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2010 Outlook for the U.S. and World Corn and Soybean Industries, 2009-2019 AgEcon
Taylor, Richard D.; Koo, Won W..
This report evaluates the United States and world corn and soybean markets for the 2009-2019 time period using the Global Corn and Soybean Policy Simulation Model. This analysis is based on a series of assumptions about general economic conditions, agricultural policies, weather conditions, and technological change. The major influence in the corn market will be U.S. corn based ethanol production. If the production of corn based ethanol remains strong, corn prices will likely remain strong. However, if the U.S. Federal government subsidies or mandates change, the world corn market could be negatively impacted. Under the current assumptions in the model, corn price is expected to remain in a range between $3.70 and $4.10 per bushel. The level of Chinese...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Corn; Soybeans; Production; Exports; Consumption; Ethanol; Ending stocks; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92003
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2011 Outlook of the U.S. and World Corn and Soybean Industries, 2010-2020 AgEcon
Taylor, Richard D.; Koo, Won W..
This report evaluates the United States and world corn and soybean markets for the 2010-2020 period using the Global Corn and Soybean Policy Simulation Model. This analysis is based on a series of assumptions about general economic conditions, agricultural policies, weather conditions, and technological change. Corn-based ethanol production has influenced United States corn industry. As long as the production of corn-based ethanol remains strong, corn prices will likely remain at a level higher than the long term average. However, changes in the U.S. Federal government subsidies or mandates could significantly impact the world corn market. Under the current assumptions in the model, corn price is expected to remain in a range between $4.68 and $5.35 per...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Production Economics; Corn; Soybeans; Production; Exports; Consumption; Ethanol; Ending stocks.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115564
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A peculiar behaviour for cell death induced by weak carboxylic acids in the wine spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii IPB - Escola Superior Agrária
Estevinho, Leticia M.; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Leão, Cecília.
In glucose-grown cells of Zygosaccharomyces bailii, ISA 1307 acetic acid and other carboxylic acids enhanced death. The effects were much lower than those described for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, being only detectable at higher acid concentrations. In Z. bailii, acetic acid and other weak acids also induced intracellular acidification, but this effect was less pronounced than that of death and no relationship was found with death enhancement. The results suggested that in Z. bailii, unlike S. cerevisiae, intracellular acidification induced by weak acids is less pronounced and appears not to have a significant role in death at the temperature range used.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Saccharomyces-Cerevisiae; Acetic-Acid; Intracellular PH; Enthalpy Death; Ethanol; Wine.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10198/4397
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A Spatial Equilibrium Model of the Impact of Bio-Fuels Energy Policy on Grain Transportation Flows AgEcon
Ahmedov, Zafarbek; Power, Gabriel J.; Vedenov, Dmitry V.; Fuller, Stephen W.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Vadali, Sharada.
Traffic flows in the U.S. have been affected by the substantial increase and, as of January 2009, decrease in biofuel production and use. This paper considers a framework to study the effect on grain transportation flows of the 2005 Energy Act and subsequent legislation, which mandated higher production levels of biofuels, e.g. ethanol and biodiesels. Future research will incorporate changes due to the recent economic slowdown.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Ethanol; Biodiesel; Spatial equilibrium; Quadratic programming; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49837
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A Welfare Analysis of the U.S. Ethanol Subsidy AgEcon
Du, Xiaodong; Hayes, Dermot J.; Baker, Mindy L..
Based on a transparent analytical model of multiple markets including corn, ethanol, gasoline, and transportation fuel, this study estimates the welfare changes for consumers and producers resulting from ethanol production and related support polices in 2007. The welfare estimation takes into account the second-best gain from eliminating loan deficiency payments. The results suggest the total social cost is about $0.78 billion for given market parameters. We validate the model’s underlying assumption and test for the results’ sensitivity to assumed parameters.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consumer surplus; Deadweight loss; Ethanol; Subsidy; Substitution.; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44538
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Accuracy, precision and robustness of different methods to obtain samples from silages in fermentation studies R. Bras. Zootec.
Gomes,Rodrigo da Costa; Meyer,Paula Marques; Castro,Ari Luiz de; Saran Netto,Arlindo; Rodrigues,Paulo Henrique Mazza.
