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Registros recuperados: 33
Primeira ... 12 ... Última
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A Multisector Framework for Assessing Community-Based Forest Management: Lessons from Madagascar Ecology and Society
Raik, Daniela B; Cornell University; dbr23@cornell.edu; Decker, Daniel J; Cornell University; djd6@cornell.edu.
Community-based forest management has proliferated throughout Africa as national governments have decentralized the administration of public forestry. Community-based forestry has taken multiple forms, depending on the assortment of land-tenure systems, forest-use norms, wood demand, and social organization, among others factors. Nature, Wealth, and Power is an analytical framework that has been developed from experiences in natural resource management in Africa. In this paper, we amend the framework to People, Nature, Wealth, and Power (PNWP), and propose it as an analytical lens for community-based forest management initiatives. We use the PNWP framework to assess the responsiveness of contractual forest management in the Menabe region of Madagascar to...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Community-based forest management; Decentralization; Forestry; Madagascar.
Ano: 2007
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Applying the social-ecological system framework to the diagnosis of urban lake commons in Bangalore, India Ecology and Society
Nagendra, Harini; Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment; Indiana University; nagendra@atree.org; Ostrom, Elinor; Indiana University; ostrom@indiana.edu.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Collective action; Decentralization; Leadership; Peri-urban SES; Polycentricity.
Ano: 2014
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Asymmetric property rights in China's economic growth AgEcon
Zhang, Xiaobo.
This paper highlights the difference between secure investor property rights and loosely defined individual property rights. Globalization and fiscal decentralization have intensified this difference. On the one hand, in the presence of mobile foreign direct investments and under the arrangement of fiscal decentralization, local governments compete vigorously to offer various protections on the property rights of investors; on the other hand, local governments and developers attempt to acquire land at as low price as possible by taking advantage of the loopholes inherent in the Chinese law. Secure investor property rights together with weak protections on individuals’ land property rights is argued to be one of the major drivers of China’s rapid economic...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Property rights; Investments; Economic growth; China; Individual land property; Fiscal policies; Decentralization; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55406
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Collective Action to Secure Property Rights for the Poor: A Case Study in Jambi Province, Indonesia AgEcon
Komarudin, Heru; Siagian, Yuliana L.; Colfer, Carol.
This study presents an approach to analyzing decentralized forestry and natural resource management and land property rights issues, and catalyzing collective action among villages and district governments. It focuses on understanding the current policies governing local people’s access to property rights and decision making processes, and learning how collective action among community groups and interaction among stakeholders can enhance local people’s rights over lands, resources, and policy processes for development. The authors applied participatory action research in two villages, one each in the Bungo and Tanjabbar districts of Jambi province (Sumatra), Indonesia, to facilitate identification of priorities through phases of planning, action,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Decentralization; Natural resource management; Forest; Collective action; Property rights; Action research; Indonesia; Food Security and Poverty; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44363
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Comparing the evolution of spatial inequality in China and India: a fifty-year perspective AgEcon
Gajwani, Kiran; Kanbur, Ravi; Zhang, Xiaobo.
In the second half of the last century, both India and China have undergone major transitions and have moved to more liberalized economies. This paper relates the observed patterns in regional inequality to major events during this period. Because of China’s institutional barriers to migration, regional inequality is much higher than in India. Also, China’s decentralization and opening up are closely related to the observed regional inequality - particularly the inland-coastal disparity - since the reform period. From the Green Revolution age to the period of economic liberalization in India, the evolution of regional comparative advantage has shifted from the quality of land to the level of human capital as India integrates with the international market....
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Liberalization; Liberalized economics; Regional inequality; Migration; Decentralization; Green revolution; Economic conditions; International economic relations; Human capital; Spatial inequality; International Relations/Trade; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55409
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Decentralization and Access to Agricultural Extension Services in Kenya AgEcon
Nambiro, Elizabeth; Omiti, John M.; Mugunieri, Godiah Lawrence.
The form and content of decentralization has dominated development discourse and public sector reform agenda in Kenya in the last two decades. The case of agricultural extension service presents decentralization in a difficult context partly due to lack of information on its possible diverse impacts especially on resource poor farmers. This paper explores the effect of decentralization of agricultural extension on access, accountability and empowerment, and efficiency of delivering services to farmers. Secondary data, participatory research methods and primary data from a random sample of 250 farmers were used. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis and logistic regression. The results show that there is improved access to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Extension services; Decentralization; Partnerships; Policy reform; Kenya; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25246
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Decentralization and Environmental Conservation: Gender Effects From Participation in Joint Forest Management AgEcon
Agrawal, Arun; Yadama, Gautam; Andrade, Raul; Bhattacharya, Ajoy.
