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Registros recuperados: 19
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Are You SURE You Want to Waste Policy Chances? Waste Generation, Landfill Diversion and Environmental Policy Effectiveness in the EU15 AgEcon
Iafolla, Valentina; Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Nicolli, Francesco.
We empirically test delinking of waste dynamics with regard to economic growth and the effectiveness of environmental and specific waste-related policies, by exploiting a newly constructed, integrated waste-economic-policy dataset based on official data for the EU15 for 1995-2007. We find that absolute delinking for waste generation is far from being achieved in the EU despite fairly stringent and longstanding policy commitment that goes back to the mid 1990s, but which however is biased towards waste management and waste disposal rather than waste prevention. Policy as well as country structural factors seem to impact instead on landfill diversion. Nevertheless, country heterogeneity matters: SURE based analyses show that EU average figures often hide...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Waste Generation; Landfill Diversion; SUR; EU Waste Policy; Environmental Policy; Delinking; Environmental Economics and Policy; C23; Q38; Q56.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91010
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Assessing Investment in Precision Farming for Reducing Pesticide Use in French Viticulture AgEcon
Lescot, Jean-Marie; Rousset, Sylvain; Souville, Genevieve.
The paper develops a mathematical programming model for assessing the impact of Environmental Policy instruments on French winegrowing farm’s adoption of pesticides-saving technologies. We model choices with regards to investment in precision farming and plant protection practices, in a multi-periodic framework with sequential decision, integrating uncertainty on fungal disease pressure and imperfect information on equipment performance. We focus on recursive models maximizing a Utility function. These models are applied on a representative sample of 534 winegrowers from the French Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). As expected, both ecotaxes and green subsidies make precision farming equipment more profitable, but the investment rate remains however...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Discrete Stochastic Programming; Precision Farming; Viticulture; Pesticides; Environmental Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114387
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Can Climate Change Mitigation Policy Benefit the Israeli Economy? A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis AgEcon
Palatnik, Ruslana Rachel; Shechter, Mordechai.
The growing attention to global warming due to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the process of fossil fuel--based energy production is expressed in the Kyoto Protocol, which prescribes, on average, a 7 percent reduction in GHG emissions for developed countries. Although Israel was not included in the list of the obligated countries ("Annex A"), it should consider the economic implications of participating in the emission reduction effort, as such a commitment becomes highly feasible following the Bali roadmap which oblige a successor to the Kyoto Protocol to launch negotiations including all parties to the UNFCCC on a future framework, stressing the role of cooperative action and of common though differentiated responsibility. This study aimed to quantify...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Computable General Equilibrium; Climate Change; Environmental Policy; Double Dividend; Israel; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics; D58; H23; Q43; Q48; Q52.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6361
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Corruption and Environmental Policy: An Alternative Perspective AgEcon
Lapatinas, Athanasios; Litina, Anastasia; Sartzetakis, Eftichios S..
We construct an overlapping generations model in which agents live through two periods; childhood and adulthood. Each agent makes choices only as an adult, based on her utility that depends on her own consumption and the human capital and environmental quality endowed to her offspring. Entering adulthood, agents choose randomly between two occupations: citizens and politicians. Citizens are the only producers of a single good and choose the proportion of their income to declare to the tax authorities. Politicians decide upon the allocation of the tax revenue between environmental protection and education activities, taking as given the rates of peculation in each activity. In this context, two self-fulfilling stable equilibria can emerge, one associated...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corruption; Environmental Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; H2; H26; H3; Q56; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101377
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Double Irreversibility and Environmental Policy Design AgEcon
Pommeret, Aude; Prieur, Fabien.