The objective of this study was to evaluate accuracy, precision and robustness of two methods to obtain silage samples, in comparison with extraction of liquor by manual screw-press. Wet brewery residue alone or combined with soybean hulls and citrus pulp were ensiled in laboratory silos. Liquor was extracted by a manual screw-press and a 2-mL aliquot was fixed with 0.4 mL formic acid. Two 10-g silage samples from each silo were diluted in 20 mL deionized water or 17% formic acid solution (alternative methods). Aliquots obtained by the three methods were used to determine the silage contents of fermentation end-products. The accuracy of the alternative methods was evaluated by comparing mean bias of estimates obtained by manual screw-press and by...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Bias; Ethanol; Formic acid; Organic acids; Wet brewery residue.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000600008
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Acetaldehyde induced developmental and genetic damage in Drosophila melanogaster JBAG
Palermo,A.M; Mudry,M.D.
Acetaldehyde (AAld) is a ubiquitous compound in the environment. Exposure may occur in its manufacture or use, in the consumption of alcoholic beverages and through cigarette smoke. It causes distant target effects, including DNA damage, glutathione depletion, enzyme inactivation and cell death. In the present work, its potential teratogenic, mutagenic and recombinagenic effects in somatic cells of D. melanogaster were analyzed. The white/white+ (w/w+) eye mosaic test (Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test, SMART) was applied by mating w/w females with y/Y males. Larvae of 48 ± 4 h were transferred to media with 0.01 %, 0.02 %, 0.05 % and 0.10 % AAld for 12 hs and then moved to regular media until pupation. The emerging w/w+ females were evaluated for...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Ethanol; Teratogenesis; Mutagenesis; Loss of heterozygosity; Eye-spot test.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1852-62332015000300007
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Aflatoxin removal of peanut meals with aqueous ethanol Scientia Agricola
Fonseca,H.; Regitano-d'Arce,M.A.B..
A preliminary approach to achieve compatible simultaneous extraction of aflatoxin and residual oil from pressed oil meals was conducted to determine the minimum amount of water to be added to ethanol versus necessary time to achieve complete removal of aflatoxin. Commercial anhydrous, 96, 93 and 90°GL ethanol were utilized in trials with Soxhlet extractors. Commercial anhydrous ethanol did not remove aflatoxin completely and the extraction efficiency in minutes was directly proportional to the amount of water present in the ethanol, as expected. Although 96°GL ethanol was efficient, alcoholic strengths between 96 and 99°GL need be evaluated to improve oil extraction, provided they do not decrease aflatoxin removal efficiency.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Aflatoxin; Peanut meal; Oil meals; Removal; Extraction; Aqueous ethanol; Ethanol.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90161993000100021
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Agricultural Impacts of Biofuels Production AgEcon
Walsh, Marie E.; Torre Ugarte, Daniel de la; English, Burton C.; Jensen, Kimberly L.; Hellwinckel, Chad M.; Menard, R. Jamey; Nelson, Richard G..
Analysis of the potential to supply 25% of projected 2025 U.S. transportation fuels indicates sufficient biomass resources are available to meet increased demand while simultaneously meeting food, feed, and export needs. Corn and soybeans continue to be important feedstocks for ethanol and biodiesel production, but cellulose feedstocks (agricultural crop residues, energy crops such as switchgrass, and forestry residues) will play a major role. Farm income increases, mostly because of higher crop prices. Increased crop prices increase the cost of producing biofuels.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biodiesel; Biofuels; Biomass; Cellulose feedstocks; Crop residues; Ethanol; Forest residues; Switchgrass; Agribusiness; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O11; Q11; Q41.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6514
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Alcohol dependence induced in rats by semivoluntary intermittent intake BJMBR
Macieira,M.S.; Almeida,W.G.; Silva,E.A.; Schenberg,L.C.; Nakamura-Palacios,E.M..
The objective of the present experiment was to assess ethyl alcohol (ETOH) dependence brought about by a semivoluntary intermittent intake regimen in rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 150-250 g at the onset of the experiment were assigned to the following groups: 0% ETOH (N = 11), 5% ETOH (N = 20), 20% ETOH (N = 20) and 40% ETOH (N = 18). ETOH solutions were offered at the end of the day and overnight from Monday to Friday, and throughout weekends, for 90 days. The concentration of the ETOH solutions was increased in a stepwise fashion allowing the rats to get used to the taste of alcohol. Reposition of pure water was permitted during 1-h water drinking periods in the morning. Daily volume intake (± SEM) averaged 25.4 ± 0.4 ml (0% ETOH), 23.8 ± 0.6 ml (5%...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Ethanol; Alcohol; Drug dependence; Rat.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X1997000900009
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An Analysis of the Link between Ethanol, Energy, and Crop Markets AgEcon
Tokgoz, Simla; Elobeid, Amani E..
