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Registros recuperados: 12
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A snapshot of cancer in Chile: analytical frameworks for developing a cancer policy Biol. Res.
la Jara,Jorge Jimenez de; Bastias,Gabriel; Ferreccio,Catterina; Moscoso,Cristian; Sagues,Sofia; Cid,Camilo; Bronstein,Eduardo; Herrera,Cristian; Nervi,Bruno; Corvalan,Alejandro; Velasquez,Ethel V; Gonzalez,Pamela; Castellon,Enrique; Bustamante,Eva; Oñate,Sergio; McNerney,Eileen; Sullivan,Richard; Owen,Gareth I.
INTRODUCTION: The South American country Chile now boasts a life expectancy of over 80 years. As a consequence, Chile now faces the increasing social and economic burden of cancer and must implement political policy to deliver equitable cancer care. Hindering the development of a national cancer policy is the lack of comprehensive analysis of cancer infrastructure and economic impact. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate existing cancer policy, the extent of national investigation and the socio-economic impact of cancer to deliver guidelines for the framing of an equitable national cancer policy. METHODS: Burden, research and care-policy systems were assessed by triangulating objective system metrics -epidemiological, economic, etc. - with political and policy analysis....
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Chile; Cancer policy; Investigation; Research and development; Statistics; Gallbladder cancer; Stomach cancer; Developing country.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602015000100010
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Adapting Science to Adaptive Managers: Spidergrams, Belief Models, and Multi-agent Systems Modeling Ecology and Society
Lynam, Timothy; Tropical Resource Ecology Program, University of Zimbabwe; tlynam@science.uz.ac.zw; Bousquet, Francois; CIRAD Tera; bousquet@cirad.fr; Le Page, Christophe; CIRAD Tera; lepage@cirad.fr; d'Aquino, P.; CIRAD Tera; daquino@telecomplus.sn; Barreteau, Olivier; Cemagref Division Irrigation; barreteau@montpellier.cemagref.fr; Chinembiri, Frank C; Agritex;; Mombeshora, Bright; ;.
Two case studies are presented in which models were used as focal tools in problems associated with common-pool resource management in developing countries. In the first case study, based in Zimbabwe, Bayesian or Belief Networks were used in a project designed to enhance the adaptive management capacity of a community in a semiarid rangeland system. In the second case study, based in Senegal, multi-agent systems models were used in the context of role plays to communicate research findings to a community, as well as to explore policies for improved management of rangelands and arable lands over which herders and farmers were in conflict. The paper provides examples of the use of computer-based modeling with stakeholders who had limited experience with...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptive management; Bayesian belief networks; Developing country; Dynamic modeling; Multi-agent systems; Participatory modeling; Semiarid rangeland; Senegal; Spidergrams; Zimbabwe.
Ano: 2002
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Adoption of Clean Leather-Tanning Technologies in Mexico AgEcon
Blackman, Allen.
In many developing countries, a host of financial, institutional, and political factors hamstring conventional environmental regulation. Given these constraints, a promising strategy for controlling pollution is to promote the voluntary adoption of clean technologies. Although this strategy has received considerable attention in policy circles, empirical research on the adoption of clean technologies in developing countries is limited. This paper presents historical background and original survey data on the adoption of five clean tanning technologies by a sample of 137 leather tanneries in Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico, a city where tanneries have serious environmental impacts and conventional environmental regulation has repeatedly failed to mitigate the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Clean technology; Leather tanning; Developing country; Mexico; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q53; Q55; Q56; 013; 033.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10881
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Agricultural Supply Response in Fiji AgEcon
Hone, Phillip; Haszler, Henry; Natasiwai, Tevita.
The agricultural sector is a central part of the Fiji Islands economy. Policies to alleviate poverty and stimulate economic growth need to be based on a sound understanding of the local agricultural systems involved. This understanding needs to extend to the responsiveness of production to price changes. To date there have been no published quantitative estimates of the responsiveness of agricultural supply in Fiji to output price changes. In this paper we present a set of highly disaggregated supply elasticities covering many of the major food crops produced and consumed in Fiji. These results have been derived from a stated intention survey of rural households. The results appear consistent with the dual nature of Fiji's agricultural sector and show that...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Stated intention survey; Agricultural; Supply elasticities; Developing country; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; International Development.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/5982
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Clean Technological Change in Developing-Country Industrial Clusters: Mexican Leather Tanning AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Kildegaard, Arne.
In many developing country cities, clusters of small and medium enterprises create severe pollution problems. Because conventional regulatory approaches are typically ineffective in such situations, policy responses have increasingly focused on promoting voluntary clean technological change. Yet the data and analysis needed to guide such efforts are scarce. This paper uses original firm-level survey data on a cluster of small- and medium-scale leather tanneries in Leon, Guanajuato -Mexico's leather capital-to econometrically identify the factors that drive the adoption of two clean tanning technologies. Using a multivariate probit model to estimate a system of seemingly unrelated regressions, we find-in contrast to conventional wisdom-that neither firm...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Clean technology; Developing country; Small and medium enterprises; Mexico; Multivariate probit; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10545
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Control of Newcastle Disease in Village Chickens AgEcon
Centre for International Economics.
