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A BGC-Argo Guide: Planning, Deployment, Data Handling and Usage ArchiMer
Bittig, Henry C.; Maurer, Tanya L.; Plant, Joshua N.; Schmechtig, Catherine; Wong, Annie P. S.; Claustre, Hervé; Trull, Thomas W.; Udaya Bhaskar, T. V. S.; Boss, Emmanuel; Dall’olmo, Giorgio; Organelli, Emanuele; Poteau, Antoine; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Hanstein, Craig; Leymarie, Edouard; Le Reste, Serge; Riser, Stephen C.; Rupan, A. Rick; Taillandier, Vincent; Thierry, Virginie; Xing, Xiaogang.
The Biogeochemical-Argo program (BGC-Argo) is a new profiling-float-based, ocean wide, and distributed ocean monitoring program which is tightly linked to, and has benefited significantly from, the Argo program. The community has recommended for BGC-Argo to measure six additional properties in addition to pressure, temperature and salinity measured by Argo, to include oxygen, pH, nitrate, downwelling light, chlorophyll fluorescence and the optical backscattering coefficient. The purpose of this addition is to enable the monitoring of ocean biogeochemistry and health, and in particular, monitor major processes such as ocean deoxygenation, acidification and warming and their effect on phytoplankton, the main source of energy of marine ecosystems. Here we...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ocean observation; Ocean biogeochemical cycles; Sensors; Carbon cycle; Ocean optics; Best practices; Argo.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00512/62344/66607.pdf
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A laboratory model system for analysing microbial interactions occurring in anoxic estuarine sediments. ArchiMer
Herbert, R; Keith, S.
Defined mixed populations of Clostridium butyricum, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Chromatium vinosum co-existed for long periods when grown in a single stage chemostat with glucose as sole carbon source. The nature and availability of the inorganic nitrogen source exerted a major effect on carbon flow in the experimental system. The data show that both the C. butyricum and D. desulfuricans isolates can utilise NO sub(3) as an e super(-)acceptor with an increase in cell yield. Under these growth conditions the free S super(2-) levels were lower resulting in more stable mixed populations. In addition the data show that the C. butyricum produces more oxidised fermentation end-products (acetate) when NO sub(3) super(-) was available and more reduced products...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Chromatium vinosum; Desulfovibrio desulfuricans; Clostridium butyricum; Biogeochemistry; Models; Bacteria; Detritus; Mineralization; Anoxic sediments; Estuarine sedimentation; Analytical techniques; Carbon cycle; Interspecific relationships; Microbiology.
Ano: 1984 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1984/acte-947.pdf
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A methodological framework to assess the carbon balance of tropical managed forests. Repositório Alice
PIPONIOT, C.; CABON, A.; DESCROIX, L.; DOURDAIN, A.; MAZZEI, L.; OULIAC, B.; RUTISHAUSER, E.; SIST, P.; HÉRAULT, B..
Background: Managed forests are a major component of tropical landscapes. Production forests as designated by national forest services cover up to 400 million ha, i.e. half of the forested area in the humid tropics. Forest management thus plays a major role in the global carbon budget, but with a lack of unified method to estimate carbon fluxes from tropical managed forests. In this study we propose a new time- and spatially-explicit methodology to estimate the above-ground carbon budget of selective logging at regional scale. Results: The yearly balance of a logging unit, i.e. the elementary management unit of a forest estate, is modelled by aggregating three sub-models encompassing (i) emissions from extracted wood, (ii) emissions from logging damage and...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Carbon cycle; Selective logging; Error propagation; Production forests; Amazônia; Ciclo do carbono; Floresta.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1051226
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An Alternative to Static Climatologies: Robust Estimation of Open Ocean CO2 Variables and Nutrient Concentrations From T, S, and O-2 Data Using Bayesian Neural Networks ArchiMer
Bittig, Henry C.; Steinhoff, Tobias; Claustre, Harve; Fiedler, Bjoern; Williams, Nancy L.; Sauzede, Raphaelle; Koertzinger, Arne; Gattuso, Jean-pierre.
This work presents two new methods to estimate oceanic alkalinity (A(T)), dissolved inorganic carbon (C-T), pH, and pCO(2) from temperature, salinity, oxygen, and geolocation data. "CANYON-B" is a Bayesian neural network mapping that accurately reproduces GLODAPv2 bottle data and the biogeochemical relations contained therein. "CONTENT" combines and refines the four carbonate system variables to be consistent with carbonate chemistry. Both methods come with a robust uncertainty estimate that incorporates information from the local conditions. They are validated against independent GO-SHIP bottle and sensor data, and compare favorably to other state-of-the-art mapping methods. As "dynamic climatologies" they show comparable performance to classical...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Carbon cycle; GLODAP; Marine carbonate system; Surface pCO(2) climatology; Revelle buffer factor increase; Machine learning; Nutrient estimation.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00675/78681/80879.pdf
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Assessments of anthropogenic CO2 distribution in the tropical Atlantic Ocean ArchiMer
Touratier, Franck; Goyet, C; Coatanoan, Christine; Andrie, C.
