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Registros recuperados: 29
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A Reconsideration of Environmental Federalism AgEcon
Oates, Wallace E..
This paper provides a review and assessment of the debate over environmental federalism-the issue of the roles of different levels of government in environmental management. The paper begins with the presentation of three benchmark cases that provide a framework for thinking about the issue. It then offers a review, first of the theoretical literature and second of some new, provocative empirical literature on the race to the bottom. The paper contends that there remains, under certain circumstances, an important role for decentralized government in the setting of environmental standards and the design of regulatory programs. The central government, in addition to setting standards for "national" pollutants, has a fundamental contribution to make in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental federalism; Environmental management; Environmental policy; Environmental regulation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; H1; H7.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10460
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A SUSTENTABILIDADE DAS RESERVAS EXTRATIVISTAS PELA PERSPECTIVA DA ECONOMIA ECOLÓGICA AgEcon
Cavalcanti, Francisco Carlos Da Silveira; Maciel, Raimundo Claudio Gomes; Mangabeira, Joao Alfredo De Carvalho; Reydon, Bastiaan Philip.
As Reservas Extrativistas (RESEX) são áreas de domínio público, com uso concedido às populações extrativistas tradicionais, cuja subsistência baseia-se no extrativismo e na agricultura de subsistência e na criação de animais de pequeno porte, e têm como objetivos básicos proteger os meios de vida e a cultura dessas populações, e assegurar o uso sustentável dos recursos naturais da unidade. Porém, o aumento da área para agropecuária dentro das reservas vem aumentando e, assim, o desmatamento. O presente estudo tem como objetivo promover uma reflexão sobre a regulamentação ambiental e suas conseqüências, bem como sobre a organização popular como instrumento capaz de deter o desmatamento na Amazônia. Neste sentido, as RESEX, resultado da luta política e...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Sustentabilidade; Reservas Extrativistas; Economia Ecológica; Amazônia; Regulamentação ambiental; Sustainability; Extractivist Reserves; Ecological Economics; Amazon; Environmental regulation; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113395
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Border Enforcement and Firm Response in the Management of Invasive Species AgEcon
Ameden, Holly A.; Cash, Sean B.; Zilberman, David.
This analysis presents a theoretical model of firm response to border enforcement and evaluates both the intended and unintended effects under two enforcement regimes: destruction versus treatment of contaminated shipments. The results indicate that importers may respond to increased inspection by reducing shipments and decreasing due care. In response to increased pest populations, firms may reduce shipments and increase due care, indicating that an enforcement response may not be necessary. The analysis reveals the importance of the nature of the due-care technology, as well as the relationships underlying the probability of detection, in determining the effects of enforcement.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Border enforcement; Environmental regulation; Invasive species; Trade and environment; F18; L51; Q17; Q56; Q58.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37112
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Calculating the Costs of Environmental Regulation AgEcon
Pizer, William A.; Kopp, Raymond J..
Decisions concerning environmental protection hinge on estimates of economic burden. Over the past 30 years, economists have developed and applied various tools to measure this burden. In this paper, developed as a chapter for the Handbook of Environmental Economics, we present a taxonomy of costs along with methods for measuring those costs. At the broadest level, we distinguish between partial and general equilibrium costs. Partial equilibrium costs represent the burden directly borne by the regulated entity (firms, households, government), including both pecuniary and nonpecuniary expenses, when prices are held constant. General equilibrium costs reflect the net burden once all good and factor markets have equilibrated. In addition to partial...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Social cost; Cost-benefit; Cost-effectiveness; Environmental regulation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q20; Q28; H41; L50; D58.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10762
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Changes in Manure Management in the Hog Sector AgEcon
Key, Nigel D.; McBride, William D.; Ribaudo, Marc.
In recent years, structural changes in the hog sector, including increasing farm size and regional shifts in production, have altered manure management practices. Over the same period, changes to the Clean Water Act, new state regulations, and increasing local conflicts over odor have influenced manure management decisions. This study uses data from two national surveys of hog farmers to examine how hog manure management practices vary with the scale of production and how these practices evolved between 1998 and 2004. The findings provide insights into the effects of structural changes and recent policies on manure management technologies and practices, the use of nutrient management plans, and manure application rates.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Hog production; Manure management; Structural change; Environmental regulation; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6071
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Cleaning Up the Nuclear Weapons Complex: Exploring New Approaches AgEcon
Probst, Katherine N.; Pilling, Carolyn A.; Dunn, Karen T..
