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Registros recuperados: 131
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2nd Forum on Irrigation and water for sustainable development: 15 –16 December, 2008 Ghion Hotel, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia AgEcon
Awulachew, Seleshi Bekele; Erkossa, Teklu; Balcha, Yodit.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Sustainable development; Irrigation management; Irrigation water; Irrigated farming; Irrigation systems; Supplemental irrigation; Land management; Land use; Investment; Case studies; Government policy; Rural poverty; Groundwater; Small scale systems; Socioeconomic development; Economic aspects; Economic growth; Income; Water management; Water resources development; Water harvesting; Water supply; Public policy; Agricultural production; Developing countries; Public-private cooperation; History; Case studies; River basins; Crop production; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; Financial Economics; Food Security and Poverty; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Land Economics/Use; Production Economics; Public Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118411
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A Club No More - The WTO after Doha AgEcon
Kerr, William A..
Since its inception the GATT, and subsequently the WTO, has been able to operate in a fashion that is more consistent with a club than an inclusive organization that encouraged the active participation of all its members. The WTO Ministerial Meeting in Doha in November 2001 appears to have been a watershed in how the organization functions, and the club model may no longer be appropriate. While it is not yet clear what will replace the previous model, it is apparent that decision making will be much more diffused and the interests of a much broader spectrum of member countries taken into account. The central question is whether or not the transformed organization can still serve the interests of those who were previously able to dominate the club–the major...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Club; Developing countries; Doha; International trade; Multilateral organization; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23909
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A framework for analyzing socioeconomic, health and environmental impacts of wastewater use in agriculture in developing countries AgEcon
Hussain, Intizar; Raschid, Liqa; Hanjra, Munir A.; Marikar, Fuard; van der Hoek, Wim.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Waste water management; Environmental degradation; Waterborne diseases; Water quality; Irrigation practices; Aquaculture; Economic analysis; Social aspects; Health; Environmental aspects; Agriculture; Developing countries; Policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Environmental Economics and Policy; Health Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Production Economics; Public Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92775
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A framework for efficient wastewater treatment and recycling systems AgEcon
Mekala, Gayathri Devi; Davidson, Brian; Samad, Madar; Boland, Anne-Maree.
Use of un-treated/partially treated wastewater for irrigation in the dry countries of Asia and Africa and recycling of treated wastewater in the water scarce developed countries has become a common practice due to various reasons. While the lack of wastewater treatment to appropriate levels before use is a major problem in developing countries, the high cost of wastewater recycling is the major problem in developed countries. The current paper is part of a doctoral research and presents the conceptual framework for the research and the methodology that can be used to tackle the problems associated with wastewater recycling.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Water reuse; Wastewater; Recycling; Pricing; Water allocation; Cost benefit analysis; Wastewater irrigation; Developing countries; Developed countries; Case studies; India; Australia; Hyderabad; Melbourne; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Crop Production/Industries; Demand and Price Analysis; Farm Management; Production Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46387
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A global experiment in agricultural development International Rice Research Institute
Brady, N.C.; International Rice Research Institute.
24 p. : ill.
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Research; Agricultural development; International cooperation; IRGC; IRRI; CGIAR; Developing countries.
Ano: 1982 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10269/227
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A Global Hunger Index: Measurement Concept, Ranking of Countries, and Trends AgEcon
Wiesmann, Doris M..
Progress in combating hunger and undernutrition has been lagging for decades. Best practices to fight hunger and undernutrition have been available for a long while, but lack of political will among leaders and a lack of political power among the poor have hampered their implementation. Since indices have proven to be powerful tools for advocacy and are able to capture multifaceted phenomena, the Global Hunger Index (GHI) was developed to increase attention to the hunger problem and mobilize the political will to speed up urgently needed progress in the fight against hunger. The GHI captures three dimensions of hunger: insufficient availability of food, shortfalls in the nutritional status of children, and child mortality, which is to a large extent...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Hunger; Undernutrition; Child malnutrition; Child mortality; Food availability; Indicators; HIV/AIDS; Conflict; War; Developing countries; Countries in transition; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55891
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A Public Choice Approach to the Economic Analysis of Animal Healthcare Systems AgEcon
Riviere-Cinnamond, Ana.
