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ACT Now or Later: The Economics of Malaria Resistance AgEcon
Laxminarayan, Ramanan.
In the past, malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa have relied on a combination of vector control and effective treatment using chloroquine. With increasing resistance to chloroquine, attention has now turned to alternative treatment strategies to replace this failing drug. Although there are strong theoretical arguments in favor of switching to more expensive artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs), the validity of these arguments in the face of financial constraints has not been previously analyzed. In this paper, we use a Bioeconomic model of malaria transmission and evolution of drug resistance to examine questions of optimal treatment strategy and coverage when drug resistance places an additional constraint on choices available to the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Malaria; Mathematical models; Drug resistance; Bioeconomics; Health Economics and Policy; I10; I19; C61.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10699
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AmpC beta lactamases among Gram negative clinical isolates from a tertiary hospital, South India BJM
Mohamudha,Parveen R.; Harish,B.N.; Parija,S.C..
AmpC β-lactamases are cephalosporinases that hydrolyze cephamycins as well as other extended-spectrum cephalosporins and are poorly inhibited by clavulanic acid. Although reported with increasing frequency, the true rate of occurrence of AmpC β-lactamases in different organisms, including members of Enterobacteriaceae, remains unknown. The present study was designed to determine the occurrence of AmpC enzyme-harbouring Gram-negative clinical isolates in a tertiary care hospital in Pondicherry state, South India. A total of 235 Gram negative clinical isolates were tested for resistance to cefoxitin, third generation cephalosporin (3GC) antibiotics, ampicillin, amikacin, co-trimoxazole, gentamicin, meropenem and tetracycline by disc diffusion method....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Gram negative organisms; Drug resistance; Three-dimensional technique; AmpC β-lactamases.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822010000300009
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Antimicrobial resistance on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cases subclinical mastitis in goats. Repositório Alice
MENEZES, L. M. F; ÂNGELO, F. F.; ALCINDO, J. F.; SÁ, D. M. A.; LIMA, A. R.; ARAUJO, R. F.; MESQUITA, F. L. T.; SOUZA, V. de.
Caprine mastitis is one of the most common diseases in dairy herds, causing damage mainly due to the decrease in milk production after the invasion of the infectious agent in the secretory epithelium of the mammary gland. Species Staphylococcus aureus is the most pathogenic agent in the mammary gland, having important implications for public health, since it produces enterotoxins that survive the heat treatments applied to milk. The use of proper antibiotics is an important tool for the treatment of the disease. However, they should be used judiciously, since the main cause of failure in therapy is bacterial resistance to the drug. This study uses an antibiogram to evaluate the resistance of microorganisms isolated from goat milk samples with subclinical...
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Resistance to antibiotics; Resistance to chemicals; Antimicrobial resistance; Tratamento químico; Resistência a medicamento; Mamite; Caprino; Cabra Leiteira; Doença Animal; Antibiótico; Resistência Química; Goat diseases; Goat milk; Chemical treatment; Public health; Drug resistance.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1114014
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Antimicrobial susceptibility in intensive care units: MYSTIC Program Brazil 2002 BJID
Mendes,Caio; Oplustil,Carmen; Sakagami,Elsa; Turner,Philip; Kiffer,Carlos.
OBJECTIVE: Establish the susceptibility pattern of Gram-negative bacteria causing infections in ICU patients, MYSTIC Program Brazil 2002. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gram-negative bacteria (n = 503) causing nosocomial infections were collected at seven Brazilian centers. The central laboratory confirmed the identification and performed the susceptibility tests by E-test methodology (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) for meropenem, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefepime, cefotaxime, piperacillin/tazobactam, gentamicin, and tobramycin. Interpretation criteria used were according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). RESULTS: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33%) was the most frequently isolated, followed by A. baumannii (17.1%), K. pneumoniae...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Drug resistance; Bacterial; Microbial sensitivity tests; Infection control; Carbapenems.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702005000100008
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Antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria in Brazilian hospitals: the MYSTIC Program Brazil 2003 BJID
Kiffer,Carlos; Hsiung,Andre; Oplustil,Carmen; Sampaio,Jorge; Sakagami,Elsa; Turner,Philip; Mendes,Caio.