The design of environmental policy typically takes place within a framework in which uncertainty over the future impact of pollution and two different kinds of irreversibilities interact. The first kind of irreversibility concerns the sunk cost of environmental degradation; the second is related to the sunk cost of environmental policy. Clearly, the two irreversibilities pull in opposite directions: policy irreversibility leads to more pollution and a less/later policy while environmental irreversibility generates less pollution and a more/sooner policy. Using a real option approach and an infinite time horizon model, this paper considers both irreversibilities simultaneously. The model first is developed by paying particular attention to the option values...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Policy; Environmental Irreversibility; Policy Irreversibility; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q58; D81.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50359
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Environmental Policy, Spatial Spillovers and the Emergence of Economic Agglomerations AgEcon
Kyriakopoulou, Efthymia; Xepapadeas, Anastasios.
We explain the spatial concentration of economic activity, in a model of economic geography, when the cost of environmental policy - which is increasing in the concentration of emissions - and an immobile production factor act as centrifugal forces, while positive knowledge spillovers and iceberg transportation costs act as centripetal forces. We study the agglomeration effects caused by trade-offs between centripetal and centrifugal forces. The above effects govern firms’ location decisions and as a result, they define the distribution of economic activity across space. We derive the rational expectations equilibrium and the social optimum, compare the outcomes and characterize the optimal spatial policies.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agglomeration; Spatial Economics; Environmental Policy; Knowledge Spillovers; Transportation Cost; Environmental Economics and Policy; R3; Q5; H2.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54289
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Environmental Regulation and Horizontal Mergers in the Eco-industry AgEcon
Canton, Joan; David, Maia; Sinclair-Desgagne, Bernard.
This paper considers the environmental policy and welfare implications of a merger between environment firms (i.e., firms managing environmental resources or supplying pollution abatement goods and services). The traditional analysis of mergers in Cournot oligopolies is extended in two ways. First, we show how environmental policy affects the incentives of environment firms to merge. Second, we stress that mergers in the eco-industry impact welfare beyond what is observed in other sectors, due to an extra effect on pollution abatement efforts; this might lead to disagreements between an anti-trust agency seeking to limit market concentration which can be detrimental to consumer surplus and a benevolent regulator who maximizes total welfare.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Eco-Industry; Environmental Policy; Horizontal Mergers; D62; H23; L11.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37524
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Environmental Regulations, Market Structure and Technological Progress in Renewable Energy Technology — A Panel Data Study on Wind Turbines AgEcon
Rubbelke, Dirk T.G.; Weiss, Pia.
We study the impact of environmental regulations on the patent activities for wind turbines between 1980 and 2008. We explicitly control for energy market liberalisation and take a potential interaction between liberalisation and policy instruments into account. We find a strong and highly significant effect of environmental tax revenues, which we regard as a proxy for the extent to which energy prices changed in favour of renewable energies, as well as foreign demand for wind turbines on innovation activities. In addition, we find that price-based policy instruments are more effective in fostering innovations in the wind turbine technology when energy markets are fully open to competition. In contrast, non-price-based policy instruments such as grants or...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Policy; Renewable Energy; Market Structure; Wind Turbines; Innovation; Patents; Technological Change; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q55; Q58; O34; O38.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102569
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Improving the Energy-Efficiency of Buildings: The Impact of Environmental Policy on Technological Innovation AgEcon
Noailly, Joelle.
This paper investigates the impact of alternative environmental policy instruments on technological innovations aiming to improve energy-efficiency in buildings. The empirical analysis focuses on three main types of policy instruments, namely regulatory energy standards in buildings codes, energy taxes as captured by energy prices and specific governmental energy R&D expenditures. Technological innovation is measured using patent counts for specific technologies related to energy-efficiency in buildings (e.g. insulation, high-efficiency boilers, energy-saving lightings). The estimates for seven European countries over the 1989-2004 period imply that a strengthening of 10% of the minimum insulation standards for walls would increase the likelihood to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Innovation; Technological Change; Patents; Energy-Efficiency; Buildings; Environmental Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O31; O34; Q55.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94777
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In or Out: Efficient inclusion of installations in an Emissions Trading Scheme? AgEcon
Betz, Regina; Sanderson, Todd; Ancev, Tihomir.