Between 1983 and 1992, the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) invested A$3 million in research to find a vaccine that could provide protection from Newcastle disease in chickens and be applied in village environments in developing countries. A further $160 000 was invested in follow up projects which ended in 1996. Village chickens often provide the only source of protein to poor villagers living in remote areas and Newcastle disease frequently devastates unvaccinated village flocks. The ACIAR-sponsored research was highly successful in developing a heat resistant vaccine (HRV4) which could be readily used in the field by coating it onto chicken feed. The vaccine was commercialised by an Australian company which subsequently...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Newcastle disease; Chickens; Poultry; Vaccine; Malaysia; Vietnam; ACIAR; Australia; Developing country; Village; Africa; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Livestock Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47190
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Examining life-course influences on chronic disease: the importance of birth cohort studies from low- and middle- income countries. An overview BJMBR
Batty,G.D.; Alves,J.G.; Correia,J; Lawlor,D.A..
The objectives of this overview are to describe the past and potential contributions of birth cohorts to understanding chronic disease aetiology; advance a justification for the maintenance of birth cohorts from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC); provide an audit of birth cohorts from LMIC; and, finally, offer possible future directions for this sphere of research. While the contribution of birth cohorts from affluent societies to understanding disease aetiology has been considerable, we describe several reasons to anticipate why the results from such studies might not be directly applied to LMIC. More than any other developing country, Brazil has a tradition of establishing, maintaining and exploiting birth cohort studies. The clear need for a...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Birth cohort; Chronic disease; Developing country; Epidemiology; Life-course.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2007000900015
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Examining life-course influences on chronic disease: the Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort studies (Brazil) BJMBR
Batty,G.D.
More than any other low- and middle-income country, Brazil has the longest research tradition of establishing, maintaining and exploiting birth cohort studies. This research pedigree is highlighted in the present issue of the Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, which contains a series of twelve papers from the Ribeirão Preto and São Luis birth cohort studies from the Southeast and Northeast of Brazil, respectively. The topics covered in this raft of reports vary and include predictors of perinatal health and maternal risk factors, early life determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adolescence, use of health services, and a description of dietary characteristics of young adults, amongst other topics. There is also a...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Birth cohort; Chronic disease; Developing country; Epidemiology; Life-course.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2007000900001
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Obstacles to a Doubly Green Revolution AgEcon
Blackman, Allen.
Increasingly, conventional wisdom dictates that agrarian policy in developing countries should foster a "doubly green revolution" that both protects the environment and boosts output. Like the first green revolution, such a transformation will entail convincing millions of farmers to adopt new practices and, as a result, will confront well-documented barriers to technological change in developing-country agriculture. It will also face a number of new obstacles, including a divergence between the interests of policymakers and farmers, a policy environment biased in favor of input-intensive agriculture, and the fact that many environmentally friendly technologies entail relatively high set-up costs. At least in the short run, institutional constraints will...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Developing country; Green revolution; Environment; Environmental Economics and Policy; O13; O33; Q2; Q16; Q18.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10476
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Optimising contract design in modern food supply chains: The case of paprika sector in Central Malawi JARTS
Repar, Lana Ana; Onakuse, Stephen; Bogue, Joe; Afonso, Ana.
Contract farming remains one of the most efficient tools for integrating small-scale farmers into modern food markets. However, the literature lacks evidence on best practices in designing contracts for food supply chains in developing countries. The purpose of this study is to analyse the design of an existing contract in the emerging Malawian paprika sector using a qualitative analytical approach. The study compared a contract design in Malawi’s paprika supply chain with four similar contracts from the horticultural sector in Malawi, India, Zambia and Cape Verde. This study employed a thematic qualitative analysis and developed 17 categories for analysing contracts. The findings showed that the Malawian contract contained in total eleven defined clauses....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural economics contractual arrangements; Developing country; Small-scale farmers; Thematic analysis.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.jarts.info/index.php/jarts/article/view/2017031552220
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Using Alternative Regulatory Instruments to Control Fixed Point Air Pollution in Developing Countries: Lessons from International Experience AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Harrington, Winston.
Should developing countries eschew conventional command and control regulatory instruments that are increasingly seen as inefficient and rely instead on 'alternative' instruments based on economic incentives and community pressure? This paper addresses this question as it pertains to fixed point air pollution. The paper discusses the theoretical advantages and disadvantages of alternative instruments, reviews both industrialized country and developing country experiences with them, and proposes a number of policy guidelines. We argue that regulators in developing countries typically operate under severe financial and institutional constraints. Given these constraints, pure economic incentive instruments are generally not practical since they involve...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Market based instruments; Economic incentives; Informal regulation; Developing country; Industrial air pollution; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q28; O13.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10689
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Why Don't Lenders Finance High-Return Technological Change in Developing-Country Agriculture? AgEcon
Blackman, Allen.
Most of the literature attributes credit constraints in small-farm developing-country agriculture to the variability of returns to investment in this sector. But the literature does not fully explain lenders. reluctance to finance investments in technologies that provide both higher average and less variable returns. To fill this gap, this article develops an information-theoretic credit market model with endogenous technology choice. The model demonstrates that lenders may refuse to finance any investment in a riskless high-return technology--regardless of the interest rate they are offered--when they are imperfectly informed about loan applicants, time preferences and, therefore, about their propensities to default intentionally in order to finance...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Asymmetric information; Credit; Developing country; Technology adoption; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O12; O16; O33; Q14; D82.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10886
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