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A CLASSROOM EXPERIMENT ON OLIGOPOLIES AgEcon
Nelson, Robert G.; Beil, Richard O., Jr..
This experiment demonstrates principles of decision-making in dynamic oligopolies, especially the difficulties in forming and maintaining cartels. As an illustration of firm behavior under imperfect competition, the game distinguishes between procedurally rational choices and substantively rational decisions in the context of collusive, Cournot, and competitive equilibria. The paper discusses results from an actual classroom exercise and suggests some additional variations in institutional details. Instructions for students and a spreadsheet program for producing payoff tables are provided in the appendices.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Teaching; Experimental economics; Oligopoly; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15353
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Advancing the understanding of behavior in social-ecological systems: results from lab and field experiments Ecology and Society
Janssen, Marco A; Arizona State University; Marco.Janssen@asu.edu; Lindahl, Therese; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Science; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University; therese.lindahl@beijer.kva.se; Murphy, James J; Nankai University; University of Alaska Anchorage; Chapman University; murphy@uaa.alaska.edu.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Behavioral economics; Common-pool resources; Experimental economics; Public goods; Social-ecological systems.
Ano: 2015
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AN EXPERIMENTAL ECONOMICS APPROACH TO ANALYZING PRICE DISCOVERY IN FORWARD AND SPOT MARKETS AgEcon
Krogmeier, Joseph L.; Menkhaus, Dale J.; Phillips, Owen R.; Schmitz, John D..
Laboratory experiments are used to generate data that facilitate investigation of pricing behavior in forward and spot markets. Results suggest a tendency for prices in a spot market to converge to levels higher than those in a forward market. The difference in these market environments is the supply schedule. Buyers in a spot market are aware that supply is inelastic and become relatively aggressive bidders. Forward markets have a relatively elastic supply schedule and buyers fare better. This may motivate firms to promote forward markets and/or vertically integrate in the procurement of inputs.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Experimental economics; Forward market; Price discovery; Spot market; Marketing.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15065
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An Experimental Examination of Target Based Conservation Auctions AgEcon
Boxall, Peter C.; Perger, Orsolya; Packman, Katherine.
Conservation auctions (CA) are typically employed to increase the provision of Ecological Goods and Services (EG&S) for achieving environmental goals. This paper exmaines the ability of a CA to meet an environmental target. Previous research on this topic used the number of contracts as a target rather than some specified environmental goal. We used experimental economic methods benchmarked to a wetlands restoration case study to examine a target constraint that must be met by bidders rather than a budget constraint. However, since no budget constraint is employed, agencies with limited resources might have to use other auction design procedures to ensure that financial outlays to pay winning bidders are not too high while meeting the target....
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Conservation auctions; Environmental target; Experimental economics; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q52; Q58; D44.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121624
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An experimental study of wine consumers’ willingness to pay for environmental characteristics AgEcon
Bazoche, P.; Deola, C.; Soler, Louis-Georges.
The reduction of pesticides use is becoming a priority for the public authorities in many countries. We conducted an experiment with wine consumers to see whether end-consumers value the dissemination of information about environmentally-friendly production practices. The experiment was devised to (i) evaluate whether there is a premium for environmentally-friendly wines, (ii) determine whether or not consumers are sensitive to label owners who implement and guarantee the environmental actions, (iii) and assess the impact of public messages about the consequences of pesticide use. Some 139 participants were divided randomly into two groups. One group had no specific information about the current state of pesticide use in farming. The other group was given...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Willingness to pay; Wine; Effect of information; Experimental economics; Environment; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43651
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Auctioning Conservation Contracts and Evaluating the Risk Attitudes of Farmers: Economic Experiments in Japan AgEcon
Sasaki, Hiroki; Fujie, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Kentaro; Inoue, Norikazu; Koito, Kentaro.
Agri-environmental programs in Japan have generally been promoted through the provision of fixed payments for certain environment-friendly farming and management practices. However, the auctioning of agrienvironmental contracts is a noteworthy alternative for the furtherance of such programs. Conservation auctions are used to enhance the cost-effectiveness of public expenses and have been employed in practice as well as tested in various pilot projects in some countries. This study uses an experimental economics method to factor the risk attitude of participants into a comparison of uniform price (UP) auctions and discriminatory price (DP) auctions. Although some studies have compared fixed payments, UP auctions, and DP auctions, the superiority or...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Conservation auction; Experimental economics; Risk attitude; Environment-friendly farming; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109400
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AUCTIONING OUTCOME-BASED CONSERVATION CONTRACTS AgEcon
Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe; Schilizzi, Steven; Breustedt, Gunnar.
This paper explores two ideas to enhance the performance of agri-environmental contracting schemes: linking contract payments to environmental outcomes and putting the contracts up for tender. This paper investigates whether there are any gains to be had by combining the benefits of both approaches. Controlled lab experiments were run in two countries, systematically varying the rate at which payments are linked to environmental outcomes. This paper clarifies the conditions under which the benefits from combining tenders with incentive payments outweigh the costs.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Conservation tenders; Auctions; Incentive contracts; Agricultural policy; Environmental policy; Market-based instruments; Experimental economics; Auktionen; Ausschreibungsverfahren; Agrar-Umweltverträge; Agrar-Umweltpolitik; Anreizverträge; Experimentelle Ökonomie; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Demand and Price Analysis; Political Economy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114523
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Behavioral Economic Concepts To Encourage Healthy Eating in School Cafeterias: Experiments and Lessons From College Students AgEcon
Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian; Mancino, Lisa; Guthrie, Joanne F..
