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Registros recuperados: 22
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A mezőgazdaságban keletkező biomassza energetikai hasznosításának agrárgazdasági megközelítése AgEcon
Molnar, Andras.
A gazdálkodás ökonómiai kérdéseivel foglalkozók számára a piaci csere híján fontos feladat az externáliák minél szélesebb körű számszerűsítése, mivel csak a társadalom számára jelentkező összes költség és haszon figyelembevételével lehet megítélni a mindenkori agrárpolitikát. Egyre fontosabb az, hogy milyen agrárpolitikai eszközökkel oldhatók meg a liberalizált kereskedelemmel szembeni elvárások és a nem-termék jellegű javak társadalmilag optimális kibocsátása. Ebben a kettős elvárásban a földtulajdon és földhasználat szétválása előnytelen. ------------------------------------------- In the absence of exchange in the market, researchers into economic aspects of farming place a high emphasis on quantifying externalities to the maximum extent possible....
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Externáliák; Biomassza; Energetikai felhasználás; Földhasználat; Méret-; Skála- és választékgazdaságosság; Externalities; Biomass; Use for energy production; Land use; Economies of scale; Volume and choice; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92533
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A PRELIMINARY FEASIBILITY FOR ESTABLISHING A MULTI-SPECIES MEAT PROCESSING PLANT IN SOUTHWESTERN NORTH DAKOTA AgEcon
Nudell, Daniel J.; Kraenzel, David G.; Petry, Timothy A.; Faller, Timothy; Hughes, Harlan G.; Brown, Erin.
The number of small commodity livestock slaughter plants in the Upper Northern Plains region continues to decline. Significant factors contributing to this decline include: 1) pressure to consolidate, thereby capturing economies of scale; 2) relatively stringent federal inspection specifications, along with; 3) HACCP (Hazardous Analysis Critical Control Points) requirements. At the same time, consumer demand (markets) for specialty, selected, and exotic meats appears to be growing. For example, the recent market successes in Europe evidenced by the North American Bison Cooperative based in New Rockford, North Dakota. Several alternative livestock producer groups have emerged which include lamb, ratite, elk, deer, goat, poultry, rabbit, specialty beef,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Multi-species; Specialty meats; Specialty livestock; Alternative livestock; Economies of scale; HACCP (Hazardous Analysis Critical Control Points); Slaughter plants; Processing plants; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Agribusiness.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23293
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Animal Disease and the Industrialization of Agriculture AgEcon
Hennessy, David A.; Wang, Tong.
The industrialization of animal agriculture has fundamentally transformed animal health markets while animal health innovations have promoted this industrialization. The subtlety of these interactions shows how little we know about agricultural industrialization. To illustrate, we consider three stylized features of industrialized animal agriculture. These are the closing off of production activities from external effects, emphasis on control, and use of biosecurity measures. We find that animal disease externalities should lead to higher stocking on any given farm, and also to deficient entry into animal production. Eradicating the disease in a region increases both the stocking rate per farm and the number of farms. We show that antibiotics as a control...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Animal disease; Biosecurity; Biotechnology; Competitiveness; Confined animal agriculture; Economies of scale; Tragedy of the commons; Veterinary inputs.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Livestock Production/Industries; Production Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93673
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Cost-Benefit Analysis of Economic Globalization AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
Argues that it is unrealistic to expect the net benefit of economic globalization to be represented by a single monetary figure because its consequences are diverse and several of its consequences are uncertain. The benefits of economic globalization are accessed in terms of its possible impact on the level of global production and exchange of commodities. Both static and dynamic analysis are considered and particular attention is given to economies of scale and to technological change. Possible beneficial impacts of economic globalization on product variety are considered. The economic consequences of International mobility of factors of production (such as labour and capital) are assessed. In addition, the impacts of globalization on conditions of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic globalization; Economies of scale; Labour mobility; Income inequality; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90614
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Dairy Product Manufacturing Costs at Cooperative Plants AgEcon
Ling, K. Charles.
