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Registros recuperados: 39
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A Spatiotemporal Fixed Effects Estimation of U.S. State-Level Carbon Dioxide Emissions AgEcon
Burnett, J. Wesley; Bergstrom, John C..
One of the major shortcommings of past environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) studies is that the spatiotemporal aspects within the data have largely been ignored. By ignoring the spatial aspect of pollution emissions past estimates of the EKC implicitly assume that a region’s emissions are unaffected by events in neighboring regions (i.e., assume there are no transboundary pollution emissions between neighbors). By ignoring the spatial aspects within the data several past estimates of the EKC could have generated biased or inconsistent regression results. By ignoring the temporal aspect within the data several past estimates of the EKC could have generated spurious regression results or misspecified t and F statistics. To address this potential...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Pollution Economics; Environmental Kuznets Curve; Spatial Econometrics; Dynamic Panel Data; Carbon Dioxide Emissions; Global Climate Change; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C33; C51; Q43; Q50; Q53; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103580
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Accidents Waiting to Happen: Liability Policy and Toxic Pollution Releases AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Austin, David H..
Proponents of environmental policies based on liability assert that strict liability imposed on the polluter will induce firms to handle hazardous wastes properly and to avoid disposing them into the environment. Economic theory and a few well-publicized cases, however, suggest that a number of factors may dilute the incentives posed by strict liability. In this paper, we run regressions relating unintended releases of pollution into the environment (aggregated at the state level, and followed over nine years from 1987 to 1995) to the imposition of strict liability on the polluter, exploiting variation across states in the liability provisions of their mini-Superfund laws, and in the years these were adopted. We experiment with instrumental variable...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Strict liability; Toxic spills; Policy endogeneity; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; C33; K32.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10450
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Assessing the Perspectives of EU Cotton Farming: Technical and Scale Efficiencies of Greek Cotton Growers AgEcon
Pantzios, Christos J.; Rozakis, Stelios; Tzouvelekas, Vangelis.
Utilizing the stochastic frontier approach, this paper estimates output and input-oriented technical and scale efficiency levels for a sample of cotton-growing farms in Thessaly, Greece. The empirical results suggest that Greek cotton farm operations are technically and scale inefficient. There is a considerable scope for improvement in resource use and thereby in farm income of cotton farms; Greek cotton farmers could reduce production costs by 20.4%, making more efficient utilization of the existing production technology. Factors responsible for the technical efficiency differentials observed among cotton-growers include the farmer's age and education as well as the farm's land fragmentation and output specialization.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Technical and scale inefficiency; Stochastic frontier models; Cotton production; Greece; Crop Production/Industries; C33; D24; O13.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24844
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Calories, Obesity and Health in OECD Countries AgEcon
Mazzocchi, Mario; Traill, W. Bruce.
Theoretical models suggest that decisions about diet, weight and health status are endogenous within a utility maximisation framework. In this paper, we model these behavioural relationships in a fixed-effect panel setting using a simultaneous equation system, with a view to determining whether economic variables can explain the trends in calorie consumption, obesity and health in OECD countries and the large differences among countries. The empirical model shows that progress in medical treatment and health expenditure mitigates mortality from diet-related diseases, despite rising obesity rates. While the model accounts for endogeneity and serial correlation, results are affected by data limitations.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food consumption; Obesity; Overweight; Health; Health Economics and Policy; I12; C33.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7972
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Combining mixed logit models and random effects models to identify the determinants of willingness to pay for rural landscape improvements AgEcon
Campbell, Danny.
