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AN ANALYSIS OF COSTS BY SIZE OF JAIL FOR SELECTED COUNTIES IN IOWA AgEcon
Edelman, Mark A.; Mayer, Adrian J..
Officials from eight counties selected according to jail size were interviewed. Parameters from site visits were used to estimate jail costs. The jails selected ranged in capacity from 5 to 41 prisoners. In addition, costs from the sample of local jails were compared to costs from studies of larger jails and state prisons. Jails with 5 to 41 bed capacity exhibited a U-shaped cost curve. Jail costs varied from a low of $35.20 per prisoner day for the 10 bed jail to $56.63 per prisoner day for the 40 bed jail. Therefore, costs vary by $21.43 per prisoner day for the sample of local jails examined in this study. The threshold economies of size achieved by smaller jails is due primarily to the shared staffing systems, a high degree of integration between...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Jails; Costs; Economies of size; Community jails; Regional jails; Corrections; Public Economics.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18275
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An Economic Analysis of Electron Accelerators and Cobalt-60 for Irradiating Food AgEcon
Morrison, Rosanna Mentzer.
Average costs per pound of irradiating food are similar for the electron accelerator and cobalt-60 irradiators analyzed in this study, but initial investment costs can vary by $1 million. Irradiation costs range from 0.5 to 7 cents per pound and decrease as annual volumes treated increase. Cobalt-60 is less expensive than electron beams for annual volumes below 50 million pounds. For radiation source requirements above the equivalent of 1 million curies of cobalt-60, electron beams are more economical.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food irradiation; Electron accelerators; Cobalt-60; Cost comparison; Economies of size; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 1989 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33589
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Characteristics and Production Costs of U.S. Hog Farms, 2004 AgEcon
McBride, William D.; Key, Nigel D..
Hog production in 2004 was characterized by wide variation in the types, sizes, and economic performance of operations. Operations specializing in a single production phase generated more than three times the product value, on average, of those using the traditional farrow-to-finish approach. Low-cost operations tended to be larger, located in the Heartland, and operated by farmers whose primary occupation was farming. Small and medium operations far outnumbered large and very large operations, but large and very large operations accounted for most of the production. Average production costs declined as the size of the hog operation increased, a result of reduced capital costs and more efficient input use. Hog production was highly concentrated in the...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Swine; Hogs; Hog production; Hog operations; Agricultural Resource Management Survey; Production costs; Economies of size; Industrial Organization; Livestock Production/Industries; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6385
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Compliance with International Food Safety Standards in Kenya's Green Bean Industry: A Paired Case Study of Small and Large Family Farms AgEcon
Okello, Julius Juma; Swinton, Scott M..
This study uses two farm case studies to explore how Kenyan green bean farmers are meeting European food safety standards. For green bean farmers, the standards increase the fixed costs and the transactions costs of producing beans; the standards also alter how bean quality is assessed. Both the small and the large farm use contracts to protect their specific investments in complying with the standards. However, while the large farm invests in improved facilities using its own equity, the small farm uses a marketing group to spread investment costs and reduce the transaction cost to buyers of monitoring the performance of small units. Green bean buyers face the asymmetric information problem of creating incentives for farmers to comply voluntarily with...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food safety standards; Farmer compliance; Transaction costs; Principal-agent; Economies of size; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19241
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CONSOLIDATING RURAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS: POTENTIAL SAVINGS AND EFFECTS ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT AgEcon
Jacques, Charles; Brorsen, B. Wade; Richter, Francisca G.-C..
One frequently proposed policy is to consolidate rural school districts in order to save money by obtaining economies of size. The effects of school district size on both expenditures and standardized test scores are estimated for Oklahoma. Results indicate that economies of scale with respect to expenditures per student exist up to an average daily membership (ADM) of 965 students, but that as school districts become larger, tests scores decline. Even if savings in school district administration from consolidation are spent on instruction, state average tests scores would decrease slightly. Thus, school district consolidation can reduce costs, but it will also reduce student learning.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Economies of size; Education; Plateau function; School district consolidation; Public Economics.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15312
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FINITE MIXTURE ESTIMATION OF SIZE ECONOMIES AND COST FRONTIERS IN THE FACE OF MULTIPLE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AgEcon
Smith, H. Arlen; Taylor, C. Robert.