This paper analyzes how women’s participation affects institutional outcomes related to the decentralized governance of community forests in Madhya Pradesh, India. The analysis is based on data from a representative sample of 641 cases of joint forest management, India’s flagship program to involve communities in forest governance. We focus on two outcomes relevant for local livelihoods: control of illicit grazing and control of illicit felling in the forest. The paper statistically estimates the effects of women’s participation on outcomes, and also the source of this effect in terms of women’s representation in committees and action in protecting forests. We find that women’s participation has substantial positive effects on regulating illicit grazing...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Joint Forest Management; Gender equity; Decentralization; Forestry Resources; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42494
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Decentralization, Local Government Elections and Voter Turnout in Pakistan AgEcon
Akramov, Kamiljon T.; Qureshi, Sarfraz; Birner, Regina; Khan, Bilal Hasan.
Decentralization has the potential to improve the accountability of government and lead to a more efficient provision of public services. However, accountability requires broad groups of people to participate in local government. Thus, voter turnout at local government elections is an important component of government accountability. This study used survey data on the 2005 local government elections in Pakistan to analyze the impact of electoral mechanisms, the credibility of elections, and voters’ socioeconomic characteristics on voter turnout. The rational-choice perspective is applied to develop the specifications of the empirical model. The empirical analysis is based on a series of standard and multilevel random-intercept logistic models. Our...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Decentralization; Local government elections; Political participation; Voter turnout; Public service provision; Political Economy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42345
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Development and evaluation of a regional water poverty index for Benin AgEcon
Heidecke, Claudia.
The paper discusses the application of the Water Poverty Index (WPI) as a monitoring tool for Benin’s water sector. Benin is currently in a process of political decentralization shifting responsibility for and administration of rural water supplies from the national to the communal level. Appropriate indicators are needed for monitoring and analyzing the progress of the water sector for each community. The Water Poverty Index allows monitoring of a combination of aspects affecting rural water management, including water sources, access to and use of water, human capacity to manage water, and environmental impacts. The application of this index is tested for Benin at the regional level. A series of variables have been chosen for inclusion into the index...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Water poverty index; Water supply; Decentralization; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55413
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Devolution and Accountability Effects in the Public Provision of Water Services in Indonesia AgEcon
Meirelles, Patricia; Rodriguez, Catherine.
This paper separately evaluates how devolution and accountability, two distinct aspects of the decentralization reforms implemented in Indonesia in the year 2001, influenced the public provision of water services. Using household level data it is found that the devolution of responsibility does not necessarily affect the provision of public services. Our findings show that the quality of publicly provided water decreased only in cities in which devolution was accompanied by a change in accountability. Robustness checks suggest that these results are driven by changes in the accountability framework rather than trends in the health services.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Indonesia; Decentralization; Accountability; Devolution; Water; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O2; I18; H2; H54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107395
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Does Pastoralists' Participation in the Management of National Parks in Northern Norway Contribute to Adaptive Governance? Ecology and Society
Risvoll, Camilla ; University of Nordland; camilla.risvoll.godo@uin.no; Fedreheim, Gunn Elin; Nordland Research Institute; gef@nforsk.no; Sandberg , Audun ; University of Nordland; audun.sandberg@hibo.no; BurnSilver, Shauna; School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University; Shauna.Burnsilver@asu.edu.
Norwegian protected areas have historically been managed by central, expertise bureaucracy; however, a governance change in 2010 decentralized and delegated the right to manage protected areas to locally elected politicians and elected Sámi representatives in newly established National Park Boards. We explore how this new governance change affects adaptive capacity within the reindeer industry, as the reindeer herders are now participating with other users in decision-making processes related to large tracts of protected areas in which they have pasture access. Aspects within adaptive capacity and resilience thinking are useful as complementary dimensions to a social-ecological system framework (Ostrom 2007) in exploring the dynamics of complex...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptive capacity; Decentralization; National park governance; Participation; Pastoralists; Protected areas; Reindeer herding; SES framework; Social-ecological systems.
Ano: 2014
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EFFECTIVENESS OF BYLAWS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES: The West African Experience AgEcon
Alinon, Koffi; Kalinganire, Antoine.
The role of various stakeholders in the management of natural resources is not clear in the West African countries. This paper discusses the historical changes in power delegation from central origins to peripheral institutions. The analysis covers the rise of bylaws across the Western African countries and links the multiplicity of bylaws to the amplification of the decentralization movement. On the basis of a literature review and their own practitioners’ experiences, the authors demonstrate the pertinence of bylaws as a tool for better management of natural resources. In the West African Francophone context, bylaws could stand both for regulations enacted by decentralized authorities or “local conventions” binding village community groups. Where...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Bylaws; West Africa; Natural resource management; Decentralization; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50892
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Empowering Local People through Community-based Resource Monitoring: a Comparison of Brazil and Namibia Ecology and Society
Rostant, Luke; University of the West Indies; lrostant@gmail.com; Marinelli, Carlos Eduardo; Instituto Socioambiental; caemari@gmail.com.
Biological resource monitoring systems are implemented in many countries and often depend on the participation of local people. It has been suggested that these systems empower local participants while promoting conservation. We reviewed three wildlife monitoring systems in indigenous lands and sustainable development reserves in Brazilian Amazonia and one in Namibian Caprivi conservancies, analyzing the strategies adopted and conditions that facilitated local empowerment, as well as potential impacts on conservation. This provided insights into potential avenues to strengthen empowerment outcomes of monitoring systems in Latin America and Africa. We assessed four dimensions of empowerment at individual and community scales: psychological, social,...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Acre; Amazô Nas; Caprivi; Community participation; Decentralization; Indigenous people; Protected area; Wildlife management.
