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A Cost Approach to Economic Analysis under Production Uncertainty AgEcon
Chavas, Jean-Paul.
This paper explores the economics of input decision by a firm facing production uncertainty. It relies on a state-contingent approach to production uncertainty. First, the paper develops a methodology to specify and estimate cost-minimizing input decisions under a state-contingent technology. Second, the analysis is applied to time series data on US agriculture. It finds strong empirical evidence that, in the analysis of input choices, expected output alone does not provide an appropriate representation of production uncertainty. The results provide empirical support for an output-cubical technology. This indicates that an ex post analysis of stochastic technology (as commonly found in previous research) appears appropriate. The analysis also provides...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Production uncertainty; State contingent; Cost; Cubical technology.; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C3; D21; D8.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21081
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A dynamic dual model under state-contingent production uncertainty AgEcon
Serra, Teresa; Stefanou, Spiro E.; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M..
In this paper we assess how production costs and capital accumulation patterns in agriculture have evolved over time, by paying special attention to the influence of risk. A dynamic state-contingent cost minimization approach is applied to assess production decisions in US agriculture over the last century. Results suggest the relevance of allowing for the stochastic nature of the production function which permits to capture both the differences in the costs of producing under different states of nature, the differences in the evolution of these costs over time, as well as the differential impacts of different states of nature on investment decisions.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Risk; State-contingent; Dynamic model; Investment decisions; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management; Land Economics/Use; D21.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61353
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A Long-Term Analysis of Changes in Farm Size and Financial Performance AgEcon
Snider, Lindsey; Langemeier, Michael R..
This paper examined the changing structure of farms in Kansas. Specifically, changes in farm size, farm type, financial performance, and economies of size were examined using five-year moving averages from 1973 to 2007. Convergence analysis was used to determine whether small farms are catching up to larger farms or whether the difference in performance between these two groups of farms was widening. Results suggested that the gaps between the small farms and large farms have widened.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Economies of Size; Financial Performance; Farm Management; Production Economics; D21.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45915
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A Personal Touch: Text Messaging for Loan Repayment AgEcon
Morten, Melanie; Karlan, Dean S.; Zinman, Jonathan.
We worked with two microlenders to test impacts of randomly assigned reminders for loan repayments in the “text messaging capital of the world”. We do not find strong evidence that loss versus gain framing or messaging timing matter. Messages only robustly improve repayment when they include the loan officer’s name. This effect holds for clients serviced by the loan officer previously but not for first-time borrowers. Taken together, the results highlight the potential and limits of communications technology for mitigating moral hazard, and suggest that personal obligation/reciprocity between borrowers and bank employees can be harnessed to help overcome market failures.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Microcredit; Microfinance; Randomized evaluation; Development finance; Consumer/Household Economics; Financial Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; D21; D92; G21; O16; O17.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121867
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A TWO-STEP ESTIMATOR FOR A SPATIAL LAG MODEL OF COUNTS: THEORY, SMALL SAMPLE PERFORMANCE AND AN APPLICATION AgEcon
Lambert, Dayton M.; Brown, Jason P.; Florax, Raymond J.G.M..
Several spatial econometric approaches are available to model spatially correlated disturbances in count models, but there are at present no structurally consistent count models incorporating spatial lag autocorrelation. A two-step, limited information maximum likelihood estimator is proposed to fill this gap. The estimator is developed assuming a Poisson distribution, but can be extended to other count distributions. The small sample properties of the estimator are evaluated with Monte Carlo experiments. Simulation results suggest that the spatial lag count estimator achieves gains in terms of bias over the aspatial version as spatial lag autocorrelation and sample size increase. An empirical example deals with the location choice of single-unit start-up...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Count model; Location choice; Manufacturing; Poisson; Spatial econometrics; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Land Economics/Use; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C21; C25; D21; R12; R30.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59780
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A Watershed-Based Economic Model of Alternative Management Practices in Southern Agricultural Systems AgEcon
Paudel, Krishna P.; Hite, Diane; Intarapapong, Walaiporn; Susanto, Dwi.
