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An Economic Model for Bioprospecting Contracts AgEcon
Ding, Helen; Nunes, Paulo A.L.D.; Onofri, Laura.
This paper explores the use of a micro-economic model to analyse the provisions and parties of bioprospecting contracts. It focuses on the pharmaceutical industry as the representative biodiversity buyer, presenting an original theoretical framework that explains the main contract characteristics or stylised facts. Against this background, it considers the main contractors involved in these private contracts, i.e. biodiversity sellers and biodiversity buyers, analysing both the magnitude and distribution of the respective payoffs. Particular attention is devoted to the different, mixed impacts of bioprospecting contracts and patenting on social welfare. The positive welfare impacts delivered by bioprospecting contracts are associated with the potential...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Bioprospecting Contract; Genetic Resource; Biodiversity Buyer; Biodiversity Seller; Patenting; Welfare Analysis; Benefit Sharing; Productivity Analysis; D21; D23; D61; L14; Q57.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7450
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ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNICAL EFFCIENCY OF THE STOCHASTIC FRONTIER PRODUCTION FUNCTION IN FOREST FARMING NICARAGUA 1998-2005 AgEcon
Zúniga-González, Carlos Alberto.
Presented at: UNIVERSITIES NATIONAL COUNCIL III UNVERSITY SCIENTIFIC CONGRESS 41 ANNIVERSARY OF THE CATHOLIC FARMING LIVESTOCK UNIVERSITY OF THE DRY TROPIC ¨UNIVERSITY, SCIENCE AND TECNOLOGY: A STRATEGY FOR CONFRONTING THE NATIONAL GLOBAL CHALLENGE¨ 23 SEPTEMBER 2009
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Stochastic Frontier Production; Forest Police; LSMS-ISA MECOVI; Technical efficiency; Allocative Efficiency.; Productivity Analysis; D61; Q12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56197
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Are Compact Cities Environmentally (and Socially) Desirable? AgEcon
Gaigne, Carl; Riou, Stephane; Thisse, Jacques-Francois.
There is a wide consensus among international institutions and national governments in favor of compact (i.e. densely populated) cities as a way to improve the ecological performance of the transport system. Indeed, when both the intercity and intra-urban distributions of activities are given, a higher population density makes cities more environmentally friendly as the average commuting length is reduced. However, when we account for the possible relocation of activities within and between cities in response to a higher population density, the latter may cease to hold. Because changes in population density affect land rents and wages, firms and workers re-optimize and choose new locations. We show that this may reshape the urban system in a way that...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Greenhouse gas; Commuting costs; Transport costs; Cities; Environmental Economics and Policy; D61; F12; Q54; Q58; R12.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121692
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ARE FRUIT AND VEGETABLE STAMP POLICIES COST-EFFECTIVE? AgEcon
de Mouzon, Olivier; Requillart, Vincent; Soler, Louis-Georges; Dallongeville, Jean; Dauchet, Luc.
In many countries, consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) is below recommended levels. We quantify the economic and health effects of F&V stamp policy designed for low income consumers. The analysis combined two models: an economic model which predicts how F&V consumption is affected by a change in policy and a health model which evaluates the impact of a change in F&V consumption in terms of death avoided (DA) and life-years saved (LYS). Finally we computed the costs per DA and LYS as the ratio between the taxpayer cost of the policy and the number of DA and LYS. The main findings of the present study are: (1) F&V stamp policy has a positive and significant impact on the consumption of small F&V consumers of the targeted...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Cost-effectiveness analysis; Fruits and Vegetables; Health Impact Assessment; Health Policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; D61; I18; Q18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116416
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Avaliação benefício-custo de sistemas de dessalinização de água em comunidades rurais cearenses AgEcon
Campos, Roberio Telmo.
This study aims to make the economic assessment of five Desalination Systems by Reverse Osmosis (RO) that are used to generate fresh water for human consumption in rural communities in the Ceará State. The data was gathered from primary source by questionnaire applied to governmental organizations. The method used was the analysis of investment taking into account shadow prices. We concluded that due to the inexistence of any good practices for the desalination management some equipment resulted in negative financing return when considering the effective consumption, particularly those of 400 and 600 liter/hour. In addition, they generated inefficiency regarding to technical support, turning impossible better improvement of the system performance, thus...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Economic Evaluation. Desalination. Potable Water.; Agribusiness; D61; E22 e Q25.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61924
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Beneficios privados y beneficios sociales en la cadena de la manzana para la exportación en el Uruguay. AgEcon
Rava, Catalina; Lanfranco, Bruno A.; Ferraro, Bruno.
