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10 years of transition in Ukraine agriculture: An analysis of productivity and efficiency of enterprises AgEcon
Lissitsa, Alexej; Odening, Martin; Babycheva, Tamara.
This paper analyzes efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) change of large agricultural enterprises during their transition to a market economy in Ukraine. In this case the efficiency is calculated by data envelopment analysis and the productivity change is measured by the Malmquist Productivity Change Index in the period between 1990 and 1999. On average, TFP declined by 6% annually, dropping a total 42%. The main reason for the observed TFP decline is a decrease in technical efficiency, which is found to be remarkably significant. At the same time there is a high variation among individual enterprises: their distribution of efficiency scores widens, which indicates that the farms diverge with respect to their economic performance. The Tobit...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Эффективность; Общая продуктивность фактора; Анализ оболочки данных; Малмквист-индекс изменения общей продуктивности фактора; Переходный период; Украина; Effizienz; Totale Faktor Produktivität; Data Envelopment Analysis; Malmquist Productivity Change Index; Transition; Ukraine; Efficiency; Total Factor Productivity; Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Farm Management; Industrial Organization; Productivity Analysis; Q12; D25; O1; O4; P3.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92168
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13 + 1: A Comparison of Global Climate Change Policy Architectures AgEcon
Aldy, Joseph E.; Barrett, Scott; Stavins, Robert N..
We critically review the Kyoto Protocol and thirteen alternative policy architectures for addressing the threat of global climate change. We employ six criteria to evaluate the policy proposals: environmental outcome, dynamic efficiency, cost effectiveness, equity, flexibility in the presence of new information, and incentives for participation and compliance. The Kyoto Protocol does not fare well on a number of criteria, but none of the alternative proposals fare well along all six dimensions. We identify several major themes among the alternative proposals: Kyoto is "too little, too fast"; developing countries should play a more substantial role and receive incentives to participate; implementation should focus on market-based approaches, especially...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Policy architecture; Kyoto Protocol; Efficiency; Cost effectiveness; Equity; Participation; Compliance; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10541
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A bizalom és függőség szerepe a családi gazdaságok együttműködésében végzett gépi munkákban AgEcon
Takacs, Istvan; Baranyai, Zsolt.
A tanulmány a családi gazdálkodók együttműködési hajlandóságát befolyásoló tényezőket vizsgálja – Békés megye egy tradicionálisan mezőgazdasági termelő térségében készült – kérdőíves felmérés és mélyinterjúk tapasztalataira alapozva. A gazdálkodói bizalom és az együttműködési hajlandóság összefüggését elemezve megállapítható, hogy az alacsony függőséget, egyben alacsony bizalmi szintet is igénylő (valójában csak tágabban annak értelmezhető) együttműködési formák (jellemzően a gépi bérszolgáltatás) elfogadottsága a jellemző. Ugyanakkor a fiatalabb generációknál az erősebb függelmi kapcsolatokkal jellemezhető (a hagyományos értelemben vett) együttműködések elfogadottsága nagyobb, amely az agrárgeneráció-váltás bekövetkeztével esélyt teremt az együttműködési...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Bizalom; Függőség; Versenyképesség; Hatékonyság; Géphasználat; Trust; Dependence; Competitiveness; Efficiency; Machine use; Agribusiness; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Public Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99191
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A comparative analysis of the technical efficiency of rain-fed and smallholder irrigation in Ethiopia AgEcon
Makombe, Godswill; Namara, Regassa E.; Hagos, Fitsum; Awulachew, Seleshi Bekele; Ayana, Mekonnen; Bossio, Deborah A..
Agriculture is the most significant contributor to Ethiopia’s economy. Most of the agricultural production is under rainfed conditions and thus extremely sensitive to rainfall variability. Irrigation development, including smallholder irrigation, is used by the Ethiopian Government to attempt to mitigate the effects of rainfall variability. In this study, we look at smallholder irrigation - modern and traditional irrigation systems. A detailed description of the cropping patterns is given. The stochastic frontier production function approach is used to estimate technical inefficiency, and constraints to production are analyzed. Since the traditional system is found to be efficient but on a lower production frontier, the study shows that significant gains...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Rainfed farming; Irrigated farming; Efficiency; Irrigation schemes; Small scale systems; Cropping patterns; Crop production; Economic aspects; Statistical analysis; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113012
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A comparative analysis of the technical efficiency of rain-fed and smallholder irrigation in Ethiopia AgEcon
Makambe, Godswill; Namara, Regassa E.; Hagos, Fitsum; Awulachew, Seleshi Bekele; Ayana, Mekonnen; Bossio, Deborah A..
