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Registros recuperados: 23
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Agricultural Price Seasonality and Market Failure: Examining the Net Seller Household and the Net Benefit Ratio Definition AgEcon
Vergez, Antonin.
On the basis of a household typology distinguishing between net sellers, net buyers and self sufficient, the Net Benefit Ratio (NBR), defined by Deaton (1989), is used to approximate households' first order welfare variations when price change. In this paper, we discuss both the typology's criteria and the classic formula of NBR, since they are based a) on produced and consumed quantities rather than real marketed volumes and b) on a unique selling and buying price for all surveyed households. We propose another definition of a net seller and a new NBR expression allowing the analyst to take into account market failures (MF) and price seasonality (PS), which are two constancies in developing countries. We use two sets of data (from Mexico and Mali), to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Household welfare; Food crop; Net buyer; Net seller; Net benefit ratio; Price seasonality; Survey; Consumer/Household Economics; Marketing; D12; C14; Q12; D31; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7911
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An ex-ante analysis of distributional effects of the CAP on western German farm incomes AgEcon
Deppermann, Andre; Grethe, Harald; Offermann, Frank.
This study is concerned with measuring impacts of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on farm income distribution of western Germany. Not only the sheer contribution of market price support and direct payments as a proportion of income is taken into account, but also the impact of support on production incentives. For this purpose, we apply a modelling system consisting of a partial equilibrium model and a programming model. Based on a comparison of Gini coefficients and a decomposition of overall inequality effects we conclude that liberalization of the agricultural sector leads to a more unequal distribution of family farm income in relative terms, whereas a liberalized market provides a more equal situation in absolute terms.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Income distribution; CAP; Farm Group Model; Equilibrium Model; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q11; Q12; Q18; C54; C6; D31.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99428
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As aposentadorias e pensões e a concentração dos rendimentos domiciliares per capita no Brasil e na sua área rural: 1981 a 2003. AgEcon
Ferreira, Carlos Roberto; Souza, Solange de Cassia Inforzato de.
This work has as objective to analyze the participation and the contribution of the household income “retirements and pensions” for the inequality of the distribution of the per capita household income in Brazil and Rural Brazil, in the period from 1981 to 2003. For that, it revises the literature about concentration of income and social welfare in the country, and it uses the Gini index components decomposition methodology: revenue of the main work, revenue of other works, retirements and pensions, donations, rent revenues and other revenues (interests, dividends, etc.). It stands out, in the results, the growing participation of the retirements and pensions and in the 1990`s in relation to the previous decade, with larger intensity in rural Brazil,...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Rural Social Welfare; Retirements and pensions; Concentration of income.; Agribusiness; D31; D63..
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61925
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Corruption, Income Inequality, and Poverty in the United States AgEcon
Dincer, Oguzhan C.; Gunalp, Burak.
In this study we analyze the effects of corruption on income inequality and poverty. Our analysis advances the existing literature in four ways. First, instead of using corruption indices assembled by various investment risk services, we use an objective measure of corruption: the number of public officials convicted in a state for crimes related to corruption. Second, we use all commonly used inequality and poverty measures including various Atkinson indexes, Gini index, standard deviation of the logarithms, relative mean deviation, coefficient of variation, and the poverty rate defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. Third, we minimize the problems which are likely to arise due to data incomparability by examining the differences in income inequality, and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corruption; Income Inequality; Poverty; D31; D73; I32.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37848
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¿Crisis real o crisis de expectativas?: el empleo en el Perú antes y después de las reformas estructurales AgEcon
Saavedra Chanduvi, Jaime.