This paper reports the findings from a discrete choice experiment study designed to estimate the economic benefits associated with rural landscape improvements in Ireland. Using a mixed logit model, the panel nature of the dataset is exploited to retrieve willingness to pay values for every individual in the sample. This departs from customary approaches in which the willingness to pay estimates are normally expressed as measures of central tendency of an a priori distribution. In a different vein from analysis conducted in previous discrete choice experiment studies, this paper uses random effects models for panel data to identify the determinants of the individual-specific willingness to pay estimates. In comparison with the standard methods used to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agri-environment; Discrete choice experiments; Mixed logit; Panel data; Random effects; Willingness to pay; Demand and Price Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; C33; C35; Q24; Q51.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7975
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Dimensions of Wealth Dispersion Among Farm Operator Households: An Assessment of the Impact of Farm Subsidies AgEcon
El-Osta, Hisham S.; Mishra, Ashok K..
This paper uses microlevel data from the Agricultural Resource Management Survey to examine the changes in the distributions of household wealth and to assess the role farm subsidies play, among other factors, in affecting these distributions. The empirical analysis relies on the concept of the adjusted Gini coefficient and on fixed-effect regression procedures. Coefficients from fixed-effect estimation indicate a negative correlation between government payments and wealth dispersion, with the effect shifting toward more of a positive relation when government payments were allowed to interact with regional dummies.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Adjusted Gini coefficient; Agricultural Resource Management Survey; Fixed-effects regression; Government subsidies; Life cycle; Wealth dispersion; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Livestock Production/Industries; Production Economics; C33; D31; D63; O18; Q15.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43733
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Discussion: Applications and Innovations in Spatial Econometrics AgEcon
LeSage, James P..
These articles provide a discussion of studies presented in a session on spatial econometrics, focusing on the ability of spatial regression models to quantify the magnitude of spatial spillover impacts. Both articles presented argue that a proper modeling of spatial spillovers is required to truly understand the phenomena under study, in one case the impact of climate change on land values (or crop yields) and in the second the role of regional industry composition on regional business establishment growth.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Lagged variables; Panel data; Spatial spillovers; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C33; C51.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113519
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Do Competition and Ownership Matter? Evidence from Local Public Transport in Europe AgEcon
Boitani, Andrea; Nicolini, Marcella; Scarpa, Carlo.
This paper investigates how the ownership and the procedure for the selection of firms operating in the local public transport sector affect their productivity. In order to compare different institutional regimes, we carry out a comparative analysis of 72 companies operating in large European cities. This allows us to consider firms selected either through competitive tendering or negotiated procedures. The analysis of the data on 77 European firms over the period 1997-2006 indicates that firms operate under constant returns to scale. Retrieving the residuals we obtain a measure of total factor productivity, which we regress on firm and city characteristics. We find that when firms are totally or partially in public hands their productivity is lower....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Local Public Transport; Public Ownership; Translog Production Function; Financial Economics; C33; K23; L25; L33; L91.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59392
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Dutch corporate liquidity management: New evidence on aggregation AgEcon
Bruinshoofd, W. Allard; Kool, Clemens J.M..
In this paper we investigate Dutch corporate liquidity management in general, and target adjustment behaviour in particular. To this purpose, we use a simple error correction model of corporate liquidity holdings applied to firm-level data for the period 1977-1997. We confirm the existence of long-run liquidity targets at the firm level. We also find that changes in liquidity holdings are driven by short-run shocks as well as the urge to converge towards targeted liquidity levels. The rate of target convergence is higher when we include more firm-specific information in the target. This result supports the idea that increased precision in defining liquidity targets associates with a faster observed rate of target convergence. It also suggests that the slow...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Corporate liquidity demand; Precautionary liquidity; C33; C43; E41; G3.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37606
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Effects of Food Safety Standards on Seafood Exports to US, EU and Japan AgEcon
Nguyen, Anh Van Thi; Wilson, Norbert L.W..
