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A Lagrangian Method to Isolate the Impacts of Mixed Layer Subduction on the Meridional Overturning Circulation in a Numerical Model ArchiMer
Thomas, Matthew; Treguier, Anne-marie; Blanke, Bruno; Deshayes, Julie; Voldoire, Aurore.
Large differences in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) exhibited between the available ocean models pose problems as to how they can be interpreted for climate policy. A novel Lagrangian methodology has been developed for use with ocean models that enables a decomposition of the AMOC according to its source waters of subduction from the mixed layer of different geographical regions. The method is described here and used to decompose the AMOC of the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (CNRM) ocean model, which is approximately 4.5 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s−1) too weak at 26°N, compared to observations. Contributions from mixed layer subduction to the peak AMOC at 26°N in the model are dominated by the Labrador Sea, which contributes...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Circulation; Dynamics; Convection; Lagrangian circulation; Transport; Meridional overturning circulation; Atm; Ocean Structure; Phenomena; Oceanic mixed layer; Models and modeling; General circulation models.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00284/39523/38016.pdf
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A sustainability framework for assessing trade-offs in ecosystem services Ecology and Society
Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota; Institute on Environment, University of Minnesota; cavender@umn.edu; Polasky, Stephen; Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota; Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota; Institute on Environment, University of Minnesota; polasky@umn.edu; King, Elizabeth; Biological Sciences, Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia; Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia; egking@uga.edu.
Achieving sustainability, i.e., meeting the needs of current populations without compromising the needs of future generations, is the major challenge facing global society in the 21st century. Navigating the inherent trade-offs between provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting ecosystem services, and doing so in a way that does not compromise natural capital needed to provide services in the future, is critical for sustainable resource management. Here we build upon existing literature, primarily from economics and ecology, to present an analytical framework that integrates (1) the ecological mechanisms that underpin ecosystem services, (2) biophysical trade-offs and inherent limits that constrain management options, (3) preferences and values...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Dynamics; Ecosystem services; Efficiency frontier; Management constraints; Preferences; Stakeholders; Time lags; Trade-offs.
Ano: 2015
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An Assessment of Dynamic Behavior in the U.S. Catfish Market: An Application of the Generalized Dynamic Rotterdam Model AgEcon
Muhammad, Andrew; Jones, Keithly G..
The generalized dynamic Rotterdam model was used in estimating U.S. demand for disaggregated catfish. The overall goal was to examine habit persistence in consumption and to determine the adjustment process in demand. Results indicated that it took up to 1 month for catfish-product demand to fully adjust to changes in expenditures and prices. Additionally, habit persistence played a role in demand where present consumption of a given product was positively affected by past consumption of that product. Consequently, U.S. catfish demand was significantly more elastic in the long-run.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Catfish; Demand; Dynamics; Partial adjustment; Rotterdam model; Agribusiness; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; C51; Q11; Q13; Q17.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56660
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AN EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF ANTIBIOTICS BANS ON INVESTMENT IN APPLE ORCHARDS AgEcon
Hennessy, David A.; Roosen, Jutta.
The decision to replant a fire blight-susceptible apple orchard is analyzed. Embedding the problem into an equilibrium framework facilitates the welfare analysis of changes in orchard survival probabilities arising from a ban on antibiotics use. We estimate the structural impacts and welfare changes of the ban.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Antibiotics; Apple orchard; Dynamics; Equilibrium; Replanting; Resistance; Truncated Poisson process; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21698
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An Overview of the Implications of Global Change for Natural and Managed Terrestrial Ecosystems Ecology and Society
Walker, Brian; CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems; Brian.Walker@csiro.au; Steffen, Will; ; Will.Steffen@dwe.csiro.au.
Global change is the net effect of individual and interactive effects of changes in land use, atmospheric composition, biological diversity, and climate. A synthesis of the past six years' activities of the Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems project of the IGBP (International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme) deals with global change effects as ecosystem responses and living with global change. Ecosystem responses are considered in terms of changes in function and vegetation composition/structure. Field experiments of elevated CO2 effects on aboveground biomass show, on average, a positive effect on biomass, ranging from -20% to +80%. Some early predictions of CO2 effects (C3 vs. C4 plants, N-fixers, C:N in litter) are not generally supported, and it...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Biomes; Carbon dioxide; Climate; Dynamics; Ecosystem functioning; Global change; Impacts; Land use; Terrestrial biosphere; Vegetation changes..
