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Registros recuperados: 58
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A REGIONAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS OF THE WELFARE IMPACT OF CASH TRANSFERS: AN ANALYSIS OF PROGRESA IN MEXICO AgEcon
Coady, David P.; Harris, Rebecca Lee.
Using a regionally disaggregated computable general equilibrium model, we analyze the differential welfare impacts of a cash transfer program targeted at rural areas. The direct effect of the transfers decreases regional income differentials, but the indirect effects depend on how the program is financed. Financing the program with a more efficient tax system is also less regressive and has favorable urban impacts. The less efficient instruments result in relatively higher incomes in all rural regions, but are more regressive. The increasing share of urban poverty highlights the shortcomings of rural targeting and raises the issue of horizontal equity.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: General equilibrium; Targeted transfers; Regional impacts; Tax incidence; Food Security and Poverty; D3; D58; D60; H2; O10; O54; R13.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16303
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A Unified Framework for Measuring Preferences for Schools and Neighborhoods AgEcon
Bayer, Patrick; Ferreira, Fernando; McMillan, Robert.
This paper sets out a framework for estimating household preferences over a broad range of housing and neighborhood characteristics, some of which are determined by the way that households sort in the housing market. This framework brings together the treatment of heterogeneity and selection that has been the focus of the traditional discrete choice literature with a clear strategy for dealing with the correlation of unobserved neighborhood quality with both school quality and neighborhood sociodemographics. We estimate the model using rich data on a large metropolitan area, drawn from a restricted version of the Census. The estimates indicate that, on average, households are willing to pay an additional one percent in house prices - substantially lower...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Capitalization; Local public goods; School quality; Discrete choice models; Hedonic price regression; Education demand; Labor and Human Capital; D58; H0; H4; H7; I2; R21; R31.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28513
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Afforestation and Timber Management Compliance Strategies in Climate Policy. A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis AgEcon
Michetti, Melania; Nunes Rosa, Renato.
This paper analyzes the role of afforestation-reforestation and timber management activities, and their major and secondary economic effects in stabilizing climate during the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. In particular, with a Computable General Equilibrium framework, the ICES model, it is inferred how forest carbon sequestration fits within the European domestic portfolio of a 2020-20 and 2020-30 climate stabilization policy. Afforestation and land use are accounted for by introducing their effects in the model. This is done by relying on carbon sequestration curves provided by Sohngen (2005), which describe the average annual cost of sequestration for selected world regions. Results show that afforestation and timber management could...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; General Equilibrium Modelling; Forestry; Afforestation; Environmental Economics and Policy; D58; Q23; Q24; Q52; Q54.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99641
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An Econometric Model of CGE Simulations AgEcon
Hess, Sebastian.
CGE models are widely used tools for economic assessments of trade policy changes. However, overall confidence in their results tends to be low. We employ the methodological framework of meta-analysis in order to approach a quantitative comparison of CGE-based simulation results. Therefore, we compile a dataset of twelve recent Doha simulations and fit a linear regression model that explains the variance between simulation results on the regional level as a function of various modeling characteristics. The estimates are broadly in range with documented qualitative knowledge about modeling assumptions. The size of the sample limits general conclusions; however, an ongoing research project will extend the approach to a larger sample.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: CGE; Systematic review; Doha round; Evaluation; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C20; C68; D58; F10; C99.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24713
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An Integrated Assessment of Climate Change, Air Pollution, and Energy Security Policy AgEcon
Bollen, Johannes; Hers, Sebastiaan; van der Zwaan, Bob.
This article presents an integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy. Basis of our analysis is the MERGE model, designed to study the interaction between the global economy, energy use, and the impacts of climate change. For our purposes we expanded MERGE with expressions that quantify damages incurred to regional economies as a result of air pollution and lack of energy security. One of the main findings of our cost-benefit analysis is that energy security policy alone does not decrease the use of oil: global oil consumption is only delayed by several decades and oil reserves are still practically depleted before the end of the 21st century. If, on the other hand, energy security policy is integrated with optimal...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; Air Pollution; Energy Security; Cost-Benefit Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; H21; D58; C61; O33; Q40.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55332
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Análisis de intensidades energéticas y emisiones de CO2 a partir de la matriz de contabilidad social de Andalucía del año 2000 AgEcon
Cardenete, Manuel Alejandro; Fuentes Saguar, Patricia D.; Polo, Clemente.