With a limited number of properties (salinity, temperature, total dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, and oxygen) from a recent cruise in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, We use the simple and recent approach TrOCA (Tracer combining Oxygen, inorganic Carbon, and total Alkalinity) to estimate the distribution of anthropogenic CO2 along three latitudinal sections. In order to assess the quality of the anthropogenic CO2 distribution, results from the method are compared to the CFC-11 measurements. We discuss the large-scale distribution of the main water masses of the tropical Atlantic Ocean in the light of the anthropogenic CO2 and the CFC-11 distributions. Keeping in mind that the anthropogenic CO2 emission began similar to 60 years earlier than that...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Tropical belt; Atlantic Ocean; Water mass; Carbon cycle.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/publication-886.pdf
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Atlantic Ocean ventilation changes across the last deglaciation and their carbon cycle implications ArchiMer
Skinner, L. C.; Freeman, E.; Hodell, D.; Waelbroeck, C.; Vazquez Riveiros, Natalia; Scrivner, A.e.
Changes in ocean ventilation, controlled by both overturning rates and air‐sea gas exchange, are thought to have played a central role in atmospheric CO2 rise across the last deglaciation. Here we constrain the nature of Atlantic Ocean ventilation changes over the last deglaciation using radiocarbon and stable carbon isotopes from two depth transects in the Atlantic basin. Our findings broadly cohere with the established pattern of deglacial Atlantic overturning change, and underline the existence of active northern sourced deep‐water export at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We find that the western Atlantic was less affected by incursions of southern‐sourced deep water, as compared to the eastern Atlantic, despite both sides of the basin being strongly...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Air‐ Sea exchange; AMOC; Carbon cycle; Deglaciation; Radiocarbon; Ventilation.
Ano: 2021 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00665/77717/79810.pdf
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Cellulase activity and dissolved organic carbon release from lignocellulose macrophyte-derived in four trophic conditions BJM
Bottino,Flávia; Cunha-Santino,Marcela Bianchessi; Bianchini Jr.,Irineu.
Abstract Considering the importance of lignocellulose macrophyte-derived for the energy flux in aquatic ecosystems and the nutrient concentrations as a function of force which influences the decomposition process, this study aims to relate the enzymatic activity and lignocellulose hydrolysis in different trophic statuses. Water samples and two macrophyte species were collected from the littoral zone of a subtropical Brazilian Reservoir. A lignocellulosic matrix was obtained using aqueous extraction of dried plant material (≈40 °C). Incubations for decomposition of the lignocellulosic matrix were prepared using lignocelluloses, inoculums and filtered water simulating different trophic statuses with the same N:P ratio. The particulate organic carbon and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Anaerobic decomposition; Cellulose; Carbon cycle; Aquatic macrophytes.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822016000200352
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Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5 ArchiMer
Dufresne, J-l.; Foujols, M-a.; Denvil, S.; Caubel, A.; Marti, O.; Aumont, Olivier; Balkanski, Y.; Bekki, S.; Bellenger, H.; Benshila, R.; Bony, S.; Bopp, L.; Braconnot, P.; Brockmann, P.; Cadule, P.; Cheruy, F.; Codron, F.; Cozic, A; Cugnet, D.; De Noblet, N.; Duvel, J-p.; Ethe,; Fairhead, L.; Fichefet, T.; Flavoni, S.; Friedlingstein, P.; Grandpeix, J-y.; Guez, L.; Guilyardi, E.; Hauglustaine, D.; Hourdin, F.; Idelkadi, A.; Ghattas, J.; Joussaume, S.; Kageyama, M.; Krinner, G.; Labetoulle, S.; Lahellec, A.; Lefebvre, M; Lefevre, F.; Levy, C.; Li, Zhanbin; Lloyd, J.; Lott, F.; Madec, G.; Mancip, M.; Marchand, M; Masson, S.; Meurdesoif, Y.; Mignot, J.; Musat, I.; Parouty, S.; Polcher, J.; Rio, C; Schulz, M.; Swingedouw, D.; Szopa, S.; Talandier, Claude; Terray, P.; Viovy, N.; Vuichard, N..