Este trabajo analizó el desempeño de la cadena exportadora de manzana para consumo en fresco, en Uruguay, mediante el método de la matriz de análisis de políticas (MAP). Se trabajó con la variedad Royal Gala, una de las más exportadas localmente por su temprana maduración y su buena aceptación en mercados de valor, como el europeo. Se cuantificaron los efectos de las políticas públicas (impuestos, subsidios, cargas sociales) y las eventuales fallas de mercado que afectan los distintos eslabones, estimándose las potenciales transferencias de recursos, desde o hacia la cadena. Primero se computaron los ingresos y costos en los distintos eslabones considerados: producción, transporte, procesamiento y empaque. Se calcularon los beneficios privados y sociales...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Policy analysis matrix; Production systems; Economic efficiency; Public policies; Export markets; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; Political Economy; Public Economics; D40; D61; E62; H20.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121682
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Benefit Transfer as Preference Calibration AgEcon
Smith, V. Kerry; van Houtven, George; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K..
This paper proposes and illustrates the use of a new approach to benefit transfer for the non-market valuation of environmental resources. It treats transfer as an identification problem that requires assessing whether available benefit estimates permit the parameters of a preference function to be identified. The transfer method proposed uses these identifying restrictions to calibrate preference parameters and bases the benefit estimates on that preference function. The approach is illustrated using travel cost, hedonic and contingent valuation estimates, as well as combinations of estimates. It has three potential advantages over conventional practice: (1) it allows multiple, potentially overlapping estimates of the benefits of an improvement in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Benefit transfer; Calibration; Non-market valuation; Environmental Economics and Policy; D61; Q20; H40.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10607
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Benefit-costs analysis of climate-related agricultural investments in Africa: a case study AgEcon
Branca, Giacomo; Lipper, Leslie; Sorrentino, Alessandro.
Paper removed at the request of the first (corresponding) author.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Food security; Adaptation; Mitigation; Benefit-cost analysis; Externalities; Environmental Economics and Policy; D61; D62; H54; O13; Q55.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124109
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BLUNT TO SHARPENED RAZOR: INCREMENTAL REFORM AND DISTORTIONS IN THE PRODUCT AND CAPITAL MARKETS IN CHINA AgEcon
Zhang, Xiaobo; Tan, Kong-Yam.
A key objective of China's reform program was to reduce distortions in the economic system and enhance growth. However, when implemented in incremental and partial ways, local governments or individuals have chance to capture rents inherent in the reform process. Young (2000) warned that the rent-seeking behavior might lead to increasing market fragmentation. Empirical studies have since shown that this did not happen in the product markets. In this paper we argue that as rents from the product markets were squeezed out during the reform process, rent-seeking behavior shifted to the factor markets, especially the capital and land markets. The reform process now needs to be deepened to ensure that the factor markets also become more integrated and efficient.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Reform; China; Rent Seeking; Factor and Product Market; Transition; International Development; D33; D61; D63; O11; O53; P23.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60183
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Controlling Campylabacter in the Chicken Meat Chain: A Cost-Utility Analysis AgEcon
Mangen, Marie-Josee J.; Havelaar, Arie H.; Nauta, Maarten J.; de Koeijer, Aline A.; de Wit, G. Ardine.
The aim of this study was the estimation of cost-utility of interventions to control Campylobacter contamination of broiler meat. The relative risk, the intervention costs, the disease burden (expressed in DALYs) and the costs-of-illness for the various interventions were necessary inputs for the cost-utility analysis. The cost-utility is expressed in net costs per reduced DALY. The most cost-effective interventions are: reduction of faeces leakage in the slaughter line and decontamination of the carcass by dipping in a chemical solution. Phage therapy might be another cost-effective intervention, depending on assumed costs/chicken. Irradiation is the most efficient intervention, but the least cost-effective.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food safety; Cost-utility; Disease burden; Campylobacter; Chicken meat; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; D61; D81; I18.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24763
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COST EFFICIENCY OF CATFISH FARMS IN CHICOT COUNTY, ARKANSAS: THE IMPACT OF EXTENSION SERVICES AgEcon
Engle, Carole R.; Kaliba, Aloyce R..