Ano: 1997
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Analysis and Interpretation of Frequency–Wavenumber Spectra of Young Wind Waves ArchiMer
Leckler, Fabien; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Peureux, Charles; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Filippo; Dulov, Vladimir.
The energy level and its directional distribution are key observations for understanding the energy balance in the wind-wave spectrum between wind-wave generation, nonlinear interactions, and dissipation. Here, properties of gravity waves are investigated from a fixed platform in the Black Sea, equipped with a stereo video system that resolves waves with frequency f up to 1.4 Hz and wavelengths from 0.6 to 11 m. One representative record is analyzed, corresponding to young wind waves with a peak frequency fp = 0.33 Hz and a wind speed of 13 m s−1. These measurements allow for a separation of the linear waves from the bound second-order harmonics. These harmonics are negligible for frequencies f up to 3 times fp but account for most of the energy at higher...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Circulation; Dynamics; Waves; Oceanic; Observational techniques and algorithms; Remote sensing.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00284/39524/38017.pdf
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Assessing the economic costs of an outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease on Brittany: A dynamic computable general equilibrium approach AgEcon
Gohin, Alexandre; Rault, Arnaud.
Epizootic outbreaks such as Foot and Mouth Disease are of great concern for agriculture. In this paper, we quantify the potential dynamic impacts of such a disease on Brittany, a French region with a strong livestock sector. We develop a dynamic computable general equilibrium model with rational expectations that allows us to measure the impacts of culling infected animals and restraining movements of live animals on the livestock sectors and downstream food industries. Our results show that economic losses are spread over many periods even with a one-time shock. The impacts on the primary sectors and downstream food sectors do not move in parallel. The food industries suffer most in the first period while the negative impacts on agriculture are mostly...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Dynamics; CGE; Animal disease; Catastrophic event; Risk and Uncertainty; Q11; Q18.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122438
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Beef Supply Response Under Uncertainty: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model AgEcon
Mbaga, Msafiri Daudi; Coyle, Barry T..
This is the first econometric study of dynamic beef supply response to incorporate risk aversion or, more specifically, price variance. Autoregressive distributed lag (ADL) models are estimated for cow-calf and feedlot operations using aggregate data for Alberta. In all cases, output price variance has a negative impact on output supply and investment. Moreover, the impacts of expected price on supply response are greater in magnitude and significance than in risk-neutral models.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Autoregressive distributed lag model; Beef supply response; Dynamics; Uncertainty; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31068
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Comparación temporal en la estructura de una comunidad coralina en primeros estados de sucesión, Isla de San Andrés, Colombia OceanDocs
Jaramillo-González, J.; Acosta, A..
Los arrecifes coralinos del mundo han sufrido un declive durante las pasadas tres décadas. Estos cambios se han evaluado en arrecifes en franja; sin embargo, se desconoce si los tensores causantes de dichos cambios afectan la dinámica de una comunidad coralina en los primeros estados de la sucesión antes del desarrollo de un arrecife. Para resolver este interrogante, se monitoreó durante 2004, 2005 y 2006 una comuniddad coralina aislada en San Andrés. Se compararon temporalmente la abundancia, cobertura y mortalidad parcial sufrida por la comjnidad coralina y sus poblaciones de coral dominantes. La comunidad coralina no presentó variación estadística en riqueza, abundancia, cobertura, ni en área de mortalidad parcial. Sin embargo, esta comunidad si varió...
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Coral; Dynamics; Mortality; Mortality; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_4945.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/3605
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Comparison of Frameworks for Analyzing Social-ecological Systems Ecology and Society
Binder, Claudia R.; University of Munich; claudia.binder@lmu.de; Hinkel, Jochen; Global Climate Forum e.V. (GCF) Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research; hinkel@globalclimateforum.org; Bots, Pieter W. G.; Delft University of Technology; P.W.G.Bots@tudelft.nl.
In this paper we compare 10 established frameworks for analyzing social-ecological systems. We limited ourselves to frameworks that were explicitly designed to be used by a wider community of researchers and practitioners. Although all these frameworks seem to have emerged from the need for concepts that permit structured, interdisciplinary reasoning about complex problems in social-ecological systems, they differ significantly with respect to contextual and structural criteria, such as conceptualization of the ecological and social systems and their interrelation. It appears that three main criteria suffice to produce a classification of frameworks that may be used as a decision tree when choosing a framework for analysis. These criteria are (i) whether a...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Anthropocentric; Conceptualization; Decision tree; Dynamics; Ecocentric; Ecological system; Framework; Human-environment systems; Social-ecological systems; Social system.
