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Registros recuperados: 37
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Accountability in Government and Regulatory Policies: Theory and Evidence AgEcon
Guerriero, Carmine.
Revised version of paper added 01/16/09
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Election; Agency; Judges; Regulation; Electricity; K23; L51; Q43.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37849
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Air Emissions of Ammonia and Methane from Livestock Operations: Valuation and Policy Options AgEcon
Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Siikamaki, Juha.
The animal husbandry industry is a major emitter of methane, which is an important greenhouse gas. The industry is also a major emitter of ammonia, which is a precursor of fine particulate matter, arguably the number-one environment-related public health threat facing the nation. We present an integrated process model of the engineering economics of technologies to reduce methane and ammonia emissions at dairy operations in California. Three policy options are explored: greenhouse gas offset credits for methane control, particulate matter offset credits for ammonia control, and expanded net metering policies to provide revenue for the sale of electricity generated from captured methane gas. Individually, any of these policies appears to be sufficient to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Methane; Ammonia; Carbon dioxide; Greenhouse gases; Climate change; Offset; Particulate matter; Net metering; Environmental policy; CAFO; Manure management; Biodigester; Electricity; Global warming; Cost-benefit; Incentive approach; Livestock Production/Industries; Q2; Q4; Q53.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10749
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Allocation of CO2 Emissions Allowances in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Program AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Kahn, Danny.
Cap-and-trade programs for air emissions have become the widely accepted, preferred approach to cost-effective pollution reduction. One of the important design questions in a trading program is how to initially distribute the emissions allowances. Under the Acid Rain program created by Title IV of the Clean Air Act, most emissions allowances were distributed to current emitters on the basis of a historic measure of electricity generation in an approach known as grandfathering. Recent proposals have suggested two alternative approaches: allocation according to a formula that is updated over time according to some performance metric in a recent year (the share of electricity generation or something else) and auctioning allowances to the highest bidders....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Allowance allocations; Electricity; Air pollution; Auction; Grandfathering; Generation performance standard; Output-based allocation; Cost-effectiveness; Greenhouse gases; Climate change; Global warming; Carbon dioxide; Sulfur dioxide; Nitrogen oxides; Mercury; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25; Q4; L94.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10650
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Biogas and Biomass Implementation in Rural Areas BABT
Sandim,Álvaro A.; Batista,Alexandre G.; Bareta,Maria Luiza E.; Betini,Roberto C.; Pepplow,Luiz Amilton.
Abstract Advances in energy demand in rural areas cannot be dissociated from agricultural modernization, large estates, mechanization of labor and reduced investment in small production. The use of biogas together with biomass are the most cost-effective ways for the small producer, as it has a high calorific value. In the case of biogas the procedure is performed by combining a compressor and a chiller, allowing the gas enter the reactor and burn together with the air stream. The use of these techniques is an auxiliary way to reduce the cost of the producer to produce a certain crop, besides allowing a participation in the final energy supply, so that the utilities have an alternative to distribute the surplus energy to another region, serving thus a...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Biogas; Biomass; Rural areas; Electricity.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132019000200201
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BIOMASS FOR ELECTRICITY AND PROCESS HEAT AT ETHANOL PLANTS AgEcon
Morey, R. Vance; Tiffany, Douglas G.; Hatfield, Dennis L..
Published in: Applied Engineering in Agriculture, Vol. 22(5): 723-728
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biomass; Process heat; Ethanol production; Electricity; Combined heat and power; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93630
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Carbon Prices Required to Make Digesters Profitable on U.S. Dairy Farms of Different Sizes AgEcon
Lazarus, William F.; Goodkind, Andrew; Gallagher, Paul W.; Conway, Roger K..
Replaced with revised version of paper 02/15/11.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Anaerobic digester; Biogas plant; Livestock manure; Electricity; Methane; Carbon offset value; Environmental Economics and Policy; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98628
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China’s Electricity Market Reform and Power Plants Efficiency AgEcon
Ma, Chunbo; Zhao, Xiaoli; Ma, Qian; Zhao, Yue.