Replaced with revised version of paper 12/06/06.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural markets; Energy; Ethanol; Renewable fuels; Crop Production/Industries; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18453
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An Economic Analysis of Corn-based Ethanol Production AgEcon
Koo, Won W.; Taylor, Richard D..
A global multi-commodity simulation model was developed to estimate the impact of changes in ethanol production on the U.S. corn industry. Increased ethanol production under the Energy Acts of 2005 and 2007 resulted in a significant increase in the price of corn. However, for corn-based ethanol production, the break-even price of corn is approximately $4.52 per bushel with a federal subsidy of $0.51 per gallon of pure ethanol and $2.50 gasoline. With a corn price of $4.52, the economically desirable ethanol production is approximately 11 billion gallons. In order to produce 15 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol and to maintain the price of corn at $4.52 per bushel, supply of corn in the U.S. should be increased substantially through increases in corn...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Ethanol; Price impacts; Supply; Demand; Econometric simulation; HFCS; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6201
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An Ethanol Blend Wall Shift is Prone to Increase Petroleum Gasoline Demand AgEcon
Qiu, Cheng; Colson, Gregory; Zhang, Zibin; Wetzstein, Michael E..
The US Environmental Protection Agency announced a waiver allowing an increase in the Fuel-Ethanol blend limit (the “blend wall” ) from 10% (E10) to 15% (E15) on October,2010.Justifications for the waiver are reduced vehicle fuel prices and less consumption of petroleum gasoline, leading to energy security. In this paper, employing Monte Carlo simulations and Savitzky-Golay smoothing filter, an empirical study examines this waiver revealing an anomaly where a relaxation of this blend wall elicits a demand response. Under a wide range of elasticities, this demand response can actually increase the consumption of petroleum gasoline and thus lead to greater energy insecurity. The economics supporting this result and associated policy implications are...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Blend wall; Energy security; Ethanol; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98795
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An ethanol-based process to simultaneously extract and fractionate carotenoids from Mauritia flexuosa L. Pulp Rev. Bras. Frutic.
Ribeiro,Bernardo Dias; Nascimento,Rafaella Ferreira; Barreto,Daniel Weingart; Coelho,Maria Alice Zarur; Freitas,Suely Pereira.
Mauritia vinifera (buriti) is a palm tree that grows wild in different areas of Brazil, particularly in the Amazonian region. The buriti oil is rich in carotenoids, especially in β-carotene. The growing interest in other natural sources of β-carotene has stimulated the industrial use of buriti as a raw material for pulp oil extraction. Most processes are based on the conventional technologies, involving drying and pressing the pulp for oil recovery and further separation of carotenoids in a liquid phase using organics solvents. In the present work, the ethanol-based process was evaluated for simultaneous carotenoids recovering and fractionating from buriti pulp. The raw material and ethanol, 1:4 ratio, were placed in an erlenmeyer flask and maintained at...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Beta-carotene; Vegetable oil; Ethanol; Buriti.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-29452010000300003
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An ultrasound and histomorphological analysis of experimental liver cirrhosis in rats BJMBR
Dias,J.V.; Paredes,B.D.; Mesquita,L.F.Q.; Carvalho,A.B.; Kozlowski,E.O.; Lessa,A.S.; Takiya,C.M.; Resende,C.M.C.; Coelho,H.S.M.; Campos-de-Carvalho,A.C.; Rezende,G.F.M.; Goldenberg,R.C.S..
We investigated whether liver injury by dual exposure to ethanol and carbon tetrachloride (EtOH + CCl4) for 15 weeks would persist after hepatotoxic agents were removed (EtOH + CCl4/8wR). After 15 weeks of hepatic injury with ethanol (5.5%, m/v) and carbon tetrachloride (0.05, mL/kg, ip), 5 of 11 female Wistar rats were sacrificed. The other 6 rats were maintained for an additional 8 weeks without hepatotoxic agents. Ultrasonography showed increased liver echogenicity and dilation of portal vein caliber in both groups (EtOH + CCl4: 0.22 ± 0.01 cm, P < 0.001; EtOH + CCl4/8wR: 0.21 ± 0.02 cm, P < 0.01) vs control (0.16 ± 0.02 cm). Histopathology showed regenerative nodules in both experimental groups. Histomorphometry revealed increased fibrosis...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Rat; Cirrhosis; Collagen; Ultrasound; CCl4; Ethanol.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2008001100008
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Análise dinâmica de sistemas de colheita e manuseio de biomassa para utilização como fonte de energia. Repositório Alice
MANTOVANI, B.H.M.; PEART, R.M.; GIBSON, H..