Regulators around the world are currently considering national emissions trading systems (ETS) as a cost-effective way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ETS installations coverage is one of the numerous design issues confronting them. ‘Blanket coverage’ that includes all an economy’s industrial emitters of greenhouse gases has some intuitive appeal. Although it seems equitable it does not, however, take into full account all the costs related to the extent of coverage. This report shows how an alternative approach of ‘efficient coverage’ can achieve the same emission reduction outcome at lower social cost. The approach is based on maximising the benefits of including installations in an ETS, while at the same time taking into account all relevant...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Emissions Trading Scheme; Environmental Policy; Installation Coverage; Transaction costs.; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q50; Q58; H23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94877
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Linking Environmental and Innovation Policy AgEcon
Gerlagh, Reyer; Kverndokk, Snorre; Rosendahl, Knut Einar.
This paper addresses the timing and interdependence between innovation and environmental policy in a model of research and development (R&D). On a first-best path the environmental tax is set at the Pigouvian level, independent of innovation policy. With infinite patent lifetime, the R&D subsidy should be constant and independent of the state of the environment. However, with finite patent lifetime, optimal innovation policy depends on the stage of the environmental problem. In the early stages of an environmental problem, abatement research should be subsidized at a high level and this subsidy should fall monotonically over time to stimulate initial R&D investments. Alternatively, with a constant R&D subsidy, patents’ length should...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Policy; Research and Development; Innovation Subsidies; Patents; H21; O30; Q42.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37847
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Linking of Repeated Games. When Does It Lead to More Cooperation and Pareto Improvements? AgEcon
von Mouche, Pierre; Folmer, Henk.
Linking of repeated games and exchange of concessions in fields of relative strength may lead to more cooperation and to Pareto improvements relative to the situation where each game is played separately. In this paper we formalize these statements, provide some general results concerning the conditions for more cooperation and Pareto improvements to materialize or not and analyze the relation between both. Special attention is paid to the role of asymmetries.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Policy; Linking; Folk Theorem; Tensor Game; Prsioners; Full Cooperation; Pareto Efficiency; Minkowski Sum; Vector Maximum; Convex Analysis; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C72.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9557
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Optimal Coverage of Installations in a Carbon Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) AgEcon
Sanderson, Todd; Ancev, Tihomir; Betz, Regina.
Trading schemes for emission allowances have become a panacea for nations aspiring to reduce their aggregate emissions of greenhouse gases from industry in a cost-effective manner. The contention of this paper is that an emissions trading scheme (ETS) should not be based on blanket coverage of installations on a downstream level, but should rather be designed to include some installations, and from some industrial sectors. In the case of an ETS there are high costs of administration, monitoring and transacting imposed on the installations covered. These costs are supposed to be more than offset by the cost savings realised through trading in the market for emission allowances. However, the paper shows that not all installations can fully offset...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate Change; Emissions Trading Scheme; European Union; Marginal Abatement Costs; Environmental Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6047
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Optimal Emission Tax with Endogenous Location Choice of Duopolistic Firms AgEcon
Ikefuji, Masako; Itaya, Jun-ichi; Okamura, Makoto.
This paper explores optimal environmental tax policy under which duopoly firms strategically choose the location of their plants in a simple three-stage game. We examine how the relationship between the optimal emission tax and the choice of location of duopoly firms affects the welfare of the home country. We characterize the relationship between the optimal emission tax and the fixed cost, depending on the degree of environmental damage from production. Finally, we show the existence of asymmetric equilibrium in which either firm chooses relocation of its plant even if the duopoly firms are identical ex ante.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Policy; Relocation; Welfare; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; L13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59377
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Optimal Timing of Environmental Policy; Interaction Between Environmental Taxes and Innovation Externalities AgEcon
Gerlagh, Reyer; Kverndokk, Snorre; Rosendahl, Knut Einar.
