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Registros recuperados: 13
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A Histological Assessment of the Cell Death Induced by Haloperidol on Prefrontal Cortex International Journal of Morphology
Ghanbari,Ali; Kakebaraei,Seyran; Khazaei,Mozafar.
Neuroleptic drugs such as haloperidol has side effects on extrapyramidal pathways. Tardive Dyskinesia is the most important complication. The most characteristic feature of this Tardive Dyskinesia is involuntary movements of mouth and face. In regard to this problem, the induction of gliosis and cell death in the nervous tissue are considered. In this study, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used as experimental models. Rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats were kept in the animal house under standard conditions during experiments. The control rats were intraperitoneally treated with normal saline for 6 days. The experimental samples were treated for the same time with 2, 5 and 10 mg haloperidol. After the trial period, the rats...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Haloperidol; Cerebral cortex; Optical microscopy; Cell death; Rat.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022013000400046
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Alterations of the Giant Pyramidal Neurons (Betz Cells) in Brain Cortex of Rat Offspring Born from Gestational Diabetic Dams: A Morphometric Study International Journal of Morphology
Ghafari,Soraya; Golalipour,Elnaz; Golalipour,Mohammad Jafar.
A few studies reported the adverse effects of gestational diabetes on hippocampus and spinal cord of rat offspring. Giant pyramidal neurons are giant pyramidal neurons located in fifth layers of the gray matter in the primary motor cortex. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of gestational diabetes on the giant pyramidal neurons and the thickness of internal pyramidal layer in the brain cortex of rat offspring. On day 1 of gestation, 10 Wistar rat dams were randomly allocated into two control and diabetic groups. Five animals in diabetic group received 40 mg/kg/BW of Streptozotocin (intraperitoneally) and control animals received normal saline. We randomly selected six offspring of every subject in both groups at day 28, 56 and 84....
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Gestational diabetes; Neuron; Giant pyramidal neurons; Cerebral cortex; Rat offspring.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022015000300049
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Differential Effect of the Route of Inoculation of Rabies Virus on NeuN Immunoreactivity in the Cerebral Cortex of Mice International Journal of Morphology
Rengifo,Aura Caterine; Umbarila,Vanessa Jazmin; Garzón,Mary Janeth; Torres-Fernández,Orlando.
Rabies is a lethal disease caused by a neurotropic virus that produces inconspicuous morphological changes hardly observable with conventional histopathology. The fatal outcome caused by rabies could be attributed to specific biochemical changes that severely impact neuronal function. The neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN) has become a widely used neuronal marker for the research and the histopathological diagnosis of nervous system diseases. To evaluate the distribution of the protein NeuN in the motor cortex of normal and rabies-infected mice adult ICR mice were inoculated with rabies virus either intramuscularly or intracerebrally. Rabies-infected mice were sacrificed at the terminal stage of the disease. Control mice were also euthanized at the same age....
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Rabies; NeuN; Cerebral cortex; Mouse; Immunohistochemistry; Neurons.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022016000400031
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Effect of acute and repeated restraint stress on glucose oxidation to CO2 in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices BJMBR
Torres,I.L.S.; Gamaro,G.D.; Silveira-Cucco,S.N.; Michalowski,M.B.; Corrêa,J.B.; Perry,M.L.S; Dalmaz,C..
It has been suggested that glucocorticoids released during stress might impair neuronal function by decreasing glucose uptake by hippocampal neurons. Previous work has demonstrated that glucose uptake is reduced in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices 24 h after exposure to acute stress, while no effect was observed after repeated stress. Here, we report the effect of acute and repeated restraint stress on glucose oxidation to CO2 in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices and on plasma glucose and corticosterone levels. Male adult Wistar rats were exposed to restraint 1 h/day for 50 days in the chronic model. In the acute model there was a single exposure. Immediately or 24 h after stress, the animals were sacrificed and the hippocampus and cerebral...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Restraint stress; Chronic stress; CO2 production; Glucose oxidation; Hippocampus; Cerebral cortex.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2001000100013
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ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT DURING EARLY POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT DECREASES PARVALBUMIN EXPRESSION IN THE RAT SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX International Journal of Morphology
Inzunza,Oscar; Bravo,Hermes; Fernández,Víctor.