Privatisation of animal healthcare systems in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, has had very limited success. Introduced with inadequate transition time and too few resources, many livestock owners either cannot afford or, just as likely, are unable to gain access to the services they need. Poor livestock owners in remote rural areas suffer the greatest disadvantage. This fact is undisputed but, since privatisation, the primary focus has been on analysing the performance of animal healthcare systems and few authors have studied the underlying economic theories that have driven privatisation policy nor examined in what ways these may have been detrimental. This working paper examines how the economic analysis of animal health...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Animal health services; Privatisation process; Market failure; Taxonomy of goods; Poor livestock keepers; Developing countries; Community animal health workers; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23786
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A Typology of Benefit Sharing Arrangements for the Governance of Social-Ecological Systems in Developing Countries Ecology and Society
Nkhata, Bimo Abraham; Water Research Node, Monash South Africa; bimo.nkhata@monash.edu; Mosimane, Alfons; Centre for Environment, Agriculture and Development, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; alfons.mosimane@gmail.com; Downsborough, Linda; Water Research Node, Monash South Africa; Linda.Downsborough@monash.edu; Breen, Charles; Centre for Environment, Agriculture and Development, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; breenc@telkomsa.net; Roux, Dirk J; Water Research Node, Monash South Africa; dirk.roux@monash.edu.
This study explores and interprets relevant literature to construct a typology of benefit sharing arrangements for the governance of social-ecological systems in developing countries. The typology comprises three generic categories of benefit sharing arrangements: collaborative, market-oriented, and egalitarian. We contend that the three categories provide a useful basis for exploring and classifying the different societal arrangements required for governance of social-ecological systems. The typology we present is founded on a related set of explicit assumptions that can be used to explore and better understand the linkages among ecosystem services, benefit sharing, and governance. Issues that are strongly related to sustainability in developing countries...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Benefit sharing; Developing countries; Ecosystem services; Governance; Social-ecological systems; Typology.
Ano: 2012
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Acceptance of a food of animal origin obtained through genetic modification and cloning in South America: a comparative study among university students and working adults Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment.
SCHNETTLER,Berta; VELÁSQUEZ,Carlos; MIRANDA,Horacio; LOBOS,Germán; ORELLANA,Ligia; SEPÚLVEDA,José; MIRANDA,Edgardo; ADASME-BERRÍOS,Cristian; GRUNERT,Klaus.
AbstractWith the aim of comparing the acceptance of milk obtained from cloned, genetically modified (GM) and conventionally bred cows among working adults and university students, and identifying and characterizing typologies among both subsamples in terms of their preferences, a survey was applied to 400 people in southern Chile, distributed using a simple allocation among the subsamples. Using a conjoint analysis, it was found that consumers preferred milk from a conventional cow. Using a cluster analysis, in both subsamples two segments sensitive to production technology were identified. Rejection of cloning was greatest among university students, whereas a higher proportion of working adults rejected GM. The segments differed in terms of area of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Animal cloning; GM animals; Milk; Developing countries; Consumer acceptance.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612015000300570
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Adaptation to Climate Change in the Developing World OceanDocs
Huq, S.; Adger, W.N.; Brown, K.; Hulme, M..
The world’s climate is changing and will continue to change into the coming century at rates projected to be unprecedented in recent human history. The risks associated with these changes are real but highly uncertain. Societal vulnerability to the risks associated with climate change may exacerbate ongoing social and economic challenges, particularly for those parts of societies dependent on resources that are sensitive to changes in climate. Risks are apparent in agriculture, fisheries and many other components that constitute the livelihood of rural populations in developing countries. In this paper we explore the nature of risk and vulnerability in the context of climate change and review the evidence on present-day adaptation in developing countries...
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Adaptation; Vulnerability; Climate change; Environmental policy; Developing countries; Climate change; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_35367.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/833
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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND URBAN POVERTY IN INDIA AgEcon
Fan, Shenggen.