Establish the susceptibility pattern of Gram-negative bacteria causing infections in ICU patients, MYSTIC Program Brazil 2003. Gram-negative bacteria (n = 1,550) causing nosocomial infections were collected at 20 Brazilian centers. The central laboratory confirmed the identification and performed the susceptibility tests by Etest methodology (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) for meropenem, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefepime, cefotaxime, piperacillin/tazobactam, gentamicin, and tobramycin. Interpretation criteria used were according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30.3%) was the most frequent isolate, followed by E. coli (18.6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.9%), Acitenobacter baumannii (8.8%), and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Drug resistance; Bacterial; Microbial sensitivity tests; Infection control; Carbapenems.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702005000300004
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Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae and genotypic characterization of erythromycin-resistant strains in Porto Alegre, Brazil BJM
Weber,F. T.; Dias,C.; Costa,M. da.
The antimicrobial susceptibility of 64 strains of S. pneumoniae obtained from three hospitals in Porto Alegre, Brazil, isolated between 2004 and 2005, was determined, using the agar-dilution method. The prevalence of resistant (intermediate and full resistance) strains to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and ceftriaxone were 68%, 28%, 18%, 15%, 3%, and 1%, respectively. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin. Among 18 penicillin-resistant strains, 7 were resistant to at least two other antimicrobial drugs. All erythromycin-resistant strains, except one, contained the erm(B) and/or mef(A/E) genes, with a predominance of the former. The resistance rate to penicillin and erythromycin in Porto Alegre...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Streptococcus pneumoniae; Drug resistance; Erm(B); Mef(A/E).
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822010000100001
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Assessing the pharmacodynamic profile of intravenous antibiotics against prevalent Gram-negative organisms collected in Colombia BJID
Villegas,Maria Virginia; Briceno,David Felipe; Ruiz,Sory Jamil; Furtado,Guilherme H; Nicolau,David P.
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to simulate standard and optimized dosing regimens for intravenous antibiotics against contemporary populations of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using MIC distribution data to determine which of the tested carbapenem regimens provided the greatest opportunity for obtaining maximal pharmacodynamic (PD) activity. METHODS: The isolates studied were obtained from the COMPACT-COLOMBIA surveillance program conducted between February and November 2009. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted by broth microdilution method according to the CLSI guidelines. Doripenem, imipenem-cilastatin, and meropenem, were the modeled antibiotics. A 5,000 patient Monte...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Drug resistance; Bacterial; Gram-negative bacteria; Monte Carlo Method; Colombia; Pharmacology.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702011000500001
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Carbapenem stewardship: positive impact on hospital ecology BJID
Lima,Ana Lucia Lei Munhoz; Oliveira,Priscila Rosalba Domingos de; Paula,Adriana Pereira de; Dal-Paz,Karine; Almeida Jr,João Nóbrega de; Félix,Cássia da Silva; Rossi,Flávia.
INTRODUCTION: Excessive group 2 carbapenem use may result in decreased bacterial susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the impact of a carbapenem stewardship program, restricting imipenem and meropenem use. METHODS: Ertapenem was mandated for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae infections in the absence of non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) from April 2006 to March 2008. Group 2 carbapenems were restricted for use against GNB infections susceptible only to carbapenems and suspected GNB infections in unstable patients. Cumulative susceptibility tests were done for nosocomial pathogens before and after restriction using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guide-lines.Vitek System or conventional identification methods were performed...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Carbapenems; Drug resistance; Bacterial ecology.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702011000100001
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Cefepime restriction improves gram-negative overall resistance patterns in neonatal intensive care unit BJID
Araujo,Orlei Ribeiro de; Silva,Dafne Cardoso Bourguignon da; Diegues,Ana Regina; Arkader,Ronaldo; Cabral,Eloíza Aparecida Ferreira; Afonso,Marta Rodriguez; Louzada,Maria Eduarda; Albertoni,Andréa de Cássia Stéfano.
