynamic panel data approach. Unlike previous studies in this field, the data sample has a global coverage, and special emphasis is given to the dynamic nature of demand, as well as to interactions between income levels and sensitivity to temperature variations. These features make the model results especially valuable in the analysis of climate change impacts. Results are interpreted in terms of derived demand for heating and cooling. Non-linearities and discontinuities emerge, making it...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Energy Demand; Cooling Heating Effect; Temperature; Dynamic Panel; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C3; Q41; Q54.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9322
Registros recuperados: 21
Primeira ... 12 ... Última
 

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