Ano: 2012
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FIFTY YEARS OF REGIONAL INEQUALITY IN CHINA: A JOURNEY THROUGH REVOLUTION, REFORM AND OPENNESS AgEcon
Kanbur, Ravi; Zhang, Xiaobo.
This paper constructs and analyses a long run time series for regional inequality in China from the Communist Revolution to the present. There have been three peaks of inequality in the last fifty years, coinciding with the Great Famine of the late 1950s, the Cultural Revolution of the late 1960s and 1970s, and finally the period of openness and global integration in the late 1990s. Econometric analysis establishes that regional inequality is explained in the different phases by three key variables--the ratio of heavy industry to gross output value, the degree of centralization, and the degree of openness.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Inequality; Polarisation; Decentralization; Industrialization; Openness; Globalization; Chinese economy; Political Economy; D63; 018; P27.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7236
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FOREST INCOMES AFTER UGANDA'S FOREST SECTOR REFORM: Are the Rural Poor Gaining? AgEcon
Jagger, Pamela.
Forest sector governance reform is frequently promoted as a policy tool for achieving favorable livelihood outcomes in the low income tropics. However, there is a dearth of empirical evidence to support this claim, particularly at the household level. Drawing on the case of a major forest sector governance reform implemented in Uganda in 2003, this study seeks to fill that gap. The research employs a quasi-experimental research design utilizing pre and post reform income portfolio data for a large sample of households surrounding three major forests in western Uganda; a control group is included in the design. On private forest land overseen by the decentralized District Forestry Service there has been no significant change in average annual household...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Uganda; Forest sector reform; Decentralization; Livelihoods; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50891
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IMPACTS OF PROGRAMS AND ORGANIZATION ON THE ADOPTION OF SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN UGANDA AgEcon
Jagger, Pamela; Pender, John L..
The government of Uganda is currently decentralizing many of its services including those directly related to agriculture and the environment. Non-government organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) are being asked to take the lead in the provision of government services such as agricultural extension during the transition to demand driven fee-for-service. This paper explores the role of government programs, NGOs and CBOs in the adoption of land management technologies. We find that government programs were better distributed throughout Uganda and were more likely to operate in poorer areas than NGOs and CBOs. This raises the question of whether or not incentives should be provided for NGOs and CBOs to locate or evolve in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Community-Based Organization; Decentralization; Land Management; Non-Government Organization; Sustainable Development; Uganda; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16062
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Institutional/legal classification, MSEC Project sites in Thailand and Lao PDR. AgEcon
Kurian, Mathew.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Institutions; Decentralization; Watersheds; Crop production; Crop Production/Industries; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92520
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Institutions for integrated water resources management in upland watersheds of Southeast Asia: A comparative analysis of Thailand and Lao PDR. AgEcon
Kurian, Mathew.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Institutions; Decentralization; Watersheds; Food security; Domestic water; Environmental degradation; Income; Environmental Economics and Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Public Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92521
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Interactive Land-Use Planning in Indonesian Rain-Forest Landscapes: Reconnecting Plans to Practice Ecology and Society
Wollenberg, Eva; University of Vermont; lini.wollenberg@uvm.edu; Campbell, Bruce; Center for International Forestry Research; bruce.campbell@cdu.edu.au; Dounias, Edmond; CIFOR; e.dounias@cgiar.org; Gunarso, Petrus; Tropenbos; tropenbos@telkom.net; Moeliono, Moira; Center for International Forestry Research; m.moeliono@cgiar.org; Sheil, Douglas; Institute of Tropical Forest Conservation; douglassheil@itfc.org.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Land- use planning; Adaptive management; Borneo; Decentralization; Local knowledge; Spatial planning; Systems frameworks.
Ano: 2009
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Limitantes de la descentralización de la política de desarrollo rural, el caso de Concepción Pápalo y San Juan Los Cues, Oaxaca. Colegio de Postgraduados
Morales Galván, Inosencia.
Este trabajo de investigación fue realizado en los municipios de San Juan los Cues y Concepción Pápalo, en el estado de Oaxaca, con el objetivo principal de analizar las limitantes institucionales, organizativas, sociales de la descentralización del Programa de Desarrollo Rural de la Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganadería, Pesca y Alimentación (SAGARPA), en la operación de los subprogramas PAPIR; PRODESCA y PROFEMOR, considerados en la municipalización, y el impacto que tiene en la participación de la población y los Consejos Municipales de Desarrollo Rural Sustentable (CMDRS). Se encontró que la descentralización del programa de desarrollo rural, en su operación tanto a nivel estatal como a nivel municipal presenta factores como la descoordinación entre...
Palavras-chave: Descentralización; Municipalización; Consejos municipales; Participación; Decentralization; Municipal level; Municipal councils; Participation; EDAR; Estrategias para el Desarrollo Agrícola Regional; Maestría.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/549
Registros recuperados: 33
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