In the past three decades, Chinese electricity industry has experienced a series of regulatory reforms serving different purposes at different stages. In 2002, the former vertically integrated electricity utility - the State Power Corporation (SPC) – was divested and the generation sector was separated from the transmission and distribution networks in an effort to improve production efficiency. In this paper we study the impact of the reform on efficiency of fossil-fired power plants using plant-level data during 2000-2008. Our results from the data envelopment analysis (DEA) and panel regressions show that: 1) the total factor productivity (TFP) growth mainly comes from technological change; 2) the technical efficiency of previously SPC-managed power...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Efficiency; DEA; Malmquist Index; China; Electricity; Industrial Organization; Productivity Analysis; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D24; L11; L51; L94; L98.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117811
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CO2 Allowance Allocation in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and the Effect on Electricity Investors AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Kahn, Danny; Palmer, Karen L..
The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is an effort by nine Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states to develop a regional, mandatory, market-based cap-and-trade program to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the electricity sector. The initiative is expected to lead to an increase in the price of electricity in the RGGI region and beyond. The implications of these changes for the value of electricity-generating assets and the market value of the firms that own them depends on the initial allocation of carbon dioxide allowances, the composition of generating assets owned by the firm, and the locations of those assets. Changes in asset values inside the RGGI region may be positive or negative, whereas changes outside of the RGGI region are almost...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Allowance allocations; Electricity; Air pollution; Auction; Grandfathering; Generation-performance standard; Output-based allocation; Cost-effectiveness; Greenhouse gases; Climate change; Global warming; Carbon dioxide; Asset value; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25; Q4; L94.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10495
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Cost-Effective Reduction of NOx Emissions from Electricity Generation AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Paul, Anthony.
This paper analyzes the benefits and costs of policies to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from electricity generation in the United States. Because emissions of NOX contribute to the high concentration of atmospheric ozone in the eastern states that is associated with health hazards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has called on eastern states to formulate state implementation plans (SIPs) for reducing NOX emissions. Our analysis considers three NOX reduction scenarios: a summer seasonal cap in the eastern states covered by EPA's NOX SIP Call, an annual cap in the same SIP Call region, and a national annual cap. All scenarios allow for emissions trading. Although EPA's current policy is to implement a seasonal cap in the SIP Call...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Electricity; Particulates; Nitrogen oxides; NOx; Health benefits; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10677
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Cost-Effectiveness of Renewable Electricity Policies AgEcon
Palmer, Karen L.; Burtraw, Dallas.
We analyze policies to promote renewable sources of electricity. A renewable portfolio standard raises electricity prices and primarily reduces gas-fired generation. A "knee" of the cost curve exists between 15% and 20% goals for 2020 in our central case, and higher natural gas prices lower the cost of greater reliance on renewables. A renewable energy production tax credit lowers electricity price at the expense of taxpayers and thus limits its effectiveness in reducing carbon emissions; it also is less cost-effective at increasing renewables than a portfolio standard. Neither policy is as cost-effective as a cap-and-trade policy for achieving carbon emissions reductions.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Renewable energy; Electricity; Renewable portfolio standard; Carbon dioxide; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q42; Q48; Q54.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10845
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Cultivating biomass locally or importing it? LCA of biomass provision scenarios for cleaner electricity production in a small tropical island ArchiMer
Chary, Killian; Aubin, Joel; Guinde, Loic; Sierra, Jorge; Blazy, Jean-marc.
Biomass is a promising renewable alternative to decarbonize and to secure energy production on small islands, as most insular power generation systems rely heavily on imported fossil fuels. Feedstock procurement is a key aspect of bioenergy chain sustainability, and local resources as well as imported biomass can be considered if the electricity generated presents environmental benefits. We used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of 1 kWh of electricity produced in Guadeloupe from the combustion of locally grown energy cane and imported wood pellets. The energy cane agricultural supply was simulated using a bio-economic model to elaborate and analyze five scenarios involving different biomass mixes and geographical areas of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: LCA; Electricity; Energy cane; Wood pellet; Islands; Saccharum sp..