1983
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Simulacao; Modelos matematicos; Colheita; Sistema; Biomassa; Energia; Palhada; Milho; Cavacos; Madeira; Etanol; Producao; Energy; Corn; Residue; Wood chips; Ethanol; Production; Simulation; Harvest; Biomass.
Ano: 1983 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/478747
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Análisis de evolución de la producción de caña de azúcar y de etanol en Brasil. Repositório Alice
ITURRA, A. R.; SILVA, F. C. da; DIAZ-AMBRONA, C. G. H..
Desde principios del siglo XX, Brasil era el uso de alcohol extraído de la caña de azúcar con fines energéticos. En 1931, el etanol de caña de azúcar comenzó a ser oficialmente mezclado con gasolina, hasta la fecha de importación. Sin embargo, no fue sino hasta 1975 con el lanzamiento del Programa Nacional del Alcohol (Programa de alcohol), el gobierno creó las condiciones necesarias para surgir el país a la vanguardia de los biocombustibles. Especificación temprana de alcohol (tipo anhidro e hidratado) se pusieron en marcha en 1979 y reformulado en 1989, después de las razones para el problema de investigación de la corrosión en los motores. En vista de la reducción de los precios del petróleo en los años 80, y el aumento en el precio del azúcar en el...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Etanol hidratado; Biocombustível; Cana de açúcar; Biofuels; Ethanol; Sugarcane.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/920148
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Antioxidant, anti-acetylcholinesterase and cytotoxic activities of ethanol extracts of peel, pulp and seeds of exotic Brazilian fruits Antioxidant, anti-acetylcholinesterase and cytotoxic activities in fruits. Repositório Alice
OMENA, C. M. B.; VALENTIM, I. B.; GUEDES, G. da S.; RABELO, L. A.; MANO, C. M.; BECHARA, E. J. H.; SAWAYA, A. C. H. F.; TREVISAN, M. T. S.; COSTA, J. G. da; FERREIRA, R. C. S.; SANTANA, A. E. G.; GOULART, M. O. F..
Ethanol extracts of powdered genipap (Genipa americana L.), umbu (Spondia tuberosa A.) and siriguela (Spondia purpurea L.) prepared from separate pulp, seeds and peel were investigated for their (i) antioxidant capacity, which was evaluated by various known methods; (ii) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity; and (iii) cytotoxic effect on corneal epithelial cells of sheep. The highest values of total phenolic content were obtained with peel and seed extracts. Siriguela and umbu (seeds and peel) extracts displayed the highest antioxidant activities. Lipid peroxidation assays using mimetic biomembranes and mouse liver homogenates indicated that genipap pulp is a promising antioxidant. The investigation of phenols and organic acid contents revealed...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Fruta exótica; Genipapo; Genipap; Polpa de fruta; Etanol; Ethanol.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/948308
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APLICAÇÃO DA ANÁLISE ENVOLTÓRIA DE DADOS (DEA) PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE EFICIÊNCIA DE USINAS DE AÇÚCAR E ÁLCOOL DA REGIÃO NORDESTE DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO AgEcon
Salgado Junior, Alexandre Pereira; Bonacim, Carlos Alberto Grespan; Pacagnella Junior, Antonio Carlos.
This aim of this article is to analyze the relation of size and operational efficiency of sugar and ethanol plants in the northeastern region of São Paulo state. In order to achieve this goal, a survey was conducted to identify the consumption of the main resources (inputs) and product creation (outputs) in a random sample of twenty six units, which allowed for their classification according to size. This enabled the creation of an efficiency ranking, using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), whose variables were chosen by the stepwise method. The results suggest that, for the plants studied, there is no direct relation between size and operational efficiency, which can be explained by technical aspects associated to the inputs. The results provide subsides...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Sugar and Ethanol Plants; Ethanol; Agribusiness; Efficiency and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90697
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Are Local Corn Prices Affected by the Location of Ethanol Biorefineries? AgEcon
Katchova, Ani L..
This study examines whether the local competition for corn to produce ethanol has lead to significantly higher prices for farmers located close to ethanol biorefineries. If any, such price premiums for spatial closeness would be in addition to the general level of corn price changes experienced by farmers throughout the U.S. The difference-in-differences estimation method is used to account for both time and spatial differences in order to measure the interaction of time and spatial effects. Using the USDA’s ARMS data, the results show that while prices in real terms have changed over time, farmers located close to ethanol biorefineries have not received significantly higher prices than farmers living farther away from biorefineries. These findings...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Corn prices; Ethanol; Ethanol plant location; Difference-in-differences.; Agribusiness; Demand and Price Analysis; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114769
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