This paper addresses the impact of endogenous technology through research and development (R&D) and learning by doing (LbD) on the timing of environmental policy. We develop two models, the first with R&D and the second with LbD. We study the interaction between environmental taxes and innovation externalities in a dynamic economy and prove policy equivalence between the second-best R&D and the LbD model. Our analysis shows that the difference found in the literature between optimal environmental policy in R&D and LbD models can partly be traced back to the set of policy instruments available, rather than being directly linked to the source of technological innovation. Arguments for early action in LbD models carry over to a second-best...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Policy; Technological Change; Research and Development; Learning by Doing; Environmental Economics and Policy; H21; O30; Q42.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9329
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Socio-economic Factors that Influence Households: Participation in Wetland Cultivation: A Binary Logistic Regression of Wetland Cultivators and Noncultivators AgEcon
Taruvinga, Amon; Mushunje, Abbyssinia.
Increased droughts in southern Africa have noticed some appreciation of the role that partial wetland cultivation can play to address household food security. This has also witnessed some indication of possible relaxation of wetland cultivation restrictive policies in Zimbabwe. However, the general perceptions of society towards wetland cultivation remain unclear and critically important for policy crafting before blanket recommendations are made. Using a Binary Logistic Regression Model seven predictor independent variables were regressed against a binary dependent variable of wetland cultivation status of households with the implicit goal of estimating socio-economic factors capable of influencing households` participation in wetland cultivation. Results...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Wetland Cultivation; Environmental Policy; Logistic Regression; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95967
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The Economic Impact of the Green Certificate Market through the Macro Multiplier Approach AgEcon
Ciaschini, Maurizio; Severini, Francesca; Socci, Claudio; Pretaroli, Rosita.
In the last decade, as many other European countries, the Italian Government adopted several reforms in order to increase the use of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). The liberalization of the electricity market that represents one of these reforms aims to reach environmental benefits from the substitution of fossil fuel with renewable sources. The Italian Green Certificate market was introduced in 2002 in order to accomplish this objective and represents a mechanism where a quota of renewable electricity is imposed to suppliers in proportion to their sales. The electricity industries are obliged to meet this condition by producing the quantity of renewable electricity by means of a change in their production process, otherwise they must buy a number of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Policy; Hybrid I-O model; Macro Multiplier; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C67; E23; Q43; Q48.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94741
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Total Factor Productivity Growth when Factors of Production Generate Environmental Externalities AgEcon
Vouvaki, Dimitra; Xepapadeas, Anastasios.
Total factor productivity growth (TFPG) has been traditionally associated with technological change. We show that when a factor of production, such as energy, generates an environmental externality in the form of CO2 emissions which is not internalized because of lack of environmental policy, then TFPG estimates could be biased. This is because the contribution of environment as a factor of production is not accounted for in the growth accounting framework. Empirical estimates confirm this hypothesis and suggest that part of what is regarded as technology’s contribution to growth could be attributed to the use of environment in output production.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Total Factor Productivity; Sources of Growth; Environmental Externalities; Energy; Environmental Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; O47; Q20; Q43.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50405
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What Should We Expect from Innovation? A Model-Based Assessment of the Environmental and Mitigation Cost Implications of Climate-Related R&D AgEcon
Bosetti, Valentina; Carraro, Carlo; Duval, Romain; Tavoni, Massimo.
This paper addresses two basic issues related to technological innovation and climate stabilisation objectives: i) Can innovation policies be effective in stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations? ii) To what extent can innovation policies complement carbon pricing (taxes or permit trading) and improve the economic efficiency of a mitigation policy package? To answer these questions, we use an integrated assessment model with multiple externalities and an endogenous representation of technical progress in the energy sector. We evaluate a range of innovation policies, both as a stand-alone instrument and in combination with other mitigation policies. Even under fairly optimistic assumptions about the funding available for, and the returns to R&D, our...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; Environmental Policy; Energy R&D Fund; Stabilisation Costs; Environmental Economics and Policy; H0; H2; H3; H4; O3; Q32; Q43; Q54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60745
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