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Central actions of somatostatin in the generation and control of breathing Biol. Res.
Llona,Isabel; Eugenín,Jaime.
The neuropeptide somatostatin is involved in many functions in the central nervous system as well as in the periphery. When it is centrally injected, an irreversible apnea is often developed. In the present review, we discuss the effects of somatostatin as the result of its actions at three levels of the respiratory neural network: a) by modulating the output of cranial or spinal motoneurons; b) by altering the genesis of the respiratory rhythm in the brainstem; and c) by regulating the chemosensory drive input into the respiratory pattern generator
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Apnea; Brainstem; Chemoreceptors; Respiratory rhythm.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602005000400006
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Chemoreceptors and cardiovascular control in acute and chronic systemic hypoxia BJMBR
Marshall,J.M..
This review describes the ways in which the primary bradycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction evoked by selective stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors can be modified by the secondary effects of a chemoreceptor-induced increase in ventilation. The evidence that strong stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors can evoke the behavioural and cardiovascular components of the alerting or defence response which is characteristically evoked by novel or noxious stimuli is considered. The functional significance of all these influences in systemic hypoxia is then discussed with emphasis on the fact that these reflex changes can be overcome by the local effects of hypoxia: central neural hypoxia depresses ventilation, hypoxia acting on the heart causes...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Hypoxia; Adenosine; Chemoreceptors; Vasodilatation; Noradrenaline.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X1998000700002
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Control of respiration in fish, amphibians and reptiles BJMBR
Taylor,E.W.; Leite,C.A.C.; McKenzie,D.J.; Wang,T..
Fish and amphibians utilise a suction/force pump to ventilate gills or lungs, with the respiratory muscles innervated by cranial nerves, while reptiles have a thoracic, aspiratory pump innervated by spinal nerves. However, fish can recruit a hypobranchial pump for active jaw occlusion during hypoxia, using feeding muscles innervated by anterior spinal nerves. This same pump is used to ventilate the air-breathing organ in air-breathing fishes. Some reptiles retain a buccal force pump for use during hypoxia or exercise. All vertebrates have respiratory rhythm generators (RRG) located in the brainstem. In cyclostomes and possibly jawed fishes, this may comprise elements of the trigeminal nucleus, though in the latter group RRG neurons have been located in the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Vertebrates; Control of respiration; Respiratory rhythm generation; Water and air breathing; Chemoreceptors; Mechanoreceptors.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2010000500001
Registros recuperados: 3
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