We present the global general circulation model IPSL-CM5 developed to study the long-term response of the climate system to natural and anthropogenic forcings as part of the 5th Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). This model includes an interactive carbon cycle, a representation of tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, and a comprehensive representation of aerosols. As it represents the principal dynamical, physical, and bio-geochemical processes relevant to the climate system, it may be referred to as an Earth System Model. However, the IPSL-CM5 model may be used in a multitude of configurations associated with different boundary conditions and with a range of complexities in terms of processes and interactions. This paper...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Climate; Climate change; Climate projections; Earth System Model; CMIP5; CMIP3; Greenhouse gases; Aerosols; Carbon cycle; Allowable emissions; RCP scenarios; Land use changes.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00138/24966/23079.pdf
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Combining charcoal and elemental black carbon analysis in sedimentary archives: Implications for past fire regimes, the pyrogenic carbon cycle, and the human-climate interactions ArchiMer
Thevenon, Florian; Williamson, David; Bard, Edouard; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Beaufort, Luc; Cachier, Helene.
This paper addresses the quantification of combustion-derived products in oceanic and continental sediments by optical and chemical approaches, and the interest of combining such methods for reconstructing past biomass burning activity and the pyrogenic carbon cycle. In such context, the dark particles >0.2 mu m(2) remaining after the partial digestion of organic matter are optically counted by automated image analysis and defined as charcoal, while the elemental carbon remaining after thermal and chemical oxidative treatments is quantified as black carbon (BC). The obtained pyrogenic carbon records from three sediment core-based case studies, (i) the Late Pleistocene equatorial Pacific Ocean. (ii) the mid-Holocene European Lake Lucerne, and (iii) the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Biomass burning; Carbon cycle; Charcoal; Black carbon; Climate; Human impact.
Ano: 2010 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00231/34198/32764.pdf
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Compuestos del ciclo del carbono en la zona litoral del municipio Playa, Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba. OceanDocs
Montalvo, J. F.; García, I.; Esponda, S.C.,; Cesar, M.E.; Alburquerque, O..
Se realizaron cinco muestreos entre enero de 2007 y junio de 2008 a la zona costera del municipio Playa, con el fin de evaluar los contenidos de los compuestos del ciclo del carbono. Los parámetros estudiados en la matriz agua fueron carbón orgánico, pH, alcalinidad total, alcalinidad al carbonato, dióxido de carbono total, dióxido de carbono libre, presión parcial de CO2, y contenidos de bicarbonato y carbonato. Los compuestos de carbono orgánico e inorgánico tuvieron una distribución muy heterogénea, los valores de pH (8,24±0,22) y alcalinidad total (2523±119 μmol/kg) indican que el área tiene un comportamiento alcalino, estos montos fueron similares a los encontrados en aguas de la plataforma marina cubanos y superiores a los consignados para el...
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Carbon dioxide; Alkalinity; Carbon cycle; Carbon dioxide; Alkalinity; Carbon cycle; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_1302; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_8721; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_17299.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/3390
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Confronting model predictions of carbon fluxes with measurements of Amazon forests subjected to experimental drought. Repositório Alice
POWELL, T. I.; GALBRAITH, D. R.; CHRISTOFFERSEN, B. O.; HARPER, A.; IMBUZEIRO, H. M. A.; ROWLAND, L.; ALMEIDA, S.; BRANDO, P. M.; COSTA, A. C. L. da; COSTA, M. H.; LEVINE, N. M.; MALHI, Y.; SALESKA, S. R.; SOTTA, E.; WILLIAMS, M.; MEIR, P.; MOORCROFT, P. R..
Considerable uncertainty surrounds the fate of Amazon rainforests in response to climate change. Here, carbon (C) flux predictions of five terrestrial biosphere models (Community Land Model version 3.5 (CLM3.5), Ecosystem Demography model version 2.1 (ED2), Integrated BIosphere Simulator version 2.6.4 (IBIS), Joint UK Land Environment Simulator version 2.1 (JULES) and Simple Biosphere model version 3 (SiB3)) and a hydrodynamic terrestrial ecosystem model (the Soil?Plant?Atmosphere (SPA) model) were evaluated against measurements from two large-scale Amazon drought experiments. Model predictions agreed with the observed C fluxes in the control plots of both experiments, but poorly replicated the responses to the drought treatments. Most notably, with the...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Tropical rainforest; Ciclo do cabono; Carbon cycle; Modelo de biosfera terrestre; Terrestrial biosphere model; Floresta tropical.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/965567
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Decadal evolution of carbon sink within a strong bloom area in the subantarctic zone ArchiMer
Lourantou, Anna; Metzl, Nicolas.