Estimating the panel gravity model with bilateral pair and country-by-time fixed-effects separately for each seafood product, we found that food safety regulations have differential effects across seafood products. In all three industrialized markets, shrimp is most sensitive, while fish is the least sensitive to changing food safety policies. The enforcement of the US HACCP, the EU Minimum Required Performance Level and the Japanese Food Safety Basic Law caused a loss of 90.45%, 99.47%, and 99.97% to shrimp trade in these markets, and a reduction associated with fish trade was 66.71%, 82.83%, and 89.32%.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food safety; Seafood; International trade; Gravity model; HACCP; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade; C33; F13; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46758
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Impact of Foreign Intellectual Property Rights Protection on U.S. Exports and FDI AgEcon
Gu, Weishi.
This version of the paper is subject to changes.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Export; FDI; Technology transfer; Intellectual property rights; GMM; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C33; F21; F23; F14; O34; K33.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49414
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Jobs Versus the Environment: An Industry-level Perspective AgEcon
Morgenstern, Richard D.; Pizer, William A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang.
The possibility that workers could be adversely affected by environmental policies imposed on heavily regulated industries has led to claims of a "jobs versus the environment" trade-off by both business and labor leaders. The present research examines this claim at the industry level for four heavily polluting industries: pulp and paper mills, plastic manufacturers, petroleum refiners, and iron and steel mills. By focusing on labor effects across an entire industry, we construct a measure relevant to the concerns of key stakeholders, such as labor unions and trade groups. We decompose the link between environmental regulation and employment into three distinct components: factor shifts to more or less labor intensity, changes in total expenditures, and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Jobs-environment trade-off; Distribution of environmental costs; Translog cost function; Labor and Human Capital; C33; D24; J40; Q28.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10526
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Measuring Service Quality: The Opinion of Europeans about Utilities AgEcon
Ferrari, P.A.; Salini, S..
This paper provides a comparative analysis of statistical methods to evaluate the consumer perception about the quality of Services of General Interest. The evaluation of the service quality perceived by users is usually based on Customer Satisfaction Survey data and an ex-post evaluation is then performed. Another approach, consisting in evaluating Consumers preferences, supplies an ex-ante information on Service Quality. Here, the ex-post approach is considered, two non-standard techniques - the Rasch Model and the Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis - are presented and the potential of both methods is discussed. These methods are applied on the Eurobarometer Survey data to assess the consumer satisfaction among European countries and in different...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Service Quality; Eurobarometer; Non Linear Principal Component Analysis; Rasch Analysis; Conjoint Analysis; C33; C35; C43; L94; L95; L96.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/36758
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Optimal intertemporal investment in Australian agriculture: An empirical investigation AgEcon
Agbola, Frank W..
This paper empirically investigates optimal intertemporal investment behaviour of farmers in Australia. The dynamic investment model is estimated using pooled crosssectional and time-series farm survey data spanning the period 1979-1993. The model captures intertemporal investment behaviour of farmers, including independent and instantaneous adjustment decisions. Empirical test results indicate that labour, capital, sheep numbers and cattle numbers adjust sluggishly towards their long-run equilibrium levels. Results provide empirical evidence to indicate that adjustment problem is characteristic of production in agricultural zones Australia.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Australia; Agricultural zones; Optimal intertemporal investment model; Quaxi-fixity; Adjustment costs; Farm Management; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C33; C12; C13; C61.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44094
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Panel Data Estimation Methods on Supply and Demand Elasticities: The Case of Cotton in Greece AgEcon
Kotakou, Christina A..
This article examines the effects of the application of panel data estimation methods on a system of equations with unbalanced panel data. We apply pooled, random-effects, and fixed-effects estimation in three data sets: small, medium, and large farms to examine the relationship between farm size and the elasticity of cotton supply with respect to cotton price. Our results indicate that the adoption of various estimation methods entails different estimated parameters both in terms of their absolute value and in terms of their statistical significance. Additionally, the elasticity of cotton supply with respect to price varies according to farm size.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Farm size; Panel data; Supply elasticity; Systems of equations; Demand and Price Analysis; C33; D21; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100637
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PANEL ESTIMATION OF WATER DEMAND BASED ON AN EPISODE OF RATE REFORM AgEcon
Moreno, Georgina; Sunding, David L.; Schoengold, Karina.