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00427/53878/55107.pdf
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Demanda industrial de energia elétrica em Minas Gerais, 1970-2002 AgEcon
Mattos, Leonardo Bornacki de; Reis, Bricio dos Santos; Lima, Joao Eustaquio de; Lirio, Viviani Silva.
The main objective of this paper was to obtain an estimate for the industrial electricity demand in Minas Gerais in the period from 1970 to 2002. After identifying that the series were nonstationary, it was used the Cointegration approach, being estimated a Vector Error Correction Model (VEC Model). The results showed that both price and income elasticities are inferiors to the unit. The projections for period 2004/2008 indicate that the consumption of electricity should present superior taxes of growth to the observed ones in the decade of 90.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Industrial Demand; Electricity; Cointegration; VEC Model; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56746
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Economic Evaluation of Wind Energy as an Alternative to Natural Gas Powered Irrigation AgEcon
Guerrero, Bridget L.; Amosson, Stephen H.; Marek, Thomas H.; Johnson, Jeffrey W..
High natural gas prices have agricultural producers searching for alternative energy sources for irrigation. The economic feasibility of electric and hybrid (electric/wind) systems are evaluated as alternatives to natural gas powered irrigation. Texas Panhandle and Southern Kansas farms are assessed with a quarter-mile sprinkler system, three crops, and two pumping lifts. Breakeven points identify the price at which conversion from a natural gas irrigation system to an electric or hybrid system is cost effective. Results indicate electricity is a more feasible energy source for irrigation and policy changes such as net metering are necessary to make hybrid systems viable.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Electricity; Irrigation; Natural gas; Wind energy; Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; International Development; Land Economics/Use; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q12; Q20; Q42.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90680
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Efficient Emission Fees in the U.S. Electricity Sector AgEcon
Banzhaf, H. Spencer; Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L..
This paper provides new estimates of efficient emission fees for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions in the U.S. electricity sector. The estimates are obtained by coupling a detailed simulation model of the U.S. electricity markets with an integrated assessment model that links changes in emissions with atmospheric transport, environmental endpoints, and valuation of impacts. Efficient fees are found by comparing incremental benefits with emission fee levels. National quantity caps that are equivalent to these fees also are computed, and found to approximate caps under consideration in the current multi-pollutant debate in the U.S. Congress and the recent proposals from the Bush administration for the electricity industry. We also...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Emission fees; Air pollution; Cost-benefit analysis; Electricity; Particulates; Nitrogen oxides; NOx; Sulfur dioxide; SO2; Health benefits; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q4; D61.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10505
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El impacto social de la privatización y de la regulación de los servicios públicos en el Perú AgEcon
Torero, Maximo; Pasco-Font Quevedo, Alberto.
Casi cinco años después de haber culminado las privatizaciones en telecomunicaciones y electricidad, así como haber realizado importantes reformas en agua potable y alcantarillado, es necesario realizar un balance sobre los resultados de dichas reformas. A fin de determinar si el resultado fue positivo o negativo, esta investigación trata de cuantificar los efectos de las privatizaciones de los servicios públicos (agua, telecomunicaciones y electricidad) sobre el consumo y bienestar de los hogares urbanos peruanos. Por tanto, nuestro principal objetivo es analizar los efectos sobre la distribución del ingreso e identificar que hogares se beneficiaron y cuales se perjudicaron por los cambios en precios originados por las privatizaciones. Para lograr este...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Servicios públicos; Telecomunicacions; Electricidad; Privatización; Saneamiento; Perú; Public Services; Telecomunications; Electricity; Sanitation; Privatization; Peru; Public Economics; L3.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37758
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Energy potential of residual maize biomass at different spacings and nitrogen doses Ciência e Agrotecnologia
Ambrosio,Rodrigo; Pauletti,Volnei; Barth,Gabriel; Povh,Fabrício Pinheiro; Silva,Dimas Agostinho da; Blum,Hilbert.