Cost efficiency measures of a sample of catfish farms in Chicot County, Arkansas are estimated using a data envelopment analysis technique. A measure of overall efficiency is used to determine operator's characteristics, farm practices, and institutional support services that are likely to lead to higher farm level cost efficiency. Results indicate that live catfish production could increase by 55% using the same level of inputs if all farms were operating at the minimum average cost curve. Higher feeding rate and availability of extension services were associated with increased cost efficiency. Higher stocking density affected overall efficiency negatively. The marginal value of extension contacts in Chicot County was estimated to be $2988. This study...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Catfish; Cost efficiency; Data envelopment analysis; And extension services; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C14; C24; D61.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34740
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Determination of Optimal Environmental Flow Acquisition in Kor Basin, Doroudzan Dam AgEcon
Asad Falsafi Zadeh, Neda; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood.
In current study, an irrigation examination and acquisition of environmental water in Kor River fields, that is dominated from Doroudzan dam to Bakhtegan Lake, was done by an integrated economy-environmental model. The model was considered by economic, hydrologic and agronomic components. In the economic component, an optimal harvesting of water was done using non-linear programming in two scenarios; with and without environmental water constraint. Solutions from simulation of environmental data in the hydrologic component, was used as initial data in the economic component. In the agronomic component, actual crop yield in wet, normal and dry years was determined using the relationship between crop yield and irrigation water amount. Results showed that,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Expected Net Income; Hydrology; Non-Linear Programming Model; Deficit Irrigation; Consumer/Household Economics; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Production Economics; Risk and Uncertainty; C32; C61; D42; D61.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50258
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Discounting and confidence AgEcon
Traeger, Christian P..
Revision of CUDARE Working Paper 1117 issued June 2011
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Uncertainty; Discounting; Climate change; Ambiguity; Confidence; Subjective beliefs; Prudence; Pessimism; Expected utility; Intertemporal substitutability; Intertemporal risk aversion; Risk and Uncertainty; D61; Q54; D81; D90.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120418
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Do Antibiotics Reduce Production Risk for U.S. Pork Producers? AgEcon
Liu, Xuanli; Miller, Gay Y.; McNamara, Paul E..
We combine econometric and financial analyses of the NAHMS 2000 Swine Survey data to examine whether evidence exists for reducing risk by using antibiotics for growth promotion (AGP) in the U.S. swine industry. A stochastic dominance analysis of alternative lengths of time (days) of AGP application reveals that AGP used in the range of 65—75 days is preferred by risk-averse producers. Risk is reduced and profits are increased from use of AGP. The combined impacts of increased average daily gain and decreased variability in pig live weight increase producer profits by $2.99 per pig marketed.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Antibiotics; Growth promotion; Pigs; Risk; Stochastic dominance; Variability; D21; D61; D81; Q12; R32.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42785
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Do Environmental Services Buyers Prefer Differentiated Rates? A Case Study from the Colombian Andes AgEcon
Moreno-Sanchez, Rocio del Pilar; Maldonado, Jorge Higinio; Wunder, Sven; Borda, Carlos Andres.
Flat user fees in payment for environmental services (PES) schemes promote administrative ease, and are sometimes perceived as egalitarian. However, when environmental service (ES) buyers are heterogeneous in their income and water consumption levels, this may not be optimal, as total payments become too low and services are under-supplied. This paper identifies ES buyer preferences and estimates their willingness to pay (WTP) differentiated fees in an ongoing PES initiative in an Andean watershed in Colombia. Small, flat user payments have recently been introduced to implement incipient watershed protection upstream. Environmental service users fall into two highly heterogeneous categories: smallholder peasants and owners of recreational houses. We...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: PES; WTP; Environmental services; Colombia; Watershed protection; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Demand and Price Analysis; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q56; Q25; Q5; Q51; C25; D10; D12; D61; D63.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91171
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Does the Value of a Statistical Life Vary with Age and Health Status? Evidence from the United States and Canada AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Cropper, Maureen L.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Simon, Nathalie B..