Cost data are summarized for 14 plants manufacturing cheese, butter, and powder and average costs are presented for each product. Average cost curves are estimated for each plant. The scale of plant for least-cost operations is identified for plants of each product type. Plant capacity utilization and seasonal volume variation and their impacts on manufacturing cost are delineated.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Cooperatives; Dairy; Average cost curve; Productivity; Capacity utilization; Seasonal variation; Economies of scale; Agribusiness.
Ano: 1983 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51567
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Does Measurement Error Explain a Paradox About Household Size and Food Demand? Evidence from Variation in Household Survey Methods AgEcon
Gibson, John.
Several recent papers report a puzzling pattern of food demand falling as household size rises at constant per capita expenditure, especially in poorer countries. This pattern is contrary to a widely used model of scale economics. This paper exploits within-country differences in household survey methods and interviewer practices to provide a measurement error interpretation of this puzzle. A comparison of household surveys in Cambodia and Indonesia with the results from Monte Carlo experiments suggest that food expenditure estimates from shorter, less detailed recall surveys have measurement errors that are correlated with household size. These correlated measurement errors contribute to the negative effect of household size on food demand and cause...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food demand; Economies of scale; Household surveys; Measurement error; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/22198
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ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF THE CATTLE FEEDING INDUSTRY IN THE NORTHERN PLAINS AND WESTERN LAKES STATES AgEcon
Duncan, Marvin R.; Taylor, Richard D.; Saxowsky, David M.; Koo, Won W..
The five-state study area of the Northern Plains and Western Lakes States, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin, has adequate feed supplies and feeder cattle to markedly increase cattle feeding. Feed costs in these states have historically been lower than in the Southern Plains States. However, higher transportation costs appear to offset that advantage. Close access to slaughter plants in these states could offset that transportation disadvantage. Backgrounding of cattle appears to be quite profitable and cattle feeding, especially in larger sized feedlots, can be profitable. However, the cattle feeding industry has an increasing level of excess capacity. To be successful, new feedlots in the Northern Plains and Western...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Cattle feeding; Northern Plains; Economies of scale; Cooperative ownership; Entrance strategies; Production Economics; Agribusiness.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23199
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ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF THE CATTLE FEEDING INDUSTRY IN THE NORTHERN PLAINS AND WESTERN LAKES STATES - SUMMARY AgEcon
Duncan, Marvin R.; Taylor, Richard D.; Saxowsky, David M.; Koo, Won W..
The five-state study area of the Northern Plains and Western Lakes States, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin, has adequate feed supplies and feeder cattle to markedly increase cattle feeding. Feed costs in these states have historically been lower than in the Southern Plains States. However, higher transportation costs appear to offset that advantage. Close access to slaughter plants in these states could offset that transportation disadvantage. Backgrounding of cattle appears to be quite profitable and cattle feeding, especially in larger sized feedlots, can be profitable. However, the cattle feeding industry has an increasing level of excess capacity. To be successful, new feedlots in the Northern Plains and Western...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Cattle feeding; Northern Plains; Economies of scale; Cooperative ownership; Entrance strategies; Production Economics.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23338
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Economies of Scale and Technical Efficiency in Community Water Systems AgEcon
Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Harrington, Winston; Pizer, William A.; Gillingham, Kenneth.
In this study we use datasets from the 1995 and 2000 Community Water Supply surveys to examine the production costs of water supply systems. We first estimate the economies of scale in water supply by estimating the total unit cost as well as individual component cost elasticities. For total unit cost elasticity, we find that a 1% increase in production reduces unit costs by a statistically significant 0.16%. For individual component cost elasticities, we find that higher economies of scale exist in capital costs, outside costs, other costs, and materials costs; labor costs and energy costs exhibit lower but still positive economies of scale. These economies of scale may reflect production economies or suggest that larger systems are better than smaller...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Small water systems; Water supply; Capacity development; Economies of scale; Community water systems; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q25; Q28.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10788
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Economies of Scale in the Floriculture Industry AgEcon
Schumacher, Sara K.; Marsh, Thomas L..