The fate of the Southern Ocean atmospheric CO(2) sink is under question. Here we assess seasonal to decadal changes of surface fCO(2) within an extended sink area along the track between Kerguelen and Amsterdam islands in the subantarctic zone. Data from 17 oceanographic cruises were used, from 1991 to 2011 and two distinct regions were examined, separated by the Subantarctic Front (SAF). The region south of the SAF displays a strong summer phytoplankton bloom of up to -28 mmol C m(-2) d(-1) within a calm area, constrained by physics and topography. On an annual basis, this region is a 6-fold more important sink than that deduced from Takahashi climatology, highlighting the importance of key-areas separate examination before proceeding to spatial...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Kerguelen; Air-sea CO2 fluxes; Carbon cycle; Frontal region; Island mass effect; Subantarctic zone.
Ano: 2011 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00144/25557/23706.pdf
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Estimates of carbon flow through bacteriplankton in the S. Benguela upwelling region based on 3H-thymidine incorporation and predator-free incubations. ArchiMer
Lucas, M; Painting, S; Muir, D.
Spatial and temporal estimates of bacterial numbers, biomass, activity and production were measured in the S. Benguela upwelling system during the course of a phytoplankton bloom. Bacterial numbers and biomass were highest in the euphotic zone and correlated closely with particulate carbon in the water column rather than with chlorophyll a concentrations. 3H-Thymidine incorporation gave good estimates of production. Differential utilisation of photosynthetic exudates and detrital POC by bacterioplankton during the course of a bloom might account for the varying significance ascribed to exudates and POC as a source of carbon for bacterial production.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ecological associations; Algal blooms; Biomass; Microorganisms; Carbon cycle; Bacteria; Nannoplankton; Upwelling; Biogeochemistry.
Ano: 1984 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1984/acte-985.pdf
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Estimating of gross primary production in an Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest using MODIS and Landsat imagery Anais da ABC (AABC)
DANELICHEN,VICTOR H.M.; BIUDES,MARCELO S.; VELASQUE,MAÍSA C.S.; MACHADO,NADJA G.; GOMES,RAPHAEL S.R.; VOURLITIS,GEORGE L.; NOGUEIRA,JOSÉ S..
The acceleration of the anthropogenic activity has increased the atmospheric carbon concentration, which causes changes in regional climate. The Gross Primary Production (GPP) is an important variable in the global carbon cycle studies, since it defines the atmospheric carbon extraction rate from terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to estimate the GPP of the Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) using local meteorological data and remote sensing data from MODIS and Landsat 5 TM reflectance from 2005 to 2008. The GPP was estimated using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) calculated by MODIS and Landsat 5 TM images. The GPP estimates were compared...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Amazon Basin; Cerrado; Carbon cycle; Climate change; Deforestation; Ecosystem function.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652015000401545
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Evaluation of the heterotrophic activity in waters by microanalytical methods. ArchiMer
Bertoni, R.
The radiochemical methods proposed for evaluating heterotrophic activity in waters have been severely criticized in recent years because they are not considered to be sufficiently realistic. Thus, the possibility of directly measuring the heterotrophic consumption of naturally occurring Organic Carbon (OC) in fresh water samples incubated under controlled conditions has been evaluated. The analytical performances of two OC analyzers utilizable for this purpose are discussed here, and some examples of the results obtained by the direct measurement of OC consumption are presented. The consumption rates thus measured ranged from 11.6 to 50.2 mu gC/ 1.h. Although the technique discussed here is less sensitive than radiochemical methods, the few assumptions...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Biogeochemistry; Microbiology; Carbon cycle; Organic carbon; Water; Heterotrophic organisms; Analytical techniques.
Ano: 1984 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1984/acte-950.pdf
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External Forcing Explains Recent Decadal Variability of the Ocean Carbon Sink ArchiMer
Mckinley, Galen A.; Fay, Amanda R.; Eddebbar, Yassir A.; Gloege, Lucas; Lovenduski, Nicole S..
The ocean has absorbed the equivalent of 39% of industrial‐age fossil carbon emissions, significantly modulating the growth rate of atmospheric CO2 and its associated impacts on climate. Despite the importance of the ocean carbon sink to climate, our understanding of the causes of its interannual‐to‐decadal variability remains limited. This hinders our ability to attribute its past behavior and project its future. A key period of interest is the 1990s, when the ocean carbon sink did not grow as expected. Previous explanations of this behavior have focused on variability internal to the ocean or associated with coupled atmosphere/ocean modes. Here, we use an idealized upper ocean box model to illustrate that two external forcings are sufficient to explain...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Carbon cycle; Ocean carbon sink; Forced; Internal.