Much of the justification for environmental rulemaking rests on estimates of the benefits to society of reduced mortality rates. Yet the literature providing estimates of the willingness to pay (WTP) for mortality risk reductions measures the value that healthy, prime-aged adults place on reducing their risk of dying, whereas the majority of statistical lives saved by environmental programs, according to epidemiological studies, appear to be the lives of older people and people with chronically impaired health. This paper provides an empirical assessment of the effects of age and baseline health on WTP for mortality risk reductions by reporting the results of two contingent valuation surveys designed to test the above hypotheses. One survey was...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Willingness to pay; Mortality; Contingent valuation; Age; Health status; Health Economics and Policy; D61; D62; Q20; Q26.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10769
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ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF BANNING SUBTHERAPEUTIC USE OF ANTIBIOTICS IN SWINE PRODUCTION AgEcon
Brorsen, B. Wade; Lehenbauer, Terry; Ji, Dasheng; Connor, Joseph.
Public health officials and physicians are concerned about possible development of bacterial resistance and potential effects on human health that may be related to the use of antimicrobial agents in livestock feed. The focus of this research is aimed at determining the economic effects that subtherapeutic bans of antimicrobials would have on both swine producers and consumers. The results show that a ban on growth promotants for swine would be costly, totaling $242.5 million annually, with swine producers sharing the larger portion in the short run and consumers sharing the larger portion in the long run.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Banning subtherapeutic use; Feed efficiency; Mortality rate; Sort loss; Livestock Production/Industries; Q18; D61.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15078
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EFFECTS OF QUALITY CONSIDERATIONS AND CLIMATE/WEATHER INFORMATION ON THE MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABILITY OF COTTON PRODUCTION IN THE TEXAS HIGH PLAINS AgEcon
Britt, Megan L.; Ramirez, Octavio A.; Carpio, Carlos E..
Production function models for cotton lint yields, seed yields, turnout, and lint quality characteristics are developed for the Texas High Plains. They are used to evaluate the impacts of quality considerations and of climate/weather information on the management decisions and on the profitability and risk of irrigated cotton production systems. It is concluded that both quality considerations and improved climatic/weather information could have substantial effects on expected profitability and risk. These effects mainly occur because of changes in optimal variety selection an irrigation water use levels. Quality considerations in particular result in significantly lower irrigation water use levels regardless of the climate/weather information...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Climatic/weather information; Cotton quality; Ground water resource use; Risk and uncertainty; Texas High Plains; Crop Production/Industries; D21; D24; D61; D81; D84.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15082
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Efficient Emission Fees in the U.S. Electricity Sector AgEcon
Banzhaf, H. Spencer; Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L..
This paper provides new estimates of efficient emission fees for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions in the U.S. electricity sector. The estimates are obtained by coupling a detailed simulation model of the U.S. electricity markets with an integrated assessment model that links changes in emissions with atmospheric transport, environmental endpoints, and valuation of impacts. Efficient fees are found by comparing incremental benefits with emission fee levels. National quantity caps that are equivalent to these fees also are computed, and found to approximate caps under consideration in the current multi-pollutant debate in the U.S. Congress and the recent proposals from the Bush administration for the electricity industry. We also...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Emission fees; Air pollution; Cost-benefit analysis; Electricity; Particulates; Nitrogen oxides; NOx; Sulfur dioxide; SO2; Health benefits; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q4; D61.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10505
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Is There a Rationale for Rebating Environmental Levies? AgEcon
Bernard, Alain; Fischer, Carolyn; Vielle, Marc.
Political pressure often exists for rebating environmental levies, particularly when incomplete regulatory coverage allegedly creates an“"unlevel playing field" with other, unregulated firms or industries. This paper assesses the conditions under which rebating environmental levies is justified for the regulated sector. It combines a theoretical approach based on second-best modeling with numerical simulations aimed at determining the most sensitive parameters. We find that if an adequate tax on production can be levied in the unregulated sector, no rebate is justified for the regulated sector. Moreover, even in the case of constrained taxation in the unregulated sector, a tax rebate or a subsidy in the regulated sector is not necessarily a...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental levy; Tax rebate; Fiscal distortions; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q43; H2; D61.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10512
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