Using a similar analytical approach to a study in China, this paper analyzes the impact of agricultural research on urban poverty reduction in India. State level data from 1970 to 1995 were used in the empirical analysis. It is found that in addition to its large impact on rural poverty reduction, agricultural research investments have also played a major role in the reduction of urban poverty. Agricultural research investments increase agricultural production, and increased production in turn lowers food prices. The urban poor often benefit proportionately more than the non-poor since they spend 50-80% of their income on food. Among all the rural investments considered in this study, agricultural research has the largest impact on urban poverty reduction...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Developing countries; India; Agricultural research; Urban; Poverty; Food price; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16079
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Agricultural tariff rate quotas implementation in the EU 1997-2002 ; Do developing countries enjoy quota rent? AgEcon
Dupraz, Cathie Laroche; Matthews, Alan.
Tariff rate quotas (TRQs) have been introduced and legitimised as a market access instrument in the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA). TRQs combine both restriction of imports, and safeguard of current or preferential agricultural trade flows. By restricting the market access through high level tariff beyond the quota, one can imagine that exporters enjoying low level tariff would take share of quota rent. Do developing exporting countries benefit from EU TRQs? Do they enjoy quota rents or guaranteed market access? What should be their interest to defend about TRQs at WTO agricultural negotiations? This article aims to present an analysis of the 87 EU's agricultural TRQs implementation from 1997 to 2002, in order to bring to the fore the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Tariff rate quotas; Quota rent; Developing countries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7910
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Agricultural tariff rate quotas in the EU 1997-2002: Do developing countries enjoy quota rents? AgEcon
Laroche Dupraz, Catherine; Matthews, Alan.
Tariff rate quotas (TRQs) were introduced and legitimised as a market access instrument in the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA). TRQs combine both restrictions on imports, as well as safeguarding current or preferential agricultural trade flows. When market access is restricted by a high tariff level beyond the quota, exporters that enjoy the low in-quota tariff may be able to gain a share of the quota rent. The paper analyses the implementation of 87 EU agricultural TRQs between 1997 and 2002 to examine their economic significance from the point of view of developing countries. Analysis of the database shows that TRQ trade can generate a high preference margin but that the potential rent is not so high. Moreover, this potential rent is...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Tariff rate quotas; Quota rents; Developing countries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7213
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Agricultural Trade Liberalisation and Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Analysis of Distributional Consequences AgEcon
Ali, Ershad; Talukder, Dayal.
The article analyses the impact of agricultural trade liberalisation on economic growth as well as on the welfare of rural livelihoods in developing countries through technological transformation in the agricultural sector. The article, based on existing literature, considers the background and reasons for the policy shift in developing economies away from agricultural protection and toward trade liberalisation. It attempts to shed light on the debate over the distributional consequences resulting from trade liberalisation. It also analyses how agricultural trade policy reforms affect poverty and inequality, since the majority of the population of developing countries is involved with agriculture, and these households are predominantly rural poor and...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Developing countries; Growth; Inequality; Trade liberalisation; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Political Economy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93447
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Agricultural Trade Liberalization and Adjustment in Developing Countries AgEcon
Abbott, Philip C..
Agricultural trade liberalization offers the possibility of substantial income gains and poverty reduction in the developing world. For those gains to be realized, institutional innovations and realizations of export opportunities are crucial. Adjustment policies to foster gains from trade include initiatives to compensate losers, institutional reforms to integrate into the global trading system, and policies which facilitate resource reallocations and especially enhance investment activity, both foreign and domestic. Much can be learned from experience with structural adjustment reforms, in which substantial trade liberalization by developing countries was accompanied by numerous other reforms when successful. Agriculture is important in reforms because...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade liberalization; Developing countries; Structural adjustment; Institutional innovation; Good governance; Investment; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15731
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Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Assessing the Consequences for Developing Countries AgEcon
Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Jean, Sebastien; Matthews, Alan.