Agriculture is the most significant contributor to Ethiopia’s economy. Most of the agricultural production is under rainfed conditions and thus extremely sensitive to rainfall variability. Irrigation development, including smallholder irrigation, is used by the Ethiopian Government to attempt to mitigate the effects of rainfall variability. In this study, we look at smallholder irrigation - modern and traditional irrigation systems. A detailed description of the cropping patterns is given. The stochastic frontier production function approach is used to estimate technical inefficiency, and constraints to production are analyzed. Since the traditional system is found to be efficient but on a lower production frontier, the study shows that significant gains...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Rainfed farming; Irrigated farming; Efficiency; Irrigation schemes; Small scale systems; Cropping patterns; Crop production; Economic aspects; Statistical analysis; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Production Economics.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118298
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A comparison of the effects of physical and chemical mutagens in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Genet. Mol. Biol.
Begum,Tamina; Dasgupta,Tapash.
Three sesame genotypes (Rama, SI 1666 and IC 21706) were treated with physical (γ-rays: 200 Gy, 400 Gy or 600 Gy) or chemical (ethyl methane sulphonate, EMS: 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% or 2.0%) mutagens and their mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency were estimated in the M2 generation. The M3 generation was used to identify the most effective mutagen and dose for induction of mutations. The average effectiveness of EMS was much higher than γ-rays. The lowest dose of γ-rays (200 Gy) and the lowest concentration of EMS (0.5%) showed the highest mutagenic efficiency in all genotypes. Analysis of the M3 generation data based on parameters such as the variance ratio and the difference in residual variances derived from the model of Montalván and Ando indicated that...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Effectiveness; Efficiency; Mutagens; Quantitative characters; Sesame.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572010000400025
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A COST-BASED MODEL OF SEASONAL PRODUCTION, WITH APPLICATION TO MILK POLICY AgEcon
Hennessy, David A.; Roosen, Jutta.
Milk production is seasonal in many European countries. While quantity seasonality poses capacity management problems for dairy processors, a European Union policy goal is to reduce price seasonality. After developing a model of endogenous seasonality, we study the effects of three E.U. policies on production decisions. These are private storage subsidies, production removals, and production quotas. When cost functions are seasonal in a specified way, then arbitrage opportunities interact with storage subsidies to reduce both price and consumption seasonality. But production seasonality likely increases because storage subsidies promote temporal market integration. Conditions are identified under which product market interventions increase quantity...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Efficiency; Market intervention; Quota; Stabilization; Storage subsidies; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18587
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A KÜLFÖLDI TŐKE SZEREPE A MEZŐGAZDASÁGBAN AgEcon
Antal, Katalin; Guba, Maria.
A külföldi tőke érdeklődése a magyar mezőgazdaság iránt 87,2 milliárd forint sajáttőke-résszel 2002-ben érte el a csúcsot a KSH adatai szerint. Forintárfolya-mon számolva 1993 és 2001 között 6,3-szeresére nőtt a jegyzett tőkében a külföl-di tőke összege, euróban számolva 2,6-szeres volt a növekedés. A mezőgazdasági termelésben kettős könyvelést vezető gazdaságoknál a kül-földi tőke a jegyzett tőkéből 7,3 milliárd forintról (1993. évi adat) 2000-re 31,5 milliárd forintra emelkedett, majd 2003-ra 24,5 milliárdra csökkent. A két év alatti több mint 20 százalékos visszaesés a külföldi tőke érdekvesztését jelzi. A legnagyobb csökkenés a gabonafélék, egyéb máshova nem sorolt növények szak-ágazatban volt a legnagyobb. A külföldi tőke 2/3-a a növénytermelési és...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Külföldi tőke értékvesztése; Nagygazdaságok; Hatékonyság - value loose of foreign capital; Large farms; Efficiency; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Financial Economics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54296
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A magyarországi máktermelésről AgEcon
Karacsony, Peter; Toth, Kalman; Pinek, Gyula; Pal, Robert.
Hazánkban az utóbbi években egyre nagyobb területeken folyik alkaloida és étkezési mák termelése. Megállapítható, hogy nem igazolódtak be azok a várakozások, melyek az uniós csatlakozástól a máktermelés csökkenését várták, annak ellenére, hogy az unió korlátozta egyes hazai, magasabb alkaloidatartalmú fajták termelését. Vizsgálataink alapján megállapítható, hogy a máktermelés magas hektáronkénti termelési költsége ellenére jövedelmező. Ha a hazai máktermelést az 1960-as évek szintjére emelnék, akkor az hozzájárulhatna a napjainkban fennmaradásukért és mindennapi megélhetésükért küzdő – elsősorban a szegényebb kelet-magyarországi régiókban – gazdálkodók megélhetéséhez. ------------------------------------- The area used for growing poppy seed for human...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Mák; Alkaloida; Étkezési mák; Eredményesség; Poppy seed; Alkaloid; Poppy seed for human consumption; Efficiency; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119932
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A New Institutional Economics Perspective on the Relationship Among Societal Values, Governance Structure and Access to Rural Health Care Services AgEcon
James, Harvey S., Jr..