This study investigated the cost structure of the floriculture industry in the United States. Economies of scale and input elasticities were estimated with a normalized quadratic cost function. Results suggest that economies of scale exist in the floriculture industry. As producers become large and more automated, they have a cost advantage relative to smaller producers who are producing the same output product mix. The existence of economies of scale suggests that average grower size can increase in the future as growers increase in size to take advantage of cost efficiencies.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Duality; Economies of scale; Floriculture; Nonprice variables; Q12; C31; D20.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43145
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ESTIMATING EFFICIENCY MEASURES IN NORTH DAKOTA FARMS AgEcon
Mulik, Kranti; Taylor, Richard D.; Koo, Won W..
A normalized Quadratic Cost function is estimated using data from 1998-2003 to analyze the cost structure of North Dakota farms. Results indicate that there is overall evidence of increasing returns to scale. However, we do not find differences in efficiency across the different farm sizes. Marginal costs scale economies do not differ significantly across the different size categories, indicating that small and medium farms are just as efficient as the larger farms.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Normalized quadratic cost function; Economies of scale; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23489
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MANUFACTURING SPECIALIZATION IN THE SOUTHEAST: RURAL NECESSITY, RURAL POSSIBILITY OR RURAL VESTIGE? AgEcon
Lackey, Steven Brent; Wojan, Timothy R..
This paper examines three alternative explanations for manufacturing specialization in rural areas: 1) the greater efficiency of very large plants; 2) the "localization" advantages identified with a number of firms in the same industry locating near each other; or 3) a strategy to gain bargaining power by a dominant employer in the county.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural manufacturing; Specialization; Economies of scale; Localization; Monopsony; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21605
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Market Power and/or Efficiency: An Application to U.S. Food Processing AgEcon
Lopez, Rigoberto A.; Azzam, Azzeddine M.; Liron-Espana, Carmen.
This article separates oligopoly-power and cost-efficiency effects of changes in industrial concentration and assesses their impact on output prices in 32 food-processing industries. Empirical results indicate that although concentration induces cost efficiency in one-third of the industries, oligopoly-power effects either dominate cost efficiency or reinforce inefficiency, resulting in higher output prices in most industries. The article also provides fresh econometric estimates of oligopoly power and economies of size for the industries in question.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Industrial concentration; Economies of scale; Industrial organization; Oligopoly power; Food processing; Agribusiness; Industrial Organization; Productivity Analysis; L00; L11; L13; L66.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25160
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MEASUREMENT AND EXPLANATION OF TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY IN MISSOURI HOG PRODUCTION AgEcon
Ben-Belhassen, Boubaker; Womack, Abner W..
The U.S. live hog production has undergone a significant structural change characterized by a trend toward larger operations. Experts argue that there is a cost advantage for larger farms due to industrialization and increased management intensity. One important element in production, mainly for industries with rapid consolidation, is technical efficiency which affects the firm's competitive position directly. This study uses a stochastic production frontier function and farm-level data to measure and explain technical efficiency in Missouri hog production. The study estimates the mean technical efficiency for farms in the sample at about 82 percent, implying that a large proportion of production (18%) is lost due to farm-specific inefficiencies. Further,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Technical efficiency; Economies of scale; Production frontier; Econometric methods; Industrial Organization; Livestock Production/Industries; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21819
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Natural Protection from International Competition in the Livestock Industry: Analysis, Examples and Vietnam's Pork Market as a Case AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A.; Lapar, Ma. Lucila A.; Staal, Steven J.; Que, Nguyen Ngoc.
In some countries, local agricultural products (particularly livestock products) are shielded from international competition by ‘natural’ factors influencing the purchase of products. These factors include strong local tastes (or preferences) that favour the local product and the absence (or relative absence) of complementary retail outlets or home appliances suitable for storing and preparing potential imported substitutes. The desire for fresh meat rather than chilled or frozen meat, the absence or limited accessibility of supermarket outlets and limited refrigeration possibilities in homes can limit imports into developed countries of meat supplied by developed countries. From consumer’s perspectives these fresh or raw products are significantly...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural policies; Asia; Economies of scale; Farm sizes; Household agriculture; Industrial agriculture; Pigs; Vietnam; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; Q1; Q11; Q12; Q15; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90628
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Numerical Estimation of Agricultural Supply Functions - A Micro Economic Approach based on Mathematical Programming AgEcon
Rasmussen, Svend; Damgaard, Martin.