Finite mixture estimation (FME) is compared to estimated generalized least squares (EGLS) in the estimation of economies of size and production cost frontiers for Alabama dairy farms. FME provides several unique insights into the economic forces behind recent changes in Alabama's dairy industry. FME provides estimation of a stochastic average cost frontier with known statistical properties, which it was not otherwise possible to obtain using available stochastic frontier estimation packages.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Dairy; Economies of size; Finite mixture estimation; Stochastic cost frontier; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15556
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MARKET POWER AND COST-EFFICIENCY EFFECTS OF THE MARKET CONCENTRATION IN THE U.S. NITROGEN FERTILIZER INDUSTRY AgEcon
Kim, C.S.; Hallahan, Charles B.; Taylor, Harold; Schluter, Gerald E..
This article examines the effects of increasing market concentration level in the U.S. nitrogen fertilizer industry. Results indicate that the costs of market power are greater than the benefits of market concentration, in terms of manufacturing cost efficiency. To provide a stable nitrogen fertilizer supply at a relatively low price, it may be necessary to control natural gas price and/or reduce new import barriers from Middle East and former member states of the Soviet Union, where low cost gas is produced as a byproduct. Keywords: Nitrogen fertilizer, oligopoly, economies of size, market power, cost-efficiency.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Nitrogen fertilizer; Oligopoly; Economies of size; Market power; Cost-efficiency.; Marketing.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19674
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Profits, Costs, and the Changing Structure of Dairy Farming AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; O'Donoghue, Erik J.; McBride, William D.; Nehring, Richard F.; Sandretto, Carmen L.; Mosheim, Roberto.
U.S. dairy production is consolidating into fewer but larger farms. This report uses data from several USDA surveys to detail that consolidation and to analyze the financial drivers of consolidation. Specifically, larger farms realize lower production costs. Although small dairy farms realize higher revenue per hundredweight of milk sold, the cost advantages of larger size allow large farms to be profitable, on average, even while most small farms are unable to earn enough to replace their capital. Further survey evidence, as well as the financial data, suggest that consolidation is likely to continue.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Dairy farming; Economies of scale; Economies of size; Dairy farm structure; Milk costs; Farm Management; Industrial Organization; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6704
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The cost of producing milk in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands of South Africa: a cost-curve approach AgEcon
Mkhabela, Thulasizwe S.; Mndeme, S.H..
The cost of producing a unit of output is a critical management aspect in the dairy industry, particularly in South Africa. The ability of minimise unit costs of producing milk, while not curtailing output levels, is often a determining factor of the long-term survival of dairy farms in South Africa. In this study, average cost curves showing the variation of unit cost with output are estimated for dairy production in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands of South Africa, using a panel of 37 farms for the period 1999 to 2007. The results show that economies of size exist, with larger farms able to produce any given level of output at lower costs compared to their smaller counterparts. The study found that the long-run average cost curve (LAC) for the sample of dairy...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Cost curve; Milk; Economies of size; KwaZulu-Natal; South Africa; Production Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/62001
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Whole-Farm Evaluation of No-Till Profitability in Rice Production using Mixed Integer Programming AgEcon
Watkins, K. Bradley; Hill, Jason L.; Anders, Merle M.; Windham, Tony E..
Rice production in Arkansas usually involves intensive tillage. No-till rice has been studied, but the focus has been limited to impacts on yields and per acre returns. This study uses mixed integer programming to model optimal machinery selection and evaluate whole-farm profitability of no-till management, for rice-soybean farms. Results indicate that lower machinery ownership expenses combined with lower fuel and labor expenses do enhance the profitability of no-till management, but the monetary gains appear to be modest, implying that other incentives may be necessary to entice producers to use the practice.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Conventional till; Economies of size; Machinery complements; Mixed integer programming; No-till; Rice; Soybean; Whole-farm net returns; Farm Management; Q12; Q15; Q16; Q24; Q25.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43792
Registros recuperados: 10
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