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Registros recuperados: 14
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ANIMAL HEALTH AND THE ROLE OF COMMUNITIES: AN EXAMPLE OF TRYPANASOMOSIS CONTROL OPTIONS IN UGANDA AgEcon
McCarthy, Nancy; McDermott, John; Coleman, Paul.
In many African countries, governments are re-thinking the role of the state in centrally providing certain goods and services. The rights and responsibilities for providing various public goods are being decentralized to lower levels of government administration, and/or being devolved directly to local citizens or user groups themselves. It is thus critical to ask: under what circumstances will local groups provide the socially optimal level of the public good? In this paper, we apply this question to the case of controlling an important vector-borne livestock disease in Uganda, trypanosomosis, which is transmitted by the tsetse fly. We investigate the underlying epidemiology of transmission and different options for control, and the implications for...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Public Goods; Collective Action; Vector-Borne Disease; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16114
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Beyond group ranch subdivision: collective action for livestock mobility, ecological viability, and livelihoods AgEcon
BurnSilver, Shauna; Mwangi, Esther.
This paper leverages datasets and results from two separate studies carried out across eight Kajiado group ranches and offers a unique opportunity to look at emergent pre- and post-subdivision trends from an interdisciplinary framework that combines ecological, political, and human-ecological research perspectives. It provides insights into the following issues: the loss of flexibility and mobility for Maasai herders’ dues to subdivision, the nature of collective activities that individuals pursue after subdivision, and the emergence of pasture sharing arrangements. NDVI profiles show that forage options for individual herders decrease dramatically under privatization, but rebound somewhat when parcels are shared between households located adjacent to each...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Kajiado; Mobility; Flexibility; Pastoralism; Collective Action; Subdivision; Group Ranches; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47825
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Bridging, Linking, and Bonding Social Capital in Collective Action: The Case of Kalahan Forest Reserve in the Philippines AgEcon
Dahal, Ganga Ram; Adhikari, Krishna Prasad.
This paper seeks to identify the factors which are responsible for successful management of natural resources when communities are given opportunities to manage those resources. Applying the social capital framework, it analyzes empirical data from the well known case of Kalahan Educational Foundation, the Philippines. The study confirms previous findings, which have emphasized the high level of cohesion and traditional norms among a homogeneous community of indigenous peoples (bonding social capital) as a success factor. This study further identifies that for effective management of collective action, mobilization of bridging and linking social capital are equally important as they do not only help mobilize external resources but, at times, also promote...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Kalahan PO; Philippines; Bonding; Bridging; Linking Social Capital; Governance; Collective Action; Labor and Human Capital; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44352
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Collective Action for Watershed Management: Field Experiments in Colombia and Kenya AgEcon
Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Rodriguez, Luz Angela; Johnson, Nancy L..
The dilemma of collective action around water use and management involves solving both the problems of provision and appropriation. Cooperation in the provision can be affected by the rival nature of the appropriation and the asymmetries in the access. We report two field experiments conducted in Colombia and Kenya. The Irrigation Game was used to explore the provision and appropriation decisions under asymmetric or sequential appropriation, complemented with a Voluntary Contribution Mechanism experiment which looks at provision decisions under symmetric appropriation. The overall results were consistent with the patterns of previous studies: the zero contribution hypotheses is rejected whereas the most effective institution to increase cooperation was...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Collective Action; Watersheds; Field Experiments; Colombia; Kenya; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Q0; Q2; C9; H3; H4.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91169
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Collective Action Initiatives to Improve Marketing Performance: Lessons from Farmer Groups in Tanzania AgEcon
Barham, James; Chitemi, Clarence.