RESUMEN: En este artículo se estiman las intensidades energéticas y emisiones de CO2 para la economía andaluza en el año 2000. Las intensidades energéticas de las ramas productivas se calculan en varios escenarios empleando un modelo SAM especificado con la matriz de contabilidad social elaborada por los autores. Las emisiones se estiman con el modelo input-output, distinguiendo la polución intermedia de la originada por la demanda final. Los resultados muestran la existencia de importantes variaciones en intensidades entre ramas y también las sustanciales variaciones que acaecen al endogeneizar el consumo y la inversión. La estimación de las emisiones en el año base resulta bastante satisfactoria y las simulaciones realizadas muestran el sustancial...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Emisiones de CO2; Matriz de contabilidad social; Multiplicadores energéticos; Agricultural and Food Policy; D57; D58; Q51.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57232
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Assessing the Economic Impacts of Incorporating Romania's Agricultural and Food Sectors into EU's Customs Union: An Applied General Equilibrium Approach AgEcon
Scrieciu, Silviu Serban.
Join the European Union club implies, among many other policy changes, full integration of Romania's expected to have significant implications for domestic farmers and food processors. The paper constructs a single-country Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model to investigate the impact of tariff border adjustments on changes in relative prices, production and trade patterns associated with fifteen local agro-food activities. Moreover, the modeling work identifies those agro-food sectors that have the potential to benefit the most from EU enlargement in terms of output effects given that Romanian producers are capable of fully responding to the incentives provided with integration. These mainly include (bovine) live animals and meat products, sugar and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: EU enlargement; Customs union; Agriculture; Romania; AGE modelling; Political Economy; D58; F15; 013.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30543
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Assessing the Economic Impacts of Incorporating Romania's Agricultural and Food Sectors into EU's Customs Union: An Applied General Equilibrium Approach AgEcon
Scrieciu, Silviu Serban.
Joining the European Union club implies, among many other policy changes, full integration of Romania's economy into EU's customs union. This is expected to have significant implications for domestic farmers and food processors. The paper constructs a single-country Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model to investigate the impact of tariff border adjustments on changes in relative prices, production and trade patterns associated with fifteen local agro-food activities. Moreover, the modelling work identifies those agro-food sectors that have the potential to benefit the most from EU enlargement in terms of output effects given that Romanian producers are capable of fully responding to the incentives provided with integration. These mainly include (bovine)...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: EU enlargement; Customs union; Agriculture; Romania; AGE modelling; Political Economy; D58; F15; O13.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30583
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Calculating the Costs of Environmental Regulation AgEcon
Pizer, William A.; Kopp, Raymond J..
Decisions concerning environmental protection hinge on estimates of economic burden. Over the past 30 years, economists have developed and applied various tools to measure this burden. In this paper, developed as a chapter for the Handbook of Environmental Economics, we present a taxonomy of costs along with methods for measuring those costs. At the broadest level, we distinguish between partial and general equilibrium costs. Partial equilibrium costs represent the burden directly borne by the regulated entity (firms, households, government), including both pecuniary and nonpecuniary expenses, when prices are held constant. General equilibrium costs reflect the net burden once all good and factor markets have equilibrated. In addition to partial...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Social cost; Cost-benefit; Cost-effectiveness; Environmental regulation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q20; Q28; H41; L50; D58.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10762
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Can Climate Change Mitigation Policy Benefit the Israeli Economy? A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis AgEcon
Palatnik, Ruslana Rachel; Shechter, Mordechai.