Ano: 2013
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Competition and Dynamics in Trade Patterns: Hungarian and Slovenian Agri-Food Trade with the European Unions' Trading Partners AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan; Ferto, Imre.
Trade balances and unit values in Hungarian and Slovenian bilateral agri-food trade with Austria, Germany and Italy, respectively, to distinguish types of the one-way and the two-way trade flows, categories of price competition and categories of quality competition in the twoway trade flows, their dynamics and stability over time are analyzed. The two-way matched trade flows prevail among trade types. In the matched two-way bilateral agri-food trade there is prevalence of categories of price competition over categories of non-price competition, but varies across trading partners. In Hungarian agri-food trade the first category of successful price competition and the third category of successful non-price or quality competition prevail, suggesting...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Competition; Trade types; Dynamics; Mobility index; F12; Q17; Q18; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25760
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Contributions of the complexity paradigm to the understanding of Cerrado's organization and dynamics. Repositório Alice
MATTOS, S. H. V. L. de; VICENTE, L. E.; PEREZ FILHO, A.; PIQUEIRA, J. R. C..
Abstract: The Brazilian Cerrado is a vegetation mosaic composed of different physiognomies. Discussions remain open regarding the factors and processes responsible for the dynamic and spatial organization of the Cerrado - in its different physiognomies. The contributions of the complexity paradigm in this context are still less exploited, despite its great potential for explanations and predictions presented in previous diverse dynamic systems of complex behavior researches, a category in which the Cerrado can be included. This article has the intention of contributing to the construction of this new perspective, discussing - from theoretical concepts - the paradigm of complexity for the understanding of the organization and the dynamics of the Cerrado.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Complex system; Dynamics; Self-organized criticality; Cerrado; Ecologia; Vegetation structure.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1061933
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Determinants and Dynamics of Farm Diversification AgEcon
Weiss, Christoph R.; Briglauer, Wolfgang.
This paper examines the impact of various farm and household characteristics (such as farm size, the off-farm employment status, the farm operator's age and schooling and the number of family members) on the level as well as the dynamics of on-farm diversification. Using linked census data for Upper-Austria from 1980, 1985 and 1990 we provide evidence that smaller farms are more specialised and also tend to increase the degree of specialisation over time more quickly than large farms. A significantly lower degree of diversification (higher degree of specialisation) as well as a stronger reduction in diversification over time is also reported for businesses operated by older, less educated, part-time farm operators. The analysis of diversification dynamics...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Diversification; Farm Sector; Dynamics; Panel Data; Farm Management.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24929
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Dinámica del plancton marino costero con relación al flujo de mareas en Bahía Aeolián en septiembre 2006 (Baltra-Galápagos-Ecuador) OceanDocs
Torres,G; Andrade,C.
En Bahía Aeolián es un puerto que esta sometido al tráfico marítimo principalmente turístico, donde se efectúa el centro de distribución comercial de combustibles para las mismas. En el agua de lastre y casco de los barcos se transportan organismos no deseados (virus, bacterias, algas que causan plagas o enfermedades), que se han propagado a nivel mundial, afectando algunos ecosistemas naturales (Waite et al., 2003), generando grandes problemas que siguen afectando tanto a países desarrollados como en vías de desarrollo. Existen escasas investigaciones del plancton en la Bahía Aeolián, el objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar una Base de datos de la biodiversidad el fitoplancton y zooplancton del ecosistema marino costero del Puerto Baltra y...
Tipo: Preprint Palavras-chave: Plankton; Ocean tides; Dynamics.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/5455
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Dynamic Field Experiments in Development Economics: Risk Valuation in Morocco, Kenya, and Peru AgEcon
Lybbert, Travis J.; Galarza, Francisco B.; McPeak, John G.; Barrett, Christopher B.; Boucher, Stephen R.; Carter, Michael R.; Chantarat, Sommarat; Fadlaoui, Aziz; Mude, Andrew G..