The primary inquiry of this study is to identify and understand the underlying factors that enable smallholder farmer groups to improve their market situation. The specific objective of this paper is to examine to what extent certain group characteristics and asset endowments facilitate collective action initiatives to improve group marketing performance. This objective is approached through an evaluation of a government-led program in Tanzania, which is attempting to increase smallholder farmers’ incomes and food security through a market-oriented intervention. Findings suggest that more mature groups with strong internal institutions, functioning group activities, and a good asset base of natural capital are more likely to improve their market situation....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Collective Action; Agricultural Marketing; Farmer Groups; Social Capital; Planned Change Initiatives; Tanzania; Marketing.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44347
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Collective Voluntary Approaches to Food Safety with Heterogeneous Firms: Monitoring and Design? AgEcon
Bignebat, Celine; Rouviere, Elodie.
Collective quality management systems are well known instruments to manage the quality and/or the safety of foodstuffs. They can be considered as voluntary approaches to food safety. In environmental economics some empirical studies emphasize that firms entering into a collective voluntary program behave differently because their motivations differ. To the best of our knowledge, there is no formal discussion on the effectiveness of a collective voluntary program in which firms adopt different behaviour once they entered the program. Starting from this two strand of literature, we extend the analytical framework of collective voluntary approaches considering heterogeneous firms and applying it to food safety issues. We show that according to firm’s...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Voluntary Approaches; Food Safety; Collective Action; Heterogeneity; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Q18; L51; L81.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9441
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Demand Enhancement through Food-Safety Regulation: Benefit-Cost Analysis of Collective Action in the California Pistachio Industry AgEcon
Alston, Julian M.; Brunke, Henrich; Gray, Richard S.; Sumner, Daniel A..
Food safety shocks can threaten the health of consumers, create havoc within an industry and result in severe losses to producers. Governments often attempt to enhance food safety by mandating standards and inspection of food products to supplement the voluntary efforts by private firms. This paper assesses a form of collective action that falls between typical government mandates and purely private action. The California pistachio industry recently established a U.S. federal marketing order. This order sets quality standards and requires inspection and certification, aiming to reduce the likelihood of dangerous or poor quality pistachios being sold to consumers and to provide some quality assurance to consumers. Simulation results indicate that, across...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Safety; Collective Action; Specialty Crops; Government Regulation; Marketing Orders; Pistachios; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Q18; Q13; I18; H4.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25461
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Determinants of Household Contributions to Collective Irrigation Management: A Case of the Doho Rice Scheme in Uganda AgEcon
Nakano, Yuko; Otsuka, Keijiro.
In order to explore the conditions of successful irrigation management, this study investigates the determinants of household contributions to the cleaning of irrigation channels and the availability of water. By using primary data collected in an irrigation scheme in Uganda, we find that household contributions to the cleaning of irrigation channels are determined by the scarcity of irrigation water, opportunity cost of labor, and private benefit associated with plot size. We also find that the availability of irrigation water increases in the tertiary irrigation area where the coefficient of variation of plot size is large.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Irrigation Management; Collective Action; Sub-Saharan Africa; Crop Production/Industries; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O12; O13; Q16; Q18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95919
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Examining Collective Action among Mieso Agropastoralists of Eastern Ethiopia AgEcon
Beyene, Fekadu; Hagedorn, Konrad.
An increasing scarcity of water for crop farming and livestock watering among agropastoralists of Mieso in Eastern Ethiopia has largely disrupted their livelihoods. Indigenous water well maintenance and government initiated rainwater harvesting are two important collective actions common among these communities. With the aim of examining collective action institutions in both cases, we collected data from different stakeholders and individual members. Theoretically, low level of physical assets (action resource) limits participation of an individual in collective action. In our case, other factors such as environmental uncertainty and lower level of dependence on the resource have been found to be more significant in limiting membership than limitation of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Collective Action; Agropastoralists; Institutions; Poverty; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; D71; Z13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25797
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Heterogeneity of Members’ Characteristics and Cooperation within Producer Groups Regulating Geographical Indications: The Case of the “Prosciutto di Parma” Consortium AgEcon
Dentoni, Domenico; Menozzi, Davide; Capelli, Maria Giacinta.