Antibiotic restriction can be useful in maintaining bacterial susceptibility. The objective of this study was verify if restriction of cefepime, the most frequently used cephalosporin in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), would ameliorate broad-spectrum susceptibility of Gram-negative isolates. Nine hundred and ninety-five premature and term newborns were divided into 3 cohorts, according to the prevalence of cefepime use in the unit: Group 1 (n=396) comprised patients admitted from January 2002 to December 2003, period in which cefepime was the most used broad-spectrum antibiotic. Patients in Group 2 (n=349) were admitted when piperacillin/tazobactam replaced cefepime (January to December 2004) and in Group 3 (n=250) when cefepime was reintroduced...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Drug resistance; Infection control; Cefepime; Bacterial.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702007000200022
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Ceftolozane-tazobactam activity against drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing healthcare-associated infections in Latin America: report from an antimicrobial surveillance program (2013-2015) BJID
Pfaller,Michael A.; Shortridge,Dee; Sader,Helio S.; Gales,Ana; Castanheira,Mariana; Flamm,Robert K..
ABSTRACT This study evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator agents tested against Latin American isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with health care-associated infections. Ceftolozane-tazobactam is an antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with a well-established β-lactamase inhibitor.A total of 2415 Gram-negative organisms (537 P. aeruginosa and 1878 Enterobacteriaceae) were consecutively collected in 12 medical centers located in four Latin American countries. The organisms were tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods as described by the CLSI M07-A10 document and the results interpreted according to EUCAST and CLSI breakpoint criteria. Results: Ceftolozane-tazobactam...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Ceftolozane-tazobactam; Drug resistance; Enterobacteriaceae; P. aeruginosa; Latin America; Surveillance.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000600627
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Challenges in the development of drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis BJID
Shehzad,Adeeb; Rehman,Gauhar; Ul-Islam,Mazhar; Khattak,Waleed Ahmad; Lee,Young Sup.
Tuberculosis infection is a serious human health threat and the early 21st century has seen a remarkable increase in global tuberculosis activity. The pathogen responsible for tuberculosis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which adopts diverse strategies in order to survive in a variety of host lesions. These survival mechanisms make the pathogen resistant to currently available drugs, a major contributing factor in the failure to control the spread of tuberculosis. Multiple drugs are available for clinical use and several potential compounds are being screened, synthesized, or evaluated in preclinical or clinical studies. Lasting and effective achievements in the development of anti-tuberculosis drugs will depend largely on the proper understanding of the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Antibiotics; Drug resistance; Tuberculosis; Pathogen.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702013000100012
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Chloroquine sensitizes biofilms of Candida albicans to antifungal azoles BJID
Shinde,Ravikumar Bapurao; Raut,Jayant Shankar; Chauhan,Nitin Mahendra; Karuppayil,Sankunny Mohan.
Biofilms formed by Candida albicans, a human pathogen, are known to be resistant to different antifungal agents. Novel strategies to combat the biofilm associated Candida infections like multiple drug therapy are being explored. In this study, potential of chloroquine to be a partner drug in combination with four antifungal agents, namely fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin, was explored against biofilms of C. albicans. Activity of various concentrations of chloroquine in combination with a particular antifungal drug was analyzed in a checkerboard format. Growth of biofilm in presence of drugs was analyzed by XTT-assay, in terms of relative metabolic activity compared to that of drug free control. Results obtained by XTT-metabolic...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Antifungal; Biofilm; Candida albicans; Combination; Chloroquine; Drug resistance.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702013000400002
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Circulating high mobility group box-1 and toll-like receptor 4 expressions increase the risk and severity of epilepsy BJMBR
Kan,Minchen; Song,Lihong; Zhang,Xueqiang; Zhang,Jing; Fang,Pingping.