In recent years, policy experts have increasingly decried the "piecemeal" approach to environmental protection embodied in existing laws and regulations. This paper analyzes one aspect of the call for more integration: the feasibility and advisability of developing an integrated approach to regulating the cleanup of the nation's nuclear weapons complex. The Cold War has left an unprecedented set of difficulties at sites across the country where vast quantities of hazardous and radioactive materials must be properly managed. Regulatory fragmentation--particularly the phenomenon of multiple regulators and regulations driving the allocation of resources in an uncoordinated fashion--is nowhere more evident than in the current statutory and regulatory framework...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Nuclear weapons complex; Integration; Environmental law; Environmental regulation; Environmental Economics and Policy; H56; K32; Q28.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10765
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Editorial: Impacts of Marine Litter ArchiMer
Galgani, Luisa; Beiras, Ricardo; Galgani, Francois; Panti, Cristina; Borja, Angel.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Plastics; Nanoplastics; Microplastics; Environmental regulation; Ecotoxicology; Aquatic biota.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00491/60231/63602.pdf
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Enforcing Environmental Regulation: Implications of Remote Sensing Technology AgEcon
MacAuley, Molly K.; Brennan, Timothy J..
We review economic models of environmental protection and regulatory enforcement to highlight several attributes that are particularly likely to benefit from new enforcement technologies such as remote sensing using satellites in space. These attributes include the quantity and quality of information supplied by the new technologies; the accessibility of the information to regulators, regulatees, and third parties; the cost of the information; and whether the process of information collection can be concealed from the observer. Satellite remote sensing is likely to influence all of these attributes and in general, improve the efficacy of enforcement.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental regulation; New technologies; Remote sensing; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q28.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10464
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Environmental Governance, Globalisation and Economic Performance AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
Increasing globalisation of economic activity and accompanying economic growth have been factors in the worldwide loss of natural environments and biodiversity loss, and these losses have accelerated since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, Emissions of many types of pollutants and wastes from human activity are rising globally and are exceeding the capacity of natural environments to absorb and neutralize them. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that the quality and size of some natural sinks for neutralizing them (such as forests) are declining. Consequently, these wastes are accumulating in many environments and pose a growing threat to human welfare and to sustainable economic development. There are, for instance, global concerns about...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental economics; Environmental governance; Environmental law; Environmental regulation; Globalisation; Global warming; Greenhouse gases; Transboundary pollution; Transboundary natural resources.; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55341
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Environmental regulation and international trade patterns for agro-industrial under a South-North Perspective AgEcon
Feix, Rodrigo Daniel; Miranda, Silvia Helena Galvao de; Barros, Geraldo Sant'Ana de Camargo.
This paper aims at examining the relation between the international trade and the environment, particularly focused on sensitive agribusiness sectors. It consists on an empirical test to the conflicting positions supported by economists, some following the traditional approach (trade-off or neoclassical), while others supporting the Porter’s hypothesis, which considers that impacts of the stricter environmental regulation can benefit the trade competitiveness. A Heckscher-Ohlin- Vanek model was applied to net exports as the dependent variable. The agricultural products analyzed were total agriculture, rice, maize, soybean, wheat, dairy and swine; run for 97 countries, divided as developing and developed, in a cross-section approach. This modeling allows...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade; Environmental regulation; Agribusiness; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44329
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Environmental Regulations and Agricultural Competitiveness AgEcon
Colyer, Dale.
The cost of meeting environmental regulations can be a critical factor in determining the competitiveness of a product, since the cost advantages of producers in one country are often very slim. The existence of negative externalities means that prices are lower than would prevail if all costs where included in the prices of the products. Additional costs associated with new regulations have an effect on the continued importance of a country's agricultural exports. Governments often assist their agricultural sectors in overcoming the disadvantages through subsidies, tax breaks, technical assistance or other means. This assistance increasingly takes the form of green payments, which are currently exempt from the WTO limits imposed on domestic subsidies....
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; Agricultural trade; Competitiveness; Environment; Environmental regulation; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23846
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Environmental Regulations of Land-use and Public Compensation: Principles with Swiss and Australian Examples AgEcon
Seidl, Irmi; Tisdell, Clement A.; Harrison, Stephen R..
This paper discusses regulation of rural land-use and compensation, both of which appear to have become more common but also more disputed. The implications of contemporary theories in relation to this matter are examined. Coverage includes the applicability of new welfare economics, the relevance of the neoclassical theory of politics, and the implications of contemporary theories of social conflict resolution and communication. Examining case studies of Swiss and Australian regulation of the use of rural properties and the ensuing conflicts, it is found that many decisions reflect a mixture of these elements. Rarely, if ever, are social decisions in this area made solely on the basis of welfare economics, for instance social cost-benefit analysis. Only...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Australia; Compensation for takings; Conservation; Environmental regulation; Property rights; Rural land-use; Switzerland; Welfare economics; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48366
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FEDERAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY: A SUMMARY OVERVIEW AgEcon
Carriker, Roy R..
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which was signed into law on January 1, 1970, has come to be regarded as the first major piece of federal legislation to call for comprehensive attention to environmental concerns in the United States. During the two decades following enactment of NEPA, Congress adopted and then refined major legislation on nearly every aspect of environmental quality concerns: air pollution, water pollution, drinking water quality, hazardous waste management, wildlife protection, pesticide use, and several related problem areas. Current arguments for environmental regulatory reform are a phase in the continuing evolution of this body of federal environmental policy.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Environmental policy; Environmental regulation; Regulatory reform; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15231
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'Green' Preferences as Regulatory Policy AgEcon
Brennan, Timothy J..