According to New Institutional Economics, transactional activities, governance structures, institutions and beliefs and values are related hierarchally. Williamson (2000) formalizes this framework to show that each governing level must be aligned with the adjacent level for transaction costs to be minimized. This framework is applied to the question of balancing costs and access in health care. Transaction costs in providing health care services can be minimized if all hierarchal functions are aligned. Examining the highest level associated with beliefs and values reveals that the beliefs of people might not be fully consistent with the institutions and governance structures expected or advocated in the area of health care, particularly in the context of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Rural health care; Cost; Access; Efficiency; New institutional economics; Rights; Health Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7362
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A nonpaprametric approach to evaluate the impact of contextual variables on the agricultural research efficiency in Brazil. Repositório Alice
SOUZA, G. da S. e; GOMES, E. G..
In this paper we measure technical efficiency for each of Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) research centers. We model DEA efficiency as a function of contextual variables: revenue generation capacity, partnership intensity, improvement of administrative processes, and impact of technologies generated by the research centers. Production is modeled with random and inefficient errors, in a manner similar to stochastic frontiers. The assessment of significance for the set of contextual variables is carried out by means of linear programming and goodness of fit tests and has a nonparametric basis. We conclude that there is joint significance of all contextual variables.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Variável contextual; Pesquisa Agropecuária; Contextual variable; Efficiency; Agricultural Research..
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/901243
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A proposal for the evaluation of the bioeconomic efficiency of beef cattle production systems R. Bras. Zootec.
Marques,Pedro Rocha; Peripolli,Vanessa; Lampert,Vinícius do Nascimento; Dias,Eduardo Antunes; Pereira,Gabriel Ribas; Oliveira,Tamara Esteves de; Rocha,Marcela Kuczynski da; Barcellos,Júlio Otávio Jardim.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to identify types of production system and their main indicators on bioeconomic efficiency, using qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate beef cattle farms in the western region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A survey was carried out with 43 farmers operating in the western region of that state. All farms operated with complete cycle production systems in areas larger or equal to 900 ha. A qualitative questionnaire with binary answers and a quantitative questionnaire with numerical answers were applied. Technology and Management drivers were used for the calculation of the efficiency index of farmers obtained by both questionnaires. Farmers were divided into three clusters: low-efficiency level (LEL),...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Beef cattle farmers; Clusters analysis; Efficiency; Evaluation methods.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982017000100065
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ACHIEVING EFFICIENCY AND EQUITY IN IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT: AN OPTIMIZATION MODEL OF THE EL ANGEL WATERSHED, CARCHI, ECUADOR AgEcon
Evans, Elizabeth M.; Lee, David R.; Boisvert, Richard N..
The objective of this paper is to address the problems of inefficiency and inequity in water allocation in the El Angel watershed, located in Ecuador's Sierra region. Water is captured in a high-altitude region of the watershed and distributed downstream to producers in four elevation-defined zones via a system of canals. Upstream and downstream producers face radically different conditions with respect to climate and terrain. A mathematical programming model was created to study the consequences of addressing chronic water scarcity problems in the watershed by shifting water resources between the four zones. The model captures the nature of water use by humans, crops and dual purpose cattle. Its objective function maximizes producer welfare as...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Mathematical programming; Water allocation; Efficiency; Equity; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19742
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Adoption of a New Maize and Production Efficiency in Western Kenya AgEcon
Mignouna, D.B.; Mutabazi, K.D.S.; Senkondo, E.M.; Manyong, Victor M..
Declining yields of maize as a result of Striga infestation has necessitated a new technology known as Imazapyr-resistant maize (IRM) to contain the problem. As a result, research and development initiatives with substantial participation of the private sector to transfer this new technology to farmers have been made in western Kenya. This study therefore assesses the adoption of IRM variety and efficiency levels of farmers in western Kenya. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 600 households from Nyanza and Western provinces for this study. Tobit model and stochastic production frontier analysis were the analytical methods. Results show that age, education, maize production gap, risk, contact with extension agents, lack of seeds,...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: IRM technology; Efficiency; Stochastic production frontier; Tobit model; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96160
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Agricultural Economics Education in Ukrainian Agricultural Universities: An Efficiency Analysis Using Data Envelopment Analysis AgEcon
Lissitsa, Alexej; Coelli, Tim J.; Rao, D.S. Prasada.