This study aimed to investigate the association of serum high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions with the risk of epilepsy as well as their correlations with disease severity and resistance to anti-epilepsy drugs. One hundred and five epilepsy patients and 100 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in this case-control study, and serum samples were collected from all participants to assess the HMGB1 and TLR4 expressions by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Both serum HMGB1 (P<0.001) and TLR4 (P<0.001) expressions were higher in epilepsy patients than in HCs, and they displayed good predictive values for risk of epilepsy. Moreover, HMGB1 was positively correlated with TLR4 level (r=0.735, P<0.001). HMGB1...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1); Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4); Epilepsy; Severity; Drug resistance.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2019000700603
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Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA): molecular background, virulence, and relevance for public health J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.
Bonesso,MF; Marques,SA; Cunha,MLRS.
Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) are frequently found in nosocomial environments as the main pathogen in several infections. In 1961, reports of nosocomial S. aureus resistant to methicillin, the drug of choice against penicillin-resistant strains, required new alternatives and vancomycin started being used to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) was first reported in 1990 affecting patients without risk factors for infection with MRSA of hospital origin. MRSA of community origin harbor the genes responsible for the synthesis of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a toxin associated with skin and soft tissue infections and that...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; MecA gene; Oxacillin; Panton-Valentine leukocidin; Drug resistance; Epidemiology.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992011000400004
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Comparative evaluation of the Nitrate Reductase Assay and the Resazurin Microtitre Assay for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against first line anti-tuberculosis drugs BJM
Sanchotene,Karine O.; von Groll,Andrea; Ramos,Daniela; Scholante,Ana B.; Honscha,Gunther; Valença,Mariana; Scaini,Carlos J.; Silva,Pedro E.A. da.
Tuberculosis remains as a serious infection disease of worldwide distribution, with high morbidity and mortality, mainly in low socio-economic condition countries. The state of emergency of tuberculosis caused by the resistant and multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, became the main threat to the tuberculosis treatment and control programs. A fast detection method for the resistant strains will allow the implementation of an adequate treatment and contribute for controlling the dissemination of these resistant strains. This study evaluated the performance of the nitrate reductase assay in solid (NRA-LJ) and liquid (NRA-7H9) media, to determine the susceptibility to first line anti-tuberculosis drugs: isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), ethambutol (EMB) and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Nitrate reductase assay; Susceptibility tests; Drug resistance.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822008000100004
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Desenvolvimento e diagnóstico da resistência anti-helmíntica em populações de haemonchus contortus no estado do Ceará. Repositório Alice
SANTOS, J. M. L. dos..
Resumo: Os nematoides gastrintestinais são um dos principais fatores limitantes na criação de pequenos ruminantes no mundo. Os benzimidazóis (BZ), as lactonas macrocíclicas (LM) e os imidazotiazóis são os anti-helmínticos mais utilizados para o controle desses parasitas. Contudo, o uso de fármacos leva inevitavelmente ao desenvolvimento de resistência anti-helmíntica (RAH). O diagnóstico de RAH é realizado principalmente por meio de métodos fenotípicos com baixa sensibilidade. Dessa forma, métodos moleculares, são necessários para melhorar a capacidade de detecção da RAH. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram avaliar o estado da RAH em nematoides gastrintestinais de ovinos no Ceará, investigar a relação entre a resistência a BZ e LM e padronizar técnica de...