We investigated the environmental impacts of alternative cultural practices within a watershed under different water quality standards. We used experimental data on nutrient runoff to determine the optimal amount of broiler litter application in hay production in Louisiana. To compensate for the lack of experimental data, we used biophysical simulation models to find the optimal combination of agricultural best-management practices in a watershed in Mississippi. The results indicated that stricter environmental standards lower total profit potential and litter utilization.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Broiler litter; Cropping systems; Optimization; Watershed level modeling; Water quality; C6; Q1; Q25; D21.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43213
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Accounting for agronomic rotations in crop production: A theoretical investigation and an empirical modeling framework AgEcon
Carpentier, Alain; Gohin, Alexandre; Letort, Elodie.
As far as crop acreage choices are concerned, a consensus seems to exist among agricultural scientists and extension agents: crop rotation effects and the related constraints are major determinants of farmers’ crop choices. Crop rotation effects are inherently dynamic. They are generally ignored in multicrop models with land as an allocable input found in the literature since most of these models are developed within a static framework. The aim of this paper is twofold (i) to propose a new approach and tools for investigating dynamic crop acreage choices accounting for crop rotation benefits and constraints and (ii) to illustrate the impacts of crop rotation effects and constraints on farmers’ acreage choices through simulation examples. The models...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop rotation; Dynamic programming; Acreage choice; Crop Production/Industries; Land Economics/Use; Q12; D21; D24; D92.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103431
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Adoption of Site-Specific Information and Variable-Rate Technologies in Cotton Precision Farming AgEcon
Roberts, Roland K.; English, Burton C.; Larson, James A.; Cochran, Rebecca L.; Goodman, W. Robert; Larkin, Sherry L.; Marra, Michele C.; Martin, Steven W.; Shurley, W. Donald; Reeves, Jeanne M..
Probit analysis identified factors that influence the adoption of precision farming technologies by Southeastern cotton farmers. Younger, more educated farmer who operated larger farms and were optimistic about the future of precision farming were most likely to adopt site-specific information technology. The probability of adopting variable-rate input application technology was higher for younger farmers who operated larger farms, owned more of the land they farmed, were more informed about the costs and benefits of precision farming, and were optimistic about the future of precision farming. Computer use was not important, possibly because custom hiring shifts the burden of computer use to agribusiness firms.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Cotton; Grid soil sampling; Precision farming; Probit; Sample selection; Site-specific information; Technology adoption; Variable-rate application; D21; Q12; Q16.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42943
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Adoption of Technology, Management Practices, and Production Systems by U.S. Beef Cow-Calf Producers AgEcon
Pruitt, J. Ross; Gillespie, Jeffrey M.; Nehring, Richard F.; Qushim, Berdikul.
Using USDA’s Agricultural Resource Management Survey data, factors leading to the adoption of technology, management practices, and production systems by U.S. beef cow-calf producers are analyzed. Binary logit regression models are used to determine impacts of vertical integration; region of the U.S.; farm size, diversification, and tenure; and demographics on adoption decisions. Significant differences were found in adoption rates by region of the U.S., degree of vertical integration, and size of operation, suggesting the presence of economies of size and vertical economies of scope. Results also indicate high degrees of complementarity among technologies, management practices, and production systems.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Cattle; Cow-calf; Management practices; Production systems; Technology adoption; Farm Management; D21; Q12; Q16.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123778
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An analysis of the challenges of the maize seed industry in eastern and southern Africa AgEcon
Langyintuo, Augustine S.; Mwangi, Wilfred; Diallo, Alpha O.; MacRobert, John F.; Dixon, John; Banziger, Marianne.
The liberalization and restructuring of the seed sector in eastern and southern Africa (ESA) during the past two decades have witnessed a proliferation of private seed companies in the maize seed industry (Hassan et al., 2001; Lemonius, 2005). Although the total number of registered maize seed companies increased from 8 and 11, respectively, in 1997 to 40 each, the quantities of seed marketed barely doubled, increasing from 23,000 and 27,000 tons to 53,000 and 51,000 tons, respectively; an indication that the reforms are insufficient in ensuring efficient functioning of the sector in the two regions. A study involving 117 seed providers, representing 92 percent of all registered maize seed companies in ESA in 2007 identified bottlenecks that have...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Keywords: Maize seed industry; Seed policies; Eastern and southern Africa; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Marketing; D21; M31; O32.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51713
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An Economic Model for Bioprospecting Contracts AgEcon
Ding, Helen; Nunes, Paulo A.L.D.; Onofri, Laura.