The growing attention to global warming due to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the process of fossil fuel--based energy production is expressed in the Kyoto Protocol, which prescribes, on average, a 7 percent reduction in GHG emissions for developed countries. Although Israel was not included in the list of the obligated countries ("Annex A"), it should consider the economic implications of participating in the emission reduction effort, as such a commitment becomes highly feasible following the Bali roadmap which oblige a successor to the Kyoto Protocol to launch negotiations including all parties to the UNFCCC on a future framework, stressing the role of cooperative action and of common though differentiated responsibility. This study aimed to quantify...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Computable General Equilibrium; Climate Change; Environmental Policy; Double Dividend; Israel; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics; D58; H23; Q43; Q48; Q52.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6361
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Capital Malleability and the Macroeconomic Costs of Climate Policy AgEcon
Lanzi, Elisa; Sue Wing, Ian.
This paper argues for introducing the role of capital malleability into the analysis of environmental policies. The issue is explored by means of a theoretical model, a numerical analysis and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. Considering the three approaches together is fundamental in obtaining theory-compatible policy-relevant results. The model outcomes reveal differences between results under separate assumptions regarding the malleability of capital. When capital is imperfectly malleable a carbon policy is less effective than under the assumption of perfect malleability of capital. Therefore, it is important that, especially for the analysis of short-term environmental regulations, the issue of capital malleability is taken into...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: General Equilibrium; CGE Models; Climate Change Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; C68; D58; H22; Q43.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59476
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Carbon Abatement Costs: Why the Wide Range of Estimates? AgEcon
Fischer, Carolyn; Morgenstern, Richard D..
Estimates of marginal abatement costs for reducing carbon emissions in the United States by the major economic-energy models vary by a factor of five, undermining support for mandatory policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We use meta analysis to explain these cost differences, holding policy regimes constant and focusing on the role of baseline emissions projections and structural characteristics of the models. The results indicate that certain assumptions, like freer trade and greater disaggregation of regions and nonenergy goods, lead to lower estimates of marginal abatement costs, while more disaggregated energy goods raise them. Other choices, like myopic optimization by households or the inclusion of an international finance sector, seem less...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate models; Carbon tax; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q4; Q25; D58.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10537
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Climate change and food security to 2030: a global economy-wide perspective AgEcon
Valenzuela, Ernesto; Anderson, Kym.
The effects of climate change on agriculture raise major food security concerns. We use a global economy-wide model to assess the effects on farm product prices of expected yield changes. Also modelled is an expected adverse effect of higher temperatures and humidity in the tropics on the productivity of unskilled workers in developing countries. Given the degrees of uncertainty about plausible effects of climate change, our modelling accounts for a range of yield productivity and labor shocks. The results entail consequences for international agricultural prices, national food consumption, self sufficiency, net farm income and economic welfare.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Climate change; Crop and labor productivity growth; Global economy-wide model projections; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Food Security and Poverty; D58; F17; Q17; Q24; Q54.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117616
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Climate Change and Food Security to 2050: A Global Economy-wide Perspective AgEcon
Valenzuela, Ernesto; Anderson, Kym.
Recent analyses of the possible adverse effects of climate change on agriculture in developing countries have raised food security concerns, especially for farm households whose crop productivity is expected to fall. The present study uses the GTAP global economy-wide model to capture at the same time the expected positive effects on temperate zone crop productivity, which will more or less offset the upward pressure on farm product prices from yield falls in developing countries. Also modelled is an expected adverse effect of higher temperatures and humidity on the productivity of unskilled workers in the tropics, but since they work in nonfarm as well as farm activities the net effect of that shock on agriculture’s competitiveness is an empirical matter....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate change; Crop and labour productivity growth; Global computable general equilibrium model projections; Productivity Analysis; D58; F17; Q17; Q24; Q54.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100531
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Climate Change Assessment and Agriculture in General Equilibrium Models: Alternative Modeling Strategies AgEcon
Palatnik, Ruslana Rachel; Roson, Roberto.