Several studies have analyzed the conditions under which geographical indications (GIs), such as the European Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs) and Protected Geographical Indications (PGIs), can represent a profitable market opportunity for agri-food producers. The development of a common set of rules by a group of producers and the governance of the collective brand are key issues to jointly exploit market opportunities through GIs. This paper explores whether heterogeneous characteristics, resources and strategies of individual producers within a PDO Consortium influence their level of agreement on the future of the collective regulation and governance of GIs. We conduct an in-depth study on a representative sample of firms member of the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Geographical Indications; Collective Action; Group Heterogeneity; Multi-Variate Statistics.; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95203
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Making Market Information Services Work Better for the Poor in Uganda AgEcon
Ferris, Shaun; Engoru, Patrick; Kaganzi, Elly.
There is growing pressure for farmers in countries such as Uganda to accelerate their efforts to commercialize production in the face of increasing market competition from neighboring countries and across the world. To assist farmers, a new generation of low cost market information services is being developed that takes advantage of information and communication technologies such as FM radios, mobile phones, and internet-based communications systems, to enable farmers to monitor and adjust to dynamic market conditions in local, national, and export markets. Although there is much interest in market information from farmers, other market chain actors, and service providers, there is skepticism from funding agencies to support such services over the long...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Market Information Services; Group Marketing; Collective Action; FM Radio; Mobile Phone; SMS; Income; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44350
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New Forms of Economic Cooperation in Family Agriculture: The Case of Condominios in Santa Catarina, Brazil AgEcon
Moyano-Estrada, Eduardo; Sacco dos Anjos, Flavio.
In this paper, the authors analyze the Condominios as economic associations adapted to the characteristics of family agriculture in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. Firstly, they analyze the process of modernization of Brazilian agriculture that took place in the 1960s and 1970s under the military governments, giving special attention to the selective and exclusive effects this process had on small farmers. Within the framework of this process, they then go on to study the development of cooperativism and demonstrate how the consolidation of macro-cooperative models reflected the interests and characteristics of modernized, export-oriented agriculture. Thirdly, they analyze the origins and development of Condominios as an alternative to the large...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Peasantry; Collective Action; Cooperativism; Brazil; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60904
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One Player Games versus Two Player Games: Comparing Agribusiness Cooperatives with Investor-Owned Business Models AgEcon
Parker, Frederick.
Cooperative business firms are prevalent in agribusiness, yet no concise generalized model exists to demonstrate how and why cooperative firms differ from, and may be selected over, the more common investor owned business firm. It is shown within a generic transaction game that cooperatives fill both producer and consumer roles as an aggregated player that is expected to maximize aggregate producer and consumer payoffs rather than maximizing either payoff separately, which contrasts with investor owned firms as essentially two player games between separate and competing producers and consumers where each player seeks to maximize their separate payoff individually. A cardinally valued game theoretic matrix is used to demonstrate the expected differences...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Cooperatives; Game Theory; Collective Action; Agricultural Economics; Theory of the Firm; Agribusiness; B5; C7; D7; L2; L3; Q1.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100691
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What do people bring into the game : experiments in the field about cooperation in the commons AgEcon
Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Ostrom, Elinor.
The study of collective action requires an understanding of the individual incentives and of the institutional constraints that guide people in making choices about cooperating or defecting on the group facing the dilemma. The use of local ecosystems by groups of individuals is just one example where individual extraction increases well-being, but aggregate extraction decreases it. The use of economic experiments has enhanced the already diverse knowledge from theoretical and field sources of when and how groups can solve the problem through self-governing mechanisms. These studies have identified several factors that promote and limit collective action, associated with the nature of the production system that allows groups to benefit from a joint-access...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Collective Action; Cooperation; Field Experiments; Local Ecosystems; Experimental Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51816
Registros recuperados: 14
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