This paper describes a cost function approach to modelling production and resource use at the level of the individual farm firm. The procedure for deriving the supply function using mathematical programming under fairly general condition of a convex input set is shown, and the model is demonstrated. It is suggested that the model is used as the basic building block in agricultural sector models, the advantage being that the technology is modelled as a production frontier providing better opportunities for modelling input and output substitution.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Cost function; Linear programming; Economies of scale; Agricultural sector models; Production frontier; Farm Management.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44181
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Overcoming Inefficient Land-Holding of Part-Time and Absent Small Farmers - A Challenge to Nobel Economics Laureate Theodore W. Schultz AgEcon
Zhou, Jian-Ming.
Paper presented at the International Symposium Sustaining Food Security and Managing Natural Resources in Southeast Asia - Challenges for the 21st Century Organized by University of Hohenheim, Germany Chiang Mai University and Kasetsart University, Thailand International Center for Research in Agroforestry, and International Board for Soil Research and Management 8-11 January 2002 at Chiang Mai University, Thailand
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Part-time and absent small farmers; Inefficient land-holding; Low and high income economy; Economies of scale; Obliged lease of unused land to full-time farmers.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Farm Management; Food Security and Poverty; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Political Economy; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; B; O; Q; R.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95864
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Profits, Costs, and the Changing Structure of Dairy Farming AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; O'Donoghue, Erik J.; McBride, William D.; Nehring, Richard F.; Sandretto, Carmen L.; Mosheim, Roberto.
U.S. dairy production is consolidating into fewer but larger farms. This report uses data from several USDA surveys to detail that consolidation and to analyze the financial drivers of consolidation. Specifically, larger farms realize lower production costs. Although small dairy farms realize higher revenue per hundredweight of milk sold, the cost advantages of larger size allow large farms to be profitable, on average, even while most small farms are unable to earn enough to replace their capital. Further survey evidence, as well as the financial data, suggest that consolidation is likely to continue.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Dairy farming; Economies of scale; Economies of size; Dairy farm structure; Milk costs; Farm Management; Industrial Organization; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6704
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Soybean Production in Brazil: Main Determinants of Property Sizes AgEcon
Silvestrin Zanon, Raquel; Saes, Maria Sylvia Macchione.
Economies of scale are present in soybean production. In Brazil, the two largest producing regions have properties with different dimensions. In particular, the average size of properties in the South is much smaller than those in the country´s Mid‐West region. This study analyzes the characteristics that favor small‐scale soybean‐producing properties in the country’s Southern region. Its theoretical framework is based on the Neoclassical theory and in Transaction Cost Economics. Questionnaires were applied to producers from the State of Rio Grande do Sul. A regression analysis shows the relation between the selected factors and property size. Results show that a greater use of labor, particularly of family employees, and the greater diversity of crops...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Economies of scale; Soybean production; Small property; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Industrial Organization; Marketing; Production Economics; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100476
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THE IMPACT OF HACCP ON COSTS AND PRODUCT EXIT AgEcon
Hooker, Neal H.; Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.; Siebert, John W..
Detailed information on firm level food safety costs is reported. Survey data for small and very small meat processors are modeled. Economies of scale in implementing Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems are investigated. Results indicate that even after controlling for scale, ver small plants incur higher compliance costs. Diseconomies of scope are assessed using the probability and number of products discontinued due to HACCP. Such "partial exit" is positively related to the current range of items produced and the need for facility modification. However, no evidence is found for higher levels of partial exit in very small plants.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: HACCP; Economies of scale; Firm and product exit; Food safety strategies; Meat processing; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15513
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