En esta investigación se analizan los mecanismos de ajuste del mercado de trabajo entre 1986 y 1997. Luego de un estancamiento del empleo entre 1988 y 1992, periodo recesivo en el cual el mercado de trabajo se ajustó a través de una reducción en los ingresos reales y una menor tasa de participación laboral, a partir de 1993, el empleo empezó a crecer junto con el nivel de actividad económica. El mercado de trabajo fue capaz de absorber el aumento de la oferta de empleo en ese periodo. El aumento del empleo fue generado íntegramente por el sector privado, ya que el empleo público se redujo. Sin embargo, hay grupos demográficos específicos, como los hombres de mayor edad, para quienes el crecimiento del empleo ha sido muy pequeño, y las probabilidades de...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Empleo; Desempleo; Ingreso; Mercado de trabajo; Sector informal; Ajuste estructural; Employment; Unemployment; Income; Labour market; Informal sector; Structural adjustment; Peru; Labor and Human Capital; E24; D31; J2; J4.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37981
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Democratic Institutions and Environmental Quality: Effects and Transmission Channels AgEcon
Romuald, Kinda Somlanare.
This paper aims at analysing the effect of democratic institutions on environmental quality (carbon dioxide per capita, sulfure dioxide per capita) and at identifying potential channel transmissions. We use panel data from 1960 to 2008 in 122 developing and developed countries and modern econometric methods. The results are as follows: Firstly, we show that democratic institutions have opposite effects on environment quality: a positive direct effect on environment quality and a negative indirect effect through investments and income inequality. Indeed, democratic institutions attract investments that hurt environment quality. Moreover, as democratic institutions reduce income inequality, they also damage environment. Secondly, we find that the direct...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Democratic institutions; Air pollution; Panel data; Income inequality; Investments; Environmental Economics and Policy; O43; Q53; C23; D31; E22.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120396
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Dimensions of Wealth Dispersion Among Farm Operator Households: An Assessment of the Impact of Farm Subsidies AgEcon
El-Osta, Hisham S.; Mishra, Ashok K..
This paper uses microlevel data from the Agricultural Resource Management Survey to examine the changes in the distributions of household wealth and to assess the role farm subsidies play, among other factors, in affecting these distributions. The empirical analysis relies on the concept of the adjusted Gini coefficient and on fixed-effect regression procedures. Coefficients from fixed-effect estimation indicate a negative correlation between government payments and wealth dispersion, with the effect shifting toward more of a positive relation when government payments were allowed to interact with regional dummies.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Adjusted Gini coefficient; Agricultural Resource Management Survey; Fixed-effects regression; Government subsidies; Life cycle; Wealth dispersion; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Livestock Production/Industries; Production Economics; C33; D31; D63; O18; Q15.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43733
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Educação, concentração fundiária e desigualdade de rendimentos no meio rural brasileiro AgEcon
Ney, Marlon Gomes; Hoffmann, Rodolfo.
The paper analyses the effects of rural income determinants, in particular of human capital and physical capital. Besides the earnings equation estimated for persons occupied in agriculture, the paper also analyzes earnings regressions for persons occupied in the industry and service sectors. The results show that physical capital is the main determinant of earnings in Brazilian agriculture, but schooling is the most important determinant of earnings for persons occupied in rural non-farm activities and for all persons living in rural areas.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Income; Human capital; Physical capital; Rural; Brazil.; Agribusiness; Q15; D31.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60818
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Gauging the potential for social unrest AgEcon
Stark, Oded; Hyll, Walter; Behrens, Doris A..
It stands to reason that social unrest does not erupt out of the blue. Although there are a great many reasons why social dismay might descend into social disorder, only few yardsticks or indices can plausibly be used to gauge the potential for social unrest (PSU). If policy makers want to undertake public action to prevent social dismay escalating into social disruption, they obviously need to draw on practical sensors. This paper assesses critically the adequacy of two such measures, the polarization (P) index, and the total relative deprivation (TRD) index. The paper proposes a tentative guide to selecting between these two measures. A review of three stylized scenarios suggests that, where income redistributions reduce the number of distinct income...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Social dismay; The potential for social unrest; Polarization; Total relative deprivation; Policy choice; Public Economics; D31; D63.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53721
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Income distribution, standard of living and capabilities: a cross-sectoral analysis. AgEcon
Croci Angelini, Elisabetta; Sorana, Silvia.