Agriculture is by far the dominant user of water in the western United States and in nearly all arid regions of the planet. Despite this fact and despite a growing push to rely on price mechanisms for rationalizing water allocation, there are few econometric studies of agricultural water demand that measure its responsiveness to price. Using a unique panel data set of water use at a disaggregated level, this paper estimates the parameters of an agricultural water demand function. The approach incorporates the notion of “"jointness"” in the farm production function, which postulates that producers choose inputs, outputs and technology simultaneously. Estimation results indicate that the own-price elasticity of water use is in the range [-0.415, -0.275],...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Input demand estimation; Water resources; Conservation technology; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C33; Q12; Q15.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20342
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Parametric or Nonparametric Approaches to the Estimation of Marginal Cost in Dairy Production? A Comparison of Estimation Results AgEcon
Wieck, Christine; Heckelei, Thomas.
This paper compares various nonparametric models for the estimation of farm specific marginal costs function in the dairy sector. Specifically, locally weighted regression approaches using theory-consistent cost function frameworks as polynomials in the nonparametric approach are applied. A comparison of average marginal cost levels as well as marginal cost distributions across farms illustrates the different approaches.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Dairy production; Marginal costs; Nonparametric regression; Livestock Production/Industries; C33; Q12; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9829
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Public Policy and Diet Quality: Impact of Prices on Nutrient Adequacy using French Expenditure Data from 1996 to 2005 AgEcon
Allen, Thomas G.; Allais, Olivier; Nichele, Veronique; Padilla, Martine.
This paper aims at simulating optimal prices satisfying public health recommendations in terms of nutrient adequacy. This implies to estimate a complete food demand system in order to compute price elasticities. Food consumption behaviors are described by an AI functional form [Deaton and Muellbauer(1980)] augmented to control for habit persistence. The demand system is estimated using the Iterated Least Square Estimator developed by Blundell and Robin (1999). We use French household expenditure data drawn from TNS Worldpanel covering 130 periods of 4 weeks from 1996 to 2005. Given the nature of our data, households are split into 8 cohorts based on two socio-demographic variables: date of birth and social status. A revised aggregation into 27 food groups...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Household survey data; Cohort; AI demand system; Nutrient adequacy; Diet quality; Fat tax policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; D12; C33.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53335
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Rates of Return to Public Agricultural Research in 48 U.S. States AgEcon
Plastina, Alejandro S.; Fulginiti, Lilyan E..
The internal rate of return to public investment in agricultural R&D is estimated for each of the continental U.S. states. Theoretically, our contribution provides a way of obtaining the returns to a local public good using Rothbart’s concept of virtual prices. Empirically, we use the spatial dependency among states generated by knowledge spillovers to define the ‘appropriate’ jurisdiction. We estimate an average own-state rate of 17% and a social rate of 27%. These figures should inform the policy debate on the allocation of federal funds to research in anticipation of a possible global food crisis.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Internal rates of return; Public R&D; Spillins; Local public goods; Appropriate jurisdiction; Spatial.; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Public Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q16; H41; C33; C31.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51709
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Return to wine: A comparison of the hedonic, repeat sales, and hybrid approaches AgEcon
Fogarty, James Joseph; Jones, Callum.
Comparisons between the return to wine and standard financial assets are complicated in that the return to wine must be estimated from infrequent sales of heterogeneous wine brands. Wine returns can be estimated using several different approaches, and here the performance of the hedonic approach, repeat sales approach, and hybrid approach are compared using 14,102 auction sale observations for Australian wine over the period 1988 to 2000. For the data set considered the results show that the hybrid approach provides the most efficient estimates, and that the repeat sales approach provides significantly higher total return estimates than the other two approaches. The portfolio diversification benefit attributed to holding wine is then shown to vary with...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Return to wine; Price index; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C33; G12.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108668
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