ABSTRACT Agricultural residual biomass is an important source of energy, and its production and quality vary according to the crop management. This study aimed to assess the effects of plant distribution and nitrogen fertilization on the energy production potential of the biomass of maize cultivated under no tillage. The field experiment was installed in southeast Brazil using five nitrogen rates (0, 60, 120, 180, and 240 kg ha-1) and two inter-row spacings (0.4 and 0.8 m). Grain yield, residual biomass productivity, and bioenergy potential in different parts of the plant (grain, stalk+leaf, husk, and cob) were assessed. No change in grain yield was observed using narrow row spacing. Stalk+leaf and husk productivity was higher using 0.8 m than using 0.4 m...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Renewable energy; Zea Mays (L.); Calorific value; Electricity; Macronutrients..
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-70542017000600626
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Foreign Direct Investment in China's Power Sector: Trends, Benefits and Barriers AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Wu, Xun.
In the early 1990s, hoping to reduce chronic electricity shortages and enhance the efficiency of Chinese power plants, China opened its doors to foreign direct investment (FDI) in electricity generation. Using data from an original survey of US private investors, official Chinese statistics, and other sources, we assess the volume and characteristics of FDI in China's power sector, its impact on energy efficiency, and the factors that limit this impact. Our five principal findings are as follows. First, the volume FDI in China's power sector will likely fall short of the government's 1995 - 2000 capacity expansion target by a substantial margin, most likely because of persistent institutional barriers to FDI. Second, to avoid the lengthy central government...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Foreign direct investment; China; Electricity; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10606
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Immediate and latent effects of drying soybeans with dehydrated air Agronomy
Konopatzki, Evandro André; Christ, Divair; Coelho, Silvia Renata Machado; Nobrega, Lúcia Helena Pereira da; Dellagostin, Simone; Lenz, Anderson Miguel.
New grain drying techniques have been improved to reduce post-harvest losses. The electric air dehumidifier (UTA 60®) is an example; it was installed at the ELLITT Seed Company for drying soybean seeds (TEC 7849) with random sample collection (DIC). Our objective was to evaluate the immediate and latent effects of the dehumidified air on the vigour of the seeds. Our vigour analysis method was based on the Rules for Seed Analysis (RAS), and our results showed an immediate significant difference in seedling percentage, but the germination level did not have an effect at 5% (Dunnett's test). In latent effects, at 5% (Tukey test), there was a reduction in the germination percentage and emergence rate, but it was not possible link such variations to the drying...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Air dehumidification; Air handling unit; Electricity; Germinative vigour; Glycine max.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAgron/article/view/42706
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Investment in Electricity Transmission and Ancillary Environmental Benefits AgEcon
Bloyd, Cary; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Burtraw, Dallas.
Planning of the electricity transmission system generally focuses on the pros and cons of providing generation close to the source of the power demand versus remote generation linked via the transmission system. Recent electricity supply problems in the western United States have renewed interest in the role of transmission in assuring the reliability of electricity supply. Recently, the Western Governors' Association led the development of a planning exercise that examined the tradeoffs over the next 10 years between locating new natural gas powered generation close to the load centers versus new coal, wind, hydro, and geothermal generation in remote areas. Although the analysis concentrated on the direct system costs, the choice of new generation will...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity; Transmission; Air pollution; Ancillary benefits; Nitrogen oxides; Sulfur dioxide; Carbon dioxide; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; L94; Q25; Q41.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10519
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Nodal Pricing and Transmission Losses: An Application to a Hydroelectric Power System AgEcon
Bernard, Jean-Thomas; Guertin, Chantal.
Since January 1, 1997, the wholesale electricity market in the United States has been open to competition. To satisfy the reciprocity requirements imposed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Hydro-Quebec, a Canadian utility, made its transmission grid accessible to third parties. Under the current regulation, transmission losses are taken into account through a single, constant rate; location and time of use play no role. Hydro-Quebec generates most of its electricity from hydro resources. Long high-voltage power lines link production in the North to consumption centers in the South, where there are interconnections with neighboring areas. We develop an optimization model that allows us to calculate nodal prices on the basis of the opportunity...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity; Transmission pricing; Hydropower; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; L94.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10724
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