The aim of the paper is to investigate how agricultural relative incomes have changed in recent years, since the CAP has switched its emphasis from price support to rural development. The distributional implications of agricultural and rural policies are indirectly evaluated looking at the dynamics of earnings and wages in agriculture, as well as at the rural household incomes described through monetary and non monetary variables, so to proxy their living standards. Our concern is not particularly on the agricultural policy tools, as much as on the evaluation of their end results. A comparison spanning through time and across countries is performed on the basis of the information provided by the ECHP and EU-SILC surveys. The paper seeks to unravel the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Income distribution; Standard of living Earnings in agriculture.; Agricultural and Food Policy; D31; E24; J31; N50.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99587
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Poverty and Distribution: Twenty Years Ago and Now AgEcon
Kanbur, Ravi.
This paper adopts the “Rip Van Winkle” stratagem, of asking what differences would be noticed, in the domain of poverty and distribution, by someone who fell asleep in 1987 (the year I published my paper on poverty in the IMF Staff Papers, and woke up only in 2007 (the year I visited the IMF to work on the present paper). I highlight, somewhat idiosyncratically, ten such differences under three broad headings: Facts and Empirics, Concepts and Theory, and Policies and Interventions.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Poverty; Income Distribution; Development; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Development; D31; D63; I32; I38; O15.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48918
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Reasons for Remitting AgEcon
Stark, Oded.
This paper presents a set of reflections on what gives rise to remittances, which constitute a major part of the impact of migration on economic development in the migrants’ own countries. The collage of reasons presented serves to illustrate that remittance behavior is the outcome of an intricate interplay between the preferences and interests of migrants and their families.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Reasons for remitting; Consumer/Household Economics; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; D31; F22; F24; J61; O12; O15.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52800
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Returns from Income Strategies in Rural Poland AgEcon
Falkowski, Jan; Jakubowski, Maciej; Strawinski, Pawel.
In order to stabilize and improve their income situation, rural households are strongly encouraged to diversify their activities both in and outside the agricultural sector. Most often, however, this phenomenon takes on only moderate proportions. This paper addresses issues of rural households’ income diversification in the case of Poland. It investigates returns from rural households’ income strategies using propensity score matching methods and extensive datasets spanning 1998-2008. Results suggest that returns from combining farm and off-farm activities were lower than returns from specialization, namely, concentrating on farming or on off-farm activities. Generally, farming seems to be the most attractive option for rural households and income...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Income diversification; Rural areas; Propensity score matching; Poland; Community/Rural/Urban Development; D31; O15; Q12.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114364
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Sensitivity of welfare effects estimated by equilibrium displacement model: a biological productivity growth for semi-subsistence crop in Sub-Sahara African market with high transactions costs AgEcon
Takeshima, Hiroyuki.
This paper discusses the application of the equilibrium displacement model (EDM) to estimate ex-ante the welfare effects of biological productivity growth for semi-subsistence crop and its impact on poverty reduction. The conventionally used EDM is compared with an alternative model (alternative EDM) that reflects arguably more realistic assumptions for African semi-subsistence crops, such as the shape and shift of supply curve, significant margins due to high transportation costs between farmgate and consumption market, as well as between different consumption markets, and the degree of precisions of estimated structural parameters. The application to the dataset for Benin cassava farmers provides an example that the conventional EDM may significantly...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Equilibrium displacement model; Pivotal shift; Cassava; Semi-subsistence; Market margins; Double buffering; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Productivity Analysis; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C65; D13; D31; D60; Q11; Q12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49287
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The 1990s in Latin America: Another Decade of Persistent Inequality, but with Somewhat Lower Poverty AgEcon
Szekely, Miguel.