Agricultural sectors play a key role in the economics of climate change. Land as an input to agricultural production is one of the most important links between economy and the biosphere, representing a direct projection of human action on the natural environment. Agricultural management practices and cropping patterns have a vast effect on biogeochemical cycles, freshwater availability and soil quality. Agriculture also plays an important role in emitting and storing greenhouse gases. Thus, to consistently investigate climate policy and future pathways for the economic and natural environment, a realistic representation of agricultural land-use is essential. Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models have increasingly been used to this purpose. CGE models...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Computable General Equilibrium (CGE); Partial Equilibrium (PE); Agriculture; Land Use; Climate Change; Environmental Economics and Policy; C68; D58; Q24; Q51; Q54.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54284
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Climate Change, Energy Demand and Market Power in a General Equilibrium Model of the World Economy AgEcon
Roson, Roberto; Bosello, Francesco; De Cian, Enrica.
Future energy demand will be affected by changes in prices and income, but also by other factors, like temperature levels. This paper draws upon an econometric study, disentangling the contribution of temperature in the determination of the annual regional demand for energy goods. Combining estimates of temperature elasticities with scenarios of future climate change, it is possible to assess variations in energy demand induced (directly) by the global warming. We use this information to simulate a change in the demand structure of households in a CGE model of the world economy, in a set of assessment exercises. The changing demand structure triggers a structural adjustment process, influencing trade flows, regional competitiveness of industries and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; Energy; Computable General Equilibrium Models; Imperfect Competition; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D58; F12; Q43; Q54.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9095
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Computable General Equilibrium Analysis of the Economic and Land-use Interfaces of Bio-energy Development AgEcon
Abdula, Rahimaisa D..
This paper explores the inter-sectoral and land-use dynamics behind the development of bio-energy as a climate change policy through a computable general equilibrium (CGE) with a land use change (LUC) model. It assesses the economic and social costs of bio-energy development both in terms of the financial investment needed for its market penetration and in terms of the trade-offs its future supply will entail upon the land-use system. It analyzes how policies directed to develop bio-energy alters the pattern of energy mix and land utilization in the economy and how these changes in turn contribute to carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation. Policies analyzed in the study include carbon tax with revenues recycled upon bio-energy subsidy and upon direct tax...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D58; Q4; Q52; H23; O13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25536
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Consequences of EU Biofuel Policies on Agricultural Production and Land Use AgEcon
Banse, Martin; van Meijl, Hans; Woltjer, Geert B..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D58; Q13; Q24; Q27; Q28.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94666
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ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS IN CHINA AgEcon
Huang, Jikun; Hu, Ruifa; van Meijl, Hans; van Tongeren, Frank W..
China has made a major investment in biotechnology research. Genetically modified (GM) cotton is widely adopted and the list of GM technologies in trials is impressive. At the same time there is an active debate on when China should commercialize its GM food crops. The overall goal of this paper is to provide an economy-wide assessment of these issues under various scenarios. Based on a unique data from empirical micro-level study and field trial in China and a modified GTAP model, our results indicate that the development of biotechnology has an important impact on China's production, trade and welfare. Welfare gains far outweigh the public biotechnology research expenditures. Most gains occur inside China. Policy makers should put less weight on...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Economic impacts; Biotechnology; Genetically modified crops; China; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C68; D58; F13; O33; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25883
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Economic regional impacts of water transfers: the role of factor mobility in a case study of the agricultural sector in the Balearic Islands AgEcon
Tirado, Dolores; Lozano, Javier; Gomez Gomez, Carlos Mario.
Using a CGE model for the Balearic Islands, we simulate the effects of an agricultural water market in the farming sector facing reductions in the water endowment. The market lessens the negative effects on farming communities of short-term water restrictions associated with cyclical droughts. However, in scenarios of permanent reductions, such as those envisaged by global warming predictions or those that result from the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive, a water market may aggravate the negative effects of water shortage. Therefore, the paper shows that generalizations cannot be made about the effects of water markets on farming communities.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; D58; Q1; Q25; R13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99095
Registros recuperados: 58
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