In the rat brain, parvalbumin (PV) expression starts on postnatal day 8 and comprises a heterogeneous population of nonpyramidal GABAergic neurons. In the present work, an immunohistochemical study was done on control and experimental rats submitted to enriched environmental conditions between postnatal days 3 to 18 or 3 to 24. Counts of PV+ neurons were made in the dorsomedial and in the ventrolateral regions of the somatosensory cortex. In control animals, PV+ neurons reached a peak on day 24 declining towards day 120. In these rats a peculiar distribution pattern was detected in which immunoreactive neurons are more numerous in the dorsomedial than ventrolateral regions as well in infragranular than supragranular layers and in posterior regions than...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Neuropeptide PV; Cerebral cortex; Polysensorial stimulation; Rodents; Immunohistochemistry.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022003000300001
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Expression of Vimentin and GFAP Protein of Cerebral Cortex and Its Impact on Corticogenesis Disorder as a Result of 2-Methoxyethanol International Journal of Morphology
Irnidayanti,Yulia; Darmanto,Win.
One of the plastic base material, widely used in the plastics industry in various countries, is a ester phthalate. These compounds will be oxidizedin the body to 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME). Effect of 2-ME on human health and the environment depends on the number, duration and frequency of exposure. 2-ME and its metabolites in the body can damage cells and tissues. The body can be exposed by 2-ME through the air, water and soil. Western blot results showed that the protein Vimentin was detectable in the control group at GD-11 to 17, meanwhile GFAP protein was detachable in the control group atGD- 12 to GD-18. After administration 2-ME, the expression of Vimentinprotein were changed, and started at GD- 12 up to GD-18. whereas the expression of GFAP protein...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: 2-methoxyethanol; Vimentin; GFAP; Cerebral cortex; Brain.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022013000300003
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Gongronema latifolium Modulates Rauwolfia vomitoria-Induced Behaviour and Histomorphology of the Cerebral Cortex International Journal of Morphology
Ekong,Moses B; Peter,Aniekan I; Ekpene,Ubong U; Bassey,Enobong I; Eluwa,Mokutima A; Akpanabiatu,Monday I; Ekanem,Theresa B.
Rauwolfia vomitoria (RV) has potent sedative effect, which may result in severe unpleasant consequences if not controlled. This necessitated this study on the effect of Gongronema latifolium (GL) on RV-induced behaviour, biochemical activities, and histomorphology of the cerebral cortex. Eighteen male Wistar rats of average weight 266 g were grouped into three (1­3). Group 1 was the control administered 0.5 mL of Tween®20, while groups 2 and 3 were administered 150 mg/kg of RV, and a combination of 150 mg/kg of RV and 200 mg/kg of GL (RV+GL), respectively for seven days. Twelve hours after treatments, open field neurobehavioral test was carried-out and the animals euthanized. Their sera were analyzed, and their cerebral cortices routinely processed by...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Rauwolfia vomitoria; Gongronema latifolium; Behavior; Enzymes; Lipid; Cerebral cortex; Histomorphology.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022015000100013
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Immunohistochemical investigation of neuronal injury in cerebral cortex of cobra-envenomed rats J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.
Rahmy,T.R.; Hassona,I.A..
The immunohistochemical expression of neuron-specific enolase, NSE (a cytoplasmic glycolytic enzyme of the neurons), synaptophysin, SYN (a major membrane glycoprotein of synaptic vesicles), and Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic protein) were determined in cerebral cortex of rats envenomed with neurotoxic venom from Egyptian cobra. Male rats were intramuscularly (IM) injected with a single injection of either physiological saline solution or ½ LD50 or LD50 of cobra venom and sacrificed 24, 48, or 72 hr after envenoming. Formalin-fixed paraffin sections were immunohistochemically studied by avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Neuron histological structure and isolation of genomic DNA were also detected. The results showed a dose and time-dependent increase in NSE...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Immunohistochemistry; Neuron specific enolase; Synaptophysin; Bcl-2; Cerebral cortex; Cobra snake venom.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992004000100005
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Immunohistochemical Overexpression of MAP-2 in the Cerebral Cortex of Rabies-Infected Mice International Journal of Morphology
Hurtado,Andrea P; Rengifo,Aura Caterine; Torres-Fernández,Orlando.