This paper processes 76 household surveys from 17 Latin American countries to document changes in poverty and inequality during the 1990s, and performs an analysis of the effect of economic reforms on inequality and poverty by using an expanded data base of 94 surveys spanning the 1977-2000 period. We show that there is no country in Latin America where inequality declined during the 1990s. Poverty declined in 10 or 11 out of the 17 countries for which household surveys are available to us, depending on the poverty measured used. Persistently high inequality inhibited further poverty reduction. One important factor contributing to the persistently high inequality level is financial liberalization. Trade liberalization and slight inequality-reducing effect.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Inequality; Poverty; Latin America; Food Security and Poverty; D31; O12; O54.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43997
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The assets of the poor in Peru AgEcon
Escobal D'Angelo, Javier; Saavedra, Jaime; Torero, Maximo.
The document analyzes the possession and access to assets on the part of the poor in Peru. It is found that during the last ten years the average level of access to education increased while and inequality of access to this asset decreased. The access to other public services has also increased, though the inequality levels are still very high. The same happens with the access to credit and other assets that can serve as collateral. The econometric analysis shows a positive effect of the access to public assets on the profitability of private assets. It is also found that changes in assets tenure are not sufficient to explain transitions toward and outside poverty, thought they are crucial to explain the permanency in poverty or the permanency out of this...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Pobreza; Distribucion del ingreso; Poverty; Income distribution; Peru; I32; D31.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37976
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The Grand Experiment of Communism: Discovering the Trade-off between Equality and Efficiency (Previously titled: Cultural Transmission and the Pendulum of Economic Systems: The Case of Communism) AgEcon
Farvaque, Etienne; Mihailov, Alexander; Naghavi, Alireza.
Current version uploaded April 2013.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Capitalism; Communism; Inequality; Inefficiency; Ideological Transmission; Economic Transitions; C72; D31; D63; D74; D83; P51.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116909
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THE IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES ON GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION: SIMULATIONS WITH A DYNAMIC MODEL FOR EGYPT AgEcon
El-Said, Moataz; Lofgren, Hans; Robinson, Sherman.
Addressing longer-term issues of economic development in Egypt, the paper employs a dynamically recursive computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the outcomes associated with two types of development approaches over the period 1998-2012. One is a targeted sector development approach, and the second is a more broad-based development approach. Under the first development approach technological advancement is separately targeted to three sectors: agriculture, food processing, and textiles. Each sectoral choice is intended to represent alternative development strategies which we label (i) agricultural-demand- led industrialization (ADLI); (ii) food-processing-based (FOOD); and (iii) textile-based industrialization (TEXTILE). Under the second...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Atkinson inequality index; CGE; Egypt; Growth; Income distribution; SAM; Theil index; International Development; C68; D31; D33; D58; O47; O53.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16311
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The Long Trace of Inequality: Evidence from Cundinamarca, Colombia AgEcon
Galan, Juan Sebastian.
This paper uses historic data from Cundinamarca, Colombia to empirically assess the impact of land inequality persistence, inherited from the colonial rule, on economic development in the long run. Based on the Engerman & Sokoloff hypothesis and the use of GIS, I use plausible exogenous variation in land endowments to design an instrumental variable strategy. In contrast to recent studies, I find that more unequal municipalities in the XIX and XX century are associated with better growth, human capital and public goods provision measures today. Political economy channels instead of agricultural productivity gains can explain these results. In municipalities where land was historically more concentrated, powerful landowners were more successful in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land inequality; Growth; Public goods; Political economy; Land Economics/Use; O13; D31; N36.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107398
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The merger of populations, the incidence of marriages, and aggregate unhappiness AgEcon
Stark, Oded; Rendl, Franz; Jakubek, Marcin.
Let a society’s unhappiness be measured by the aggregate of the levels of relative deprivation of its members. When two societies of equal size, F and M, merge, unhappiness in the merged society is shown to be higher than the sum of the levels of unhappiness in the constituent societies when apart; merger alone increases unhappiness. But when societies F and M merge and marriages are formed such that the number of households in the merged society is equal to the number of individuals in one of the constituent societies, unhappiness in the merged society is shown to be lower than the aggregate unhappiness in the two constituent societies when apart. This result obtains regardless of which individuals from one society form households with which individuals...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Merger of populations; Integration of societies; Unhappiness; Marriages; Relative deprivation; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; D0; D10; D31; D63.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109968
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