This paper explores the use of a micro-economic model to analyse the provisions and parties of bioprospecting contracts. It focuses on the pharmaceutical industry as the representative biodiversity buyer, presenting an original theoretical framework that explains the main contract characteristics or stylised facts. Against this background, it considers the main contractors involved in these private contracts, i.e. biodiversity sellers and biodiversity buyers, analysing both the magnitude and distribution of the respective payoffs. Particular attention is devoted to the different, mixed impacts of bioprospecting contracts and patenting on social welfare. The positive welfare impacts delivered by bioprospecting contracts are associated with the potential...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Bioprospecting Contract; Genetic Resource; Biodiversity Buyer; Biodiversity Seller; Patenting; Welfare Analysis; Benefit Sharing; Productivity Analysis; D21; D23; D61; L14; Q57.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7450
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An Evaluation of U.S. Hog Producer Preferences Toward Autonomy AgEcon
Gillespie, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Christopher G.; Rahelizatovo, Noro C..
Hog farmers’ preferences for autonomy are assessed through the use of eight questions dealing with their preferences for general decision making and with respect to specific management actions. Farmers generally preferred to make a higher percentage of the decisions about their operations, especially older producers and those who operated farrowing units. Farmers who placed lower values on autonomy finished hogs, were nearing retirement, valued social relationships with other farmers more highly, had higher off-farm income, or were larger farmers.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Autonomy; Contracting; Pork production; Utility; Q12; L14; D21.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43449
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Analisis de la calidad de la leche en un modelo microeconomico multi-output: el papel de la genetica AgEcon
Alvarez, Antonio; Arias, Carlos; Roibas, David.
Resumen Este trabajo analiza la calidad en la producción de leche y su relación con la genética del rebaño. El marco analítico es un modelo de producción multi-output en el que la calidad de la leche se considera como un output del proceso productivo. El modelo propuesto abre la posibilidad del tratamiento empírico de la calidad y la genética mediante el uso de funciones distancia. En la parte empírica del trabajo se usa un panel de datos de 96 explotaciones lecheras asturianas que contiene índices genéticos del rebaño. Palabras clave: leche, calidad, genética, multi-output, función distancia. Abstract In this paper we analyze the influence of genetics on milk quality. For that purpose, we use a multi-output production model in which milk quality is...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Milk; Quality; Genetics; Multi-output production model; Distance function.; Livestock Production/Industries; D21; Q12; C23.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28791
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Assessing the Technical and Allocative Efficiency of Marketing Decisions by U.S. Organic Producers AgEcon
Lohr, Luanne; Park, Timothy A..
We develop measures of technical and allocative efficiency of producers in marketing certified organic products. A stochastic output distance frontier and the associated revenue share equations are estimated using comprehensive U.S. data on certified organic producers. Farm-level measures of technical efficiency are calculated and factors which enhance performance are identified. Factors that systematically influence allocative efficiency are assessed. The revenue mix of organic producers is systematically inefficient as both male and female producers rely too heavily on revenue from organic markets relative to conventional outlets.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Organic farming; Stochastic frontier; Technical efficiency; Allocative efficiency; Farm Management; Marketing; D21; C31; Q01.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103365
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Assessing the Technical and Allocative Efficiency of U.S. Organic Producers AgEcon
Park, Timothy A.; Lohr, Luanne.
We develop measures of technical and allocative efficiency of producers in marketing certified organic products. A stochastic output distance frontier and the associated revenue share equations are estimated using comprehensive U.S. data on certified organic producers. Farm-level measures of technical efficiency are calculated and factors that enhance performance are identified. Factors that systematically influence allocative efficiency are assessed. The revenue mix of organic producers is systematically inefficient as both male and female producers rely too heavily on revenue from organic markets relative to conventional outlets.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Organic farming; Stochastic frontier; Technical and allocative efficiency; Agribusiness; Farm Management; Marketing; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Public Economics; D21; C31; Q01.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90678
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Comparative Financial Characteristics of U.S. Farms by Type, 2005 AgEcon
Chavez, Eddie C.; Dixon, Bruce L.; Ahendsen, Bruce L.; Wailes, Eric J..