The effective design and implementation of interventions that reduce vulnerability and poverty require a solid understanding of underlying poverty dynamics and associated behavioral responses. Stochastic and dynamic benefit streams can make it difficult for the poor to learn the value of such interventions to them. We explore how dynamic field experiments can help (i) intended beneficiaries to learn and understand these complicated benefit streams, and (ii) researchers to better understand how the poor respond to risk when faced with nonlinear welfare dynamics. We discuss and analyze dynamic risk valuation experiments in Morocco, Peru, and Kenya.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Poverty; Risk and uncertainty; Dynamics; Experiments; Kenya; Morocco; Peru; International Development; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90791
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Dynamic general equilibrium analysis of improved weed management in Australia's winter cropping systems AgEcon
Wittwer, Glyn; Vere, David T.; Jones, Randall E.; Griffith, Garry R..
A recent analysis indicated that the direct financial cost of weeds to Australia’s winter grain sectorwas approximately $A1.2bn in 1998–1999. Costs of thismagnitude represent a large recurring productivity loss in an agricultural sector that is sufficient to impact significantly on regional economies.Using amulti-regional dynamic computable general equilibrium model, we simulate the general equilibrium effects of a hypothetical successful campaign to reduce the economic costs of weeds. We assume that an additional $50m of R&D spread over five years is targeted at reducing the additional costs and reduced yields arising from weeds in various broadacre crops. Following this R&D effort, one-tenth of the losses arising from weeds is temporarily...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: CGE modelling; Dynamics; Weed management; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118584
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DYNAMIC MICROECONOMETRIC APPROACHES TO ANALYSING AGRICULTURAL POLICY AgEcon
Gardebroek, Cornelis; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M..
Micro-econometric models have become a standard and powerful tool in analysing agricultural policies. In this paper we assess the contributions that have been made in the agricultural economics literature to dynamic microeconometric models of firms and households that are estimated using microdata. After discussing developments in dynamic investment models, dynamic household models, dynamic discrete choice models and dynamic efficiency models we give promising directions for future research and discuss implications for future data collection.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Dynamics; Microeconometric models; Agricultural policy analysis; Agricultural and Food Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6592
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Dynamic modelling of agricultural policies: the role of expectation schemes AgEcon
Femenia, Fabienne; Alexandre, Gohin.
The highly disputed effects of agricultural trade liberalisation are mostly simulated with static models. Our main objective in this paper is to evaluate the robustness of the static simulation results to the consistent modelling of dynamic behaviours and to the linked specification of price/return expectations. Focusing on a complete trade liberalisation scenario of arable crop markets by developed countries, we find that available static results are quite robust to dynamic specifications and to most expectation schemes. Endogenous market fluctuations due to expectation errors may appear following trade liberalisation. These fluctuations are nevertheless limited by the many feedback effects revealed by our general equilibrium framework.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; Dynamics; Endogenous fluctuations; Expectation errors; Agricultural and Food Policy; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51665
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Dynamic Relationships Between Farm Real Estate Values and Federal Farm Program Payments AgEcon
Shaik, Saleem; Miljkovic, Dragan.
This study examines the dynamic relationships among farm real estate values, farm returns, farm program payments, and real interest rates in an income capitalization model. Endogeneity is assumed among the variables in a dynamic framework because the direction of causality is unclear from a theoretical standpoint. The analysis encompasses the period beginning with the introduction of the first farm bill in 1933 and ending in 2006. Results indicate farm program payments have positive direct impacts in the short run and positive indirect impacts (via farm returns) in the long run on farm real estate values.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Dynamics; Farm program payments; Farm real estate values; U.S. data 1933 – 2006; Vector error correction model; Agricultural and Food Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61069
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Dynamics and Limited Cooperation In International Environmental Agreements AgEcon
Karp, Larry S.; Sacheti, Sandeep.
The amount of cooperation needed to improve the welfare of signatories of International Environmental Agreements (IEAs), in the presence of market imperfections, depends on the characteristics of pollution. In a dynamic model, the conventional wisdom on the effect of free-riding needs to be modified for certain types of pollution problems. For local pollution problems, a sufficient level of free-riding actually promotes signatories' welfare. For global pollution problems, the conventional wisdom is correct insofar as free-riding makes it more difficult to form a successful IEA. However, for some global pollution problems, free-riding may disappear. A static model may overstate or understate the difficulty of forming a successful IEA. The effect of an IEA...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Environmental Agreements; Environmental stocks; Dynamics; Free-riding; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; F12; F42; Q28.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6212
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