We examine the suggestion that if consumers in sufficient numbers are willing to pay the premium to have power generated using low-emission technologies, tax or permit policies become less necessary or stringent. While there are implementation difficulties with this proposal, our purpose is more fundamental: can economics make sense of using preferences as a regulatory instrument? If“"green" preferences are exogenously given, to what extent can or should they be regarded as a substitute for other policies? Even with green preferences, production and consumption of polluting goods continues to impose social costs not borne in the market. Moreover, if green preferences are regarded as a policy instrument, the "no policy" baseline would require a problematic...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental regulation; Preference change; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; B4; D6.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10787
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Intel's XL Permit: A Framework for Evaluation AgEcon
Boyd, James; Krupnick, Alan J.; Mazurek, Janice V..
The paper develops a framework to evaluate permits granted to firms under the Environmental Protection Agency's Project XL -- with emphasis on the novel air permit granted to the Intel Corporation. We describe the permit, the process that created it, and the types of costs and benefits likely to arise from this type of "facility-specific" regulatory arrangement. Among other things, the paper describes the permit's impact on environmental quality, production costs, transaction costs, and Intel's strategic market position. The paper also considers how an estimate of the costs and benefits -- both to Intel and society -- might be estimated. While facility-specific regulation typically conjures images of production cost savings as processes are re-engineered...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Project XL; Tailored regulation; Environmental regulation; Cost-benefit analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; L51; Q28; L63; K32.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10666
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International Competition and Environmental Expenditures: Empirical Evidence from Indonesian Manufacturing Plants AgEcon
Kaiser, Kai; Schulze, Gunther G..
This paper analyzes environmental expenditures in Indonesia - a significant newly industrializing economy - reported at the plant level comprising all 23 thousand manufacturing establishments with more than 20 employees. Since compliance is barely enforced, pollution abatement expenditures are effectively voluntary in nature. This allows us to test whether foreign owned firms expend more due to a technology that adheres to stricter Western standards or whether the predominant effect is that both foreign and domestic exporting companies are more environmentally conscious due to better technology transfer or green consumerism in the Western countries. If so, this would contradict conventional wisdom that environmental expenditures reduce competitiveness and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental regulation; Competitiveness; Multinational enterprises; Green consumerism; Export performance; Indonesia; Environmental Economics and Policy; F1; Q1.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26255
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Location of Production and Endogenous Water Quality Regulation: A Look at the U.S. Hog Industry AgEcon
Metcalfe, Mark R..
The U.S. hog industry is experiencing and increase in both the average size and geographical concentration of feeding operations. These increases have caused attention to focus on the environmental consequences of hog production and on the regulations imposed to limit these consequences. This study examines the effect that differences in state water quality regulations have on the location of hog production in the U.S. Farm size is an important characteristic and therefore this analysis is conducted separately on small and large farms in order to examine the differences in effects by sized of operation. Results suggest greater water quality regulatory stringency has no effect on the location of hog production. The amount of production on small feeding...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Hog industry; Environmental regulation; Location of production; Environmental Economics and Policy; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18430
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LOCATION OF PRODUCTION AND ENDOGENOUS WATER QUALITY REGULATION: A LOOK AT THE U.S. HOG INDUSTRY AgEcon
Metcalfe, Mark R..
This paper examines the effect of state regulation of water quality on the location of hog production across states in the US. A qualitative measure is developed from states' water quality legislation in 1994 and 1998. No evidence is found that increased stringency is detrimental to hog production.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Hog production; Environmental regulation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21631
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Monitoring of compliance in Australian conservation contracts AgEcon
Crowe, Bronwyn; White, Benedict; Pannell, David J.; Lindner, Robert K..
Government and non-government conservation agencies have long-term goals and objectives to provide environmental services, such as conserving the biodiversity of Australian native vegetation. In addition to national parks and reserves, private lands are often included in conservation programs to achieve these objectives. Formal contracts are entered into between the private landholder and the conservation agency to provide environmental services, or more commonly to provide inputs that are likely to lead to environmental services. The paper examines the costs and benefits of monitoring these conservation contracts when biodiversity change is stochastic.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Conservation; Compliance; Monitoring; Enforcement; Environmental regulation; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/5990
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Monitoring of Compliance in Western Australian Conservation Contracts AgEcon
Crowe, Bronwyn; White, Benedict; Pannell, David J..
Contracting with private landholders for labor towards production of environmental services (payment for actions) or the environmental services themselves (payment for outcomes) is reliant on the environmental organization’s ability to monitor and assess the environmental outcomes provided. Inaccurate and costly assessment reduces the cost effectiveness of the contract. Different assessment technologies will have different impacts on the cost effectiveness and optimal contracting choice of the environmental organization. The paper compares the influence of field assessment by a local expert, and remote assessment via satellite imagery, on the optimal contracting decision for the Western Australian wheat belt.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Conservation; Environmental; Compliance; Monitoring; Enforcement; Environmental regulation; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91155
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