Ano: 2020 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00676/78775/80950.pdf
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Freshwater and its role in the Arctic Marine System: sources, disposition, storage, export, and physical and biogeochemical consequences in the Arctic and global oceans ArchiMer
Carmack, E. C.; Yamamoto-kawai, M.; Haine, T. W. N.; Bacon, S.; Bluhm, B. A.; Lique, Camille; Melling, H.; Polyakov, I. V.; Straneo, F.; Timmermans, M. -l.; Williams, W. J..
The Arctic Ocean is a fundamental node in the global hydrological cycle and the ocean's thermohaline circulation. We here assess the system's key functions and processes: 1) the delivery of fresh and low salinity waters to the Arctic Ocean by river inflow, net precipitation, distillation during the freeze/thaw cycle and Pacific Ocean inflows; 2) the disposition (e.g. sources, pathways and storage) of freshwater components within the Arctic Ocean; and 3) the release and export of freshwater components into the bordering convective domains of the North Atlantic. We then examine physical, chemical or biological processes which are influenced or constrained by the local quantities and geochemical qualities of fresh water; these include: stratification and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Arctic; Oceans; Circulation; Freshwater; Carbon cycle; Acidification.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00313/42460/41831.pdf
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Impact of Nonzero Intercept Gas Transfer Velocity Parameterizations on Global and Regional Ocean-Atmosphere CO2 Fluxes ArchiMer
Ribas-ribas, Mariana; Battaglia, Gianna; Humphreys, Matthew P.; Wurl, Oliver.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere (FCO2) are commonly computed from differences between their partial pressures of CO2 (pCO(2)) and the gas transfer velocity (k). Commonly used wind-based parameterizations for k imply a zero intercept, although in situ field data below 4 m s(-1) are scarce. Considering a global average wind speed over the ocean of 6.6 m s(-1), a nonzero intercept might have a significant impact on global FCO2. Here, we present a database of 245 in situ measurements of k obtained with the floating chamber technique (Sniffle), 190 of which have wind speeds lower than 4 m s(-1). A quadratic parameterization with wind speed and a nonzero intercept resulted in the best fit for k. We further tested FCO2 calculated with...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Gas transfer velocity; Low wind speed; Carbon dioxide; Ocean-atmosphere CO2 flux; Carbon cycle.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00675/78732/80994.pdf
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Long-term integrated biogeochemical budget driven by circulation in the eastern subpolar North Atlantic ArchiMer
Fontela, Marcos; Mercier, Herle; Pérez, Fiz F.
The eastern subpolar North Atlantic (eSPNA) is a key region in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), playing an important role in biogeochemical cycles and climate regulation. Quantitative basin-scale biogeochemical budgets are still scarce despite the current need of establishing baselines of knowledge in a changing ocean. The physico-chemical data from the eight repetitions of the OVIDE section (2002-2016) are an unique opportunity to develop a novel evaluation of biogeochemical budgets in the eSPNA by combining robust and well established decadal mean mass transports with carbon variables, oxygen and inorganic nutrients in a full-depth inverse box model. The net balance between the carbon fixation and the respiration throughout the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Subpolar North Atlantic; Biogeochemical cycles; Carbon cycle; Nutrient cycles; Oxygenation; Carbon sinks; Oceanic transports.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00480/59206/61898.pdf
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Metabolism of CO and CH sub(4) by nitrifiers and the determination of the nitrification rate. ArchiMer
Morita, R; Jones, R.
The nitrifying bacteria were found to survive 24 weeks in the absence of ammonium without decreasing their number of cell size. Because H sub(2), CO, and CH sub(4) are present in the marine environment, these substrates were investigated as a possible source of the energy of maintenance for the nitrifying bacteria. super(14)CO and super(14)CH sub(4) were found to be oxidized by the nitrifiers. N-serve was found to inhibit the oxidation of CO. Using the nitrifiers' ability to oxide CO, a method for the determination of the nitrification rate was developed. The ability of nitrifiers to oxidize CO may play a significant role in the cycling of CO sub(2) in the marine environment. Whether CO and CH sub(4) oxidation play a role in the survival of nitrifiers in...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Methane; Carbon dioxide; Survival; Bacteria; Nitrification; Nitrogen cycle; Oxidation; Carbon cycle; Biogeochemistry; Metabolism.
Ano: 1984 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1984/acte-975.pdf
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