The microtubule-associated protein MAP-2 is an integral part of the cytoskeleton and plays an important role in neural morphogenesis. This protein is an essential component of the dendritic cytoskeleton, especially in the adult brain, and its expression can be altered under experimental or pathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of infection with the rabies virus on MAP-2 immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex of mice. The mice were inoculated with the rabies virus and the animals were sacrificed when the disease reached its advanced stage, together with uninfected animals of the same age. The brains were extracted after being previously perfusion-fixed with paraformaldehyde; coronal sections were obtained with a...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: MAP-2; Cerebral cortex; Pyramidal neurons; Rabies virus; Immunohistochemistry.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022015000200010
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In vivo photorelease of GABA in the mouse cortex BJMBR
Lopes-dos-Santos,V.; Campi,J.; Filevich,O.; Ribeiro,S.; Etchenique,R..
Electrical stimulation has been used for more than 100 years in neuroscientific and biomedical research as a powerful tool for controlled perturbations of neural activity. Despite quickly driving neuronal activity, this technique presents some important limitations, such as the impossibility to activate or deactivate specific neuronal populations within a single stimulation site. This problem can be avoided by pharmacological methods based on the administration of receptor ligands able to cause specific changes in neuronal activity. However, intracerebral injections of neuroactive molecules inherently confound the dynamics of drug diffusion with receptor activation. Caged compounds have been proposed to circumvent this problem, for spatially and temporally...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Caged compounds; Neural stimulation; GABA; Cerebral cortex; Photorelease.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000700012
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Inhibition of in vitro CO2 production and lipid synthesis by 2-hydroxybutyric acid in rat brain BJMBR
Silva,A.R.; Ruschel,C.; Helegda,C.; Wyse,A.T.S.; Wannmacher,C.M.D.; Wajner,M.; Dutra-Filho,C.S..
2-Hydroxybutyric acid appears at high concentrations in situations related to deficient energy metabolism (e.g., birth asphyxia) and also in inherited metabolic diseases affecting the central nervous system during neonatal development, such as "cerebral" lactic acidosis, glutaric aciduria type II, dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3) deficiency, and propionic acidemia. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of 2-hydroxybutyric acid at various concentrations (1-10 mM) on CO2 production and lipid synthesis from labeled substrates in cerebral cortex of 30-day-old Wistar rats in vitro. CO2 production was significantly inhibited (30-70%) by 2-hydroxybutyric acid in cerebral cortex prisms, in total homogenates and in the mitochondrial fraction. We...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Lipid synthesis; Energy metabolism; Cerebral cortex; 2-hydroxybutyric acid.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2001000500010
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Response of the brain to enrichment Anais da ABC (AABC)
DIAMOND,MARIAN C..
Before 1960, the brain was considered by scientists to be immutable, subject only to genetic control. In the early sixties, however, investigators were seriously speculating that environmental influences might be capable of altering brain structure. By 1964, two research laboratories proved that the morphology and chemistry or physiology of the brain could be experientially altered (Bennett et al. 1964, Hubel and Wiesel 1965). Since then, the capacity of the brain to respond to environmental input, specifically "enrichment,'' has become an accepted fact among neuroscientists, educators and others. In fact, the demonstration that environmental enrichment can modify structural components of the rat brain at any age altered prevailing presumptions about the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Enrichment; Cerebral cortex; Hippocampus; Aging; Adult neurogenesis; Dendrites.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652001000200006
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The evolution of the brain in Canidae (Mammalia: Carnivora) Naturalis
Lyras, G.A..
Canid brain evolution followed three independent, yet convergent paths. Each of the three canid subfamilies (Hesperocyoninae, Borophaginae and Caninae) started with a simple brain, which gradually became more complicated as the cerebral cortex became larger and more fissured, the cerebellar hemispheres became larger and the vermis more twisted. The extent to which these evolutionary changes took place differs between the three canid subfamilies. Caninae, the living group, has the most advanced external brain anatomy. This is related to the general tendency of the carnivore brain to become more convoluted through geological time. A parallel development of similar sulcal patt erns took place in independent lineages within the Canidae. As a result, some...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Palaeoneurology; Cerebral cortex; Cortical folding; Craniodental adaptations; 38.22; 42.84.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/313865
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