Ukraine's transition from a centrally-planned to a market economy has had a profound effect upon its agricultural sector and agricultural universities. A substantial reduction in state financing has forced universities to adopt a range of survival strategies, with varying degrees of success. In this paper we use data envelopment analysis to examine the technical efficiency of 44 agricultural economics programs from 19 Ukrainian universities during the 2002/03 academic year. Our empirical results indicate wide disparities in performance, ranging from 36% to 100% technical efficiency. A second-stage analysis suggests that factors such as student demand, commercial activities and staff quality help explain a portion of this variation.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Higher education; Ukraine; Efficiency; Data envelopment analysis; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; I21; C14; Q16.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24482
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Agricultural efficiency, malaria incidence and health expenses among Ugandan farmers AgEcon
Ulimwengu, John M.; Badiane, Ousmane.
The importance of health in promoting economic development has been forcefully stated by the World Health Organization’s Commission on Macroeconomics and Health. In this paper, we look at the impact of own household health expenses on malaria incidence and ultimately on agricultural efficiency. We use a non-parametric method to estimate agricultural efficiency, therefore avoiding the issue of identification of the proper household agricultural production function. In addition the simar-wilson approach followed in this paper accounts for bias induced by serial correlation among farmers. A Tobit model with endogenous health production function is used to estimate the impact of malaria incidence on agricultural efficiency. Data come from the 2006 National...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Malaria; Efficiency; Tobit; Health; Agriculture; Expenses; Household; Production; Agricultural and Food Policy; Health Economics and Policy; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103839
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AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY IN RUSSIA AND UKRAINE: BUILDING ON A DECADE OF REFORM AgEcon
Osborne, Stefan; Trueblood, Michael A..
This study examines the impact of agriculture-specific and economywide institutional reform in Russia and Ukraine on the productivity and efficiency of agricultural production. Production in the agricultural sector in Russia and Ukraine has fallen since reforms began in 1992. The decline is to a certain extent an inevitable result of reform as input and output prices realign to world prices. However, some of the decline is due to incomplete agriculture-specific and economywide institutional reform. Russia and Ukraine have the potential to increase grain exports significantly if reforms are implemented: the most likely scenario projects that wheat and barley exports from Russia and Ukraine could double from current projections, reaching 21 million metric...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Russia; Ukraine; Reform; Productivity; Efficiency; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33937
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Agricultural Productivity and Policies in Sub-Saharan Africa AgEcon
Yu, Bingxin; Nin Pratt, Alejandro.
We analyze the evolution of Sub-Saharan Africa’s agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) over the past 45 years, looking for evidence of recent changes in growth patterns using an improved nonparametric Malmquist index. Our TFP estimates show a remarkable recovery in the performance of Sub-Saharan Africa’s agriculture between 1984 and 2006 after a long period of poor performance and decline. That recovery is the consequence of improved efficiency in production resulting from changes in the output structure and an adjustment in the use of inputs. Policy interventions, including fiscal, trade and sector specific policies, appear to have played an important role in improving agriculture’s performance. Despite the improved agricultural performance, SSA...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Efficiency; Malmquist index; Total factor productivity; Technical change; Sub-Saharan Africa; Policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Development; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/105400
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Agricultural Productivity in the United States AgEcon
Ahearn, Mary Clare; Yee, Jet; Ball, V. Eldon; Nehring, Richard F..
Increased productivity is a key to a healthy and thriving economy. Consequently, the trend in productivity, economywide, is one of the most closely watched of our common economic performance indicators. Agriculture, in particular, has been a very successful sector of the U.S. economy in terms of productivity growth. The U.S. farm sector has provided an abundance of output while using inputs efficiently. Agricultural productivity growth has been an important source of U.S. economic growth throughout the century, but the years since 1940 have seen an even faster growth in agricultural productivity. The annual average increase in productivity from 1948 to 1994 was 1.94 percent. This reflects an annual growth in output of 1.88 percent per year and an actual...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Productivity; Efficiency; Agricultural production; Outputs; Inputs; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33687
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Agri-environmental Regulation on the Back of a Data Envelopment Analysis AgEcon
White, Benedict; Raguragavan, Jananee; Chambers, Robert G..
A land retirement policy whereby land is taken out of agriculture and converted to natural vegetation or forestry has the potential to reduce environmental damage related to dryland salinity in Western Australia. This paper uses some recent results in the theory of directional distance functions (Chambers and Fare, 2004) to analyse alternative policy designs for a land retirement scheme. The results indicate that a fixed price scheme is inefficient compared with a first-best solution, but performs adequately. A scheme requiring a fixed proportion of area retired by all producers is inefficient. A separating solution, based on mechanism design, gives a small but significant increase in welfare compared to a fixed price scheme.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agri-environmental policy; Distance functions; Efficiency; Mechanism design; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q12.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7963
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