Tipo: Tese/dissertação (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Pequeno ruminante; PCR em tempo real; Nematoide gastrintestinal; Resistência molecular; Lactonas macrocíclicas; Caprino; Ovino; Helminto gastrintestinal; Haemonchus contortus; Anti-Helmíntico; Resistência a produtos químicos; Parasitismo; Benzimidazol; Goats; Sheep; Small ruminants; PCR; Resistance to anthelmintics; Drug resistance; Nematoda; Parasitism; Levamisole; Oxfendazole; Ivermectin.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1082456
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Diagnóstico da resistência anti-helmíntica em rebanhos da Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos. Repositório Alice
VASCONCELOS, J. F.; FROTA, G. A.; MONTEIRO, J. P.; VIEIRA, L. da S..
O parasitismo por nematoides gastrointestinais é um dos fatores limitantes na criação de pequenos ruminantes. Dentre os parasitas que acometem esses animais destaca-se Haemonchus contortus por ser o mais prevalente e possuir alta patogenicidade e potencial biótico. O controle dos nematoides é realizado por meio de anti-helmínticos de amplo espectro de ação sendo os benzimidazois (BZs) os mais utilizados. No entanto, a utilização desses fármacos leva ao desenvolvimento de resistência anti-helmíntica, sendo caracterizada quando os parasitos resistem a doses do fármaco que normalmente seria eficaz. Para o monitoramento dessa resistência, testes fenotípicos que apresentam baixa sensibilidade são realizados. Dessa forma, testes mais sensíveis como os...
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Resistance to anthelmintics; Ovino; Caprino; Haemonchus Contortus; Polimorfismo; Resistência; Anti-Helmíntico; Sheep; Goats; Small ruminants; Brazil; Drug resistance.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1119719
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Effectiveness of the actions of antimicrobial's control in the intensive care unit BJID
Santos,Edilson Floriano dos; Silva,Antonio Emanuel; Pinhati,Henrique M. Sampaio; Maia,Marcelo de O..
There are various strategies to improve the effectiveness of antibiotics in hospitals. In general, the implementation of guidelines for appropriate antibiotic therapy and the participation of infectious disease (ID) physicians deserve considerable attention. This study was a prospective ecological time-series study that evaluates the effectiveness of the ID physician's opinion to rationalize and control the use of antibiotics in medical-surgical intensive care units (ICU), and the impact of their intervention on treatment expenditures. There was significant change in the pattern of use of antimicrobials, this pattern approximating that of a medical-surgical ICU that participates in the ICARE (Intensive Care Antimicrobial Resistance Epidemiology) Project....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Antibiotics; Cost control; Infection control; Drug resistance; Microbial.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702003000500002
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Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in São Paulo, Brazil BJM
Belda Junior,Walter; Velho,Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; Arnone,Marcelo; Fagundes,Luis Jorge.
Continued monitoring of antimicrobial resistance patterns is essential in order for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) treatment to be effective. Gonococci isolates from 65 patients in São Paulo were submitted to susceptibility testing, and a decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed in 8.7% of these patients, indicating that Neisseria gonorrhoeae fluoroquinolone resistance is emerging in Brazil.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Anti-bacterial agents; Ciprofloxacin; Drug resistance; Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822007000200020
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Enterotoxins, colonization factors, serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains isolated from hospitalized children with diarrhea in Bolivia BJID
Rodas,Claudia; Mamani,Rosalía; Blanco,Jorge; Blanco,Jesus Eulogio; Wiklund,Gudrun; Svennerholm,Ann-Mari; Sjöling,Åsa; Iniguez,Volga.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is recognized as the main cause of bacterial diarrhoea among children in Asia, Africa and Latin America but less investigated in Bolivia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between enterotoxins, CFs and serotypes as well as the antimicrobial resistance patterns in a set of ETEC isolates collected from hospitalized children with acute diarrhea. In the present study we characterized 43 ETEC strains isolated from 2002 to 2006 from hospitalized children (0-5 years) with acute diarrhea in Bolivia. The strains were analyzed for heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins and colonization factor (CF) profiles, as well as for serogroups and antimicrobial resistance using phenotypic (ELISA, dot blot, slide...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli; Enterotoxins; Drug resistance; Bolivia.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702011000200007
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