Recent analyses suggest that the impact of agricultural trade liberalization on developing countries will be very uneven. Simulations suggest that the effects of agricultural trade liberalization will be small, overall, and are likely to be negative for a significant number of developing countries. The Doha Round focuses on tariff issues, but these countries currently have practically duty-free access to European and North American markets under preferential regimes. Multilateral liberalization will erode the benefits of these preferences, which are presently rather well utilized in the agricultural sector. The main obstacles to the exports of the poorest countries appear to be in the non-tariff area (sanitary, phytosanitary standards) which increasingly...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade liberalization; WTO; Developing countries; International Development; International Relations/Trade; F13; Q17.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24628
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An analysis of trade related international regulations of genetically modified food and their effects on developing countries AgEcon
Gruere, Guillaume P..
This paper reviews current trade-related regulations of genetically modified (GM) food and discusses their effects on developing countries. There is a large heterogeneity in current import approval and marketing policies of GM food worldwide. At the international level, the harmonization efforts are led by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the World Trade Organization. While internationally harmonized guidelines for safety approval have been finalized, we show that there is no clear consensus on labeling regulations for GM food, and there is an increasing risk of conflicts among international agreements. We analyze the GM food regulations of two large rich importers, Japan and the European Union (EU) and discuss...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Genetically modified food; Developing countries; Biotechnology; Biosafety; Trade regulation; Labeling; International trade; Tariff; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55422
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An outbreak of Candida spp. bloodstream infection in a tertiary care center in Bogotá, Colombia BJID
DiazGranados,Carlos A.; Martinez,Adriana; Deaza,Ceneth; Valderrama,Sandra.
Several cases of Candida bloodstream infections were documented from June to October 2004 at a tertiary care center in Bogotá, Colombia. Since no cases of candidemia had occurred during the preceding four months, an outbreak was declared. As a result, a microbiological study, a revision of infection control practices and a case-control study were performed. In all, 18 cases of candidemia were ascertained. Parenteral nutrition (p=0.04), presence of a central line (p=0.03), and severity of illness (p=0.03) were associated with candidemia in bivariate analysis. Diverse Candida species were observed. Candida parapsilosis contamination was found in plastic containers used for transient intravenous (IV) medication storage at the bedside, plastic bags reused for...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Candida; Fungemia; Disease outbreaks; Developing countries; Colombia; Latin America.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702008000500009
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Approaches and frameworks for management and research in small-scale fisheries in the developing world AgEcon
Andrew, Neil; Evans, Louisa.
Commonly adopted approaches to managing small-scale fisheries (SSFs) in developing countries do not ensure sustainability. Progress is impeded by a gap between innovative SSF research and slower-moving SSF management. The paper aims to bridge the gap by showing that the three primary bases of SSF management--ecosystem, stakeholders’ rights and resilience--are mutually consistent and complementary. It nominates the ecosystem approach as an appropriate starting point because it is established in national and international law and policy. Within this approach, the emerging resilience perspective and associated concepts of adaptive management and institutional learning can move management beyond traditional control and resource-use optimization, which largely...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Developing countries; Fishery management; Artisanal fishing; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53029
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Are The Poverty Effects of Trade Policies Invisible? AgEcon
Verma, Monika; Valenzuela, Ernesto; Hertel, Thomas W..
With the advent of the WTO’s Doha Development Agenda, as well as the Millennium Development Goals aiming to reduce poverty by 50 percent by 2015, poverty impacts of trade reforms have attracted increasing attention. This has been particularly true of agricultural trade reform due to the importance of food in the diets of the poor, relatively higher protection in agriculture, as well as the heavy concentration of global poverty in rural areas where agriculture is the main source of income. Yet some in this debate have argued that, given the extreme volatility in agricultural commodity markets, the additional price and poverty impacts due to trade liberalization might well be undetectable. This paper formally tests this “invisibility hypothesis” via...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade policy reform; Agricultural trade; Computable general equilibrium; Developing countries; Poverty headcount; Volatility; Stochastic simulation; Non-parametric hypothesis testing; Financial Economics; Risk and Uncertainty; C68; F17; I32; Q17; R20.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61793
Registros recuperados: 131
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