This study presents and analyzes the mean financial characteristics of different types of crop and livestock farms in the U.S. in 2005. The eighteen farm types are: poultry, beef cattle, hogs, dairy, general livestock, general cash grain, wheat, corn, soybean, grain sorghum, rice, tobacco, cotton, peanut, general crop, fruits and tree nuts, vegetables, and nursery and greenhouse. Significant, two-way statistical differences in mean farm income statement and farm balance sheet variables are highlighted. Results provide a general indication of the comparative profitability, liquidity, solvency, and financial efficiency of different types of U. S. crop and livestock farms.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Farm type; ARMS data; Financial characteristics; Financial ratios; 2005; Agricultural Finance; Production Economics; Q12; Q14; D21.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55780
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Cost Analysis of Alternative Harvest and Storage Methods for Switchgrass in the Southeastern U.S. AgEcon
Larson, James A.; Mooney, Daniel F.; English, Burton C.; Tyler, Donald D..
This study evaluated the potential impacts of dry matter losses from alternative harvest and storage methods on the costs of growing switchgrass for energy production. Data from a switchgrass bale harvest and storage experiment at Milan, TN, indicate that storage losses for covered rectangular bales were greater than for covered round bales. In addition, the cost of delivered feedstock increased with longer storage times because of larger dry matter losses. Even though storage losses were higher with uncovered large round bales, production costs were the lowest because costs of storage were minimal compared to other storage methods.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Bioenergy; Dry matter loss; Storage; Production Economics; D20; D21; D81; D86; Q13; Q42; P42.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56518
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Defining and Characterizing Approaches to Farm Management AgEcon
McBride, William D.; Johnson, James D..
Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify approaches to farm management based on a list of management questions posed to a sample of U.S. cash-grain farmers. Three approaches were identified by the factor analysis: price negotiation, long-term cost control, and input adjustment. Estimated factor scores regressed against farm and operator characteristics indicate a profile of producers using each approach that is closely related to stage-of-life of the farm operator and farm business. In addition to operator age and planning horizon, operator risk preference and farm organization and location were other important determinants of the approach to management.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Cash-grain farms; Factor analysis; Farm management; Latent variables; Management approach; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; Labor and Human Capital; Q12; Q10; D21; C40.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43755
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Determinants of the Strength of Strategic Adjustments in Farm Capital Structure AgEcon
Escalante, Cesar L.; Barry, Peter J..
This study employs correlation relationships to measure the strength of trade-offs between business and financial risks as a representative of the strategic capital adjustment process. Under different business risk measures based on varying lengths of historical farm income data, results suggest that farmers tend to adopt a myopic perspective when contemplating risk-balancing plans. Cross-sectional regression results for two-time period models covering the decade of the 1980s and 1990s yielded important implications. The liquidity-constrained environment of the 1980s emphasizes the combination of risk-balancing plans, specialization, and market revenue-enhancing strategies. In the 1990s, risk balancing becomes compatible with risk-reducing crop...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Business risk; Correlation coefficient measure of risk balancing; Expected utility mean variance model; Financial risk; Risk management strategy; Stochastic interest rates; Strategic capital adjustment; D21; D81; G11; Q12; Q14.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37834
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Distributing pollution rights in cap-and-trade programs: are outcomes independent of allocation? AgEcon
Fowlie, Meredith; Perloff, Jeffrey M..
According to the Coase theorem, if property rights to pollute are clearly established and emissions permit markets nearly eliminate transaction costs, the permit market equilibrium will be independent of how the permits are initially distributed among …firms. Testing the independence of …firms' permit allocations and emissions is difficult because of endogeneity and omitted variable bias. We exploit the random assignment of …firms to different permit allocation cycles in Southern California's RECLAIM Program to test for a causal relationship between facility-level emissions and initial permit allocations. Our primary …finding is that a null hypothesis of zero effect cannot be rejected.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Emissions trading; Transaction costs; Environmental Economics and Policy; D21; D23; H11; Q50; Q53; Q58.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47002
Registros recuperados: 76
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