Changing small factors that influence consumer choice may lead to healthier eating within controlled settings, such as school cafeterias. This report describes a behavioral experiment in a college cafeteria to assess the effects of various payment options and menu selection methods on food choices. The results indicate that payment options, such as cash or debit cards, can significantly affect food choices. College students using a card that prepaid only for healthful foods made more nutritious choices than students using either cash or general debit cards. How and when individuals select their food can also influence food choices. College students who preselected their meals from a menu board made significantly different food choices than students who...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Behavioral economics; Healthy eating; Diet quality; Food choices; School meal programs; Experimental economics; ERS; USDA.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56489
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Business Dynamics and Informal Contracts: Experimental Evidence from the Cowpea Street Food Sector in West Africa AgEcon
Otoo, Miriam; Fulton, Joan R.; Wu, Steven Y.; Ibro, Germaine.
We use field experiments in Niger to investigate the nature and efficiency of contractual structures in market transactions between kossai vendors and cowpea grinders (key input suppliers). Three contractual structures were employed: gift contract, standard price contract and discretionary bonus contract (most incomplete). Gift contracts and standard price contracts involve an upfront payment of grinding fees where discretionary bonus contracts involve payment after the quality of service is observed. Gift contracts were found to be the most ex-ante efficient with the highest acceptance rates. Discretionary bonus contracts (most incomplete) were the most ex-post efficient that is, resulted in the highest quality. Our results suggest that the degree of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Incomplete contracts; Street food vendors; Experimental economics; International Development.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61458
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Can Calibration Reconcile Stated and Observed Preferences? AgEcon
Norwood, F. Bailey.
Hypothetical bias is a pervasive problem in stated-preference experiments. Recent research has developed two empirically successful calibrations to remove hypothetical bias, though the calibrations have not been tested using the same data or in a conjoint analysis. This study compares the two calibrations in a conjoint analysis involving donations to a public good. Results find the calibrations are biased predictors of true donations but that calibrated and uncalibrated models together provide upper and lower bounds to true donations.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Calibration; Experimental economics; Forecasting; Hypothetical bias; Public goods; Stated preference; Voluntary contributions; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Q51; H41.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43735
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Chapter 06: EXPERIMENTAL AUCTIONS TO MEASURE WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR FOOD SAFETY AgEcon
Fox, John A.; Shogren, Jason F.; Hayes, Dermot J.; Kliebenstein, James B..
This book was originally published by Westview Press, Boulder CO, 1995.
Tipo: Book Chapter Palavras-chave: Food safety; Experimental economics; Auctions; Willingness to pay; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25986
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Consumer Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Food Labels in a Market with Diverse Information: Evidence from Experimental Auctions AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E.; Shogren, Jason F.; Rousu, Matthew C.; Tegene, Abebayehu.
With the continuing controversy over genetically modified (GM) foods, some groups advocate mandatory labeling of these products, while other groups oppose labeling. An important issue is how GM labels affect consumers' willingness to pay for these food products in the market. Using a statistically based economics experiment with adult consumers as subjects, we examine how willingness to pay changes for three food products--vegetable oil, tortilla chips, and potatoes--when GM labels are introduced. Participants in the experiments discounted GM-labeled foods by approximately 14% relative to their standard-labeled counterparts. The evidence also showed that sequencing of food labels affects willingness to pay, and that randomizing treatments is an important...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Consumer demand; Corn chips; Experimental economics; Food labels; Genetic modification; GM foods; Laboratory auctions; Potatoes; Vegetable oil; Willingness to pay; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31071
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Developing Environmental Service Policy for Salinity and Water: Experiments with Regulations and Markets Linking Watersheds with Downstream Water Users AgEcon
Nordblom, Thomas L.; Reeson, Andrew; Whitten, Stuart M.; Finlayson, John D.; Kelly, Jason A.; Hume, Iain H..
Shortfalls in water supplies are perhaps the greatest practical NRM policy concern in Australia today, looming larger in many minds than the great international debates on greenhouse gasses, climate change and biodiversity. Because forest land cover uses more water than any other, wide expansion of upstream tree plantations can significantly reduce water yields upon which downstream urban, agricultural and wetlands depend. We consider the economic efficiency and equity (profitability and distributional) consequences of upstream land use change. The ‘environmental services’ of concern in our study are the mean annual quantities and qualities (volumes and salt concentrations) of water flowing from upper parts of a catchment to the downstream interests...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Experimental economics; Land use; Rival water uses; MBI; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6249
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Do Fishermen Have Different Attitudes Toward Risk? An Application of Prospect Theory to the Study of Vietnamese Fishermen AgEcon
Nguyen, Quang; Leung, PingSun.
Field experiment and household survey data are combined to investigate whether working in a risky occupation such as fishing makes fishermen have different risk preferences than individuals in other occupations. Prospect theory is utilized as the main analytical framework and a structural model approach is developed to simultaneously correlate the parameters of the utility function under prospect theory with other socioeconomic variables. The key finding is that working in fishing makes economic agents less risk averse than others. Fishermen also tend to be less sensitive to probability weighting changes in the experiment. It is possible that fishermen have adapted to their unique environment by using specific heuristics for decision making under...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Experimental economics; Prospect theory; Risk behavior; Vietnamese fishermen; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57624
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Does tendering conservation contracts with performance payments generate additional benefits? AgEcon
Schilizzi, Steven; Breustedt, Gunnar; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe.
Policy makers aiming to get private landholders to supply non-marketed environmental services may need to provide efficient economic incentives. Two ideas have been explored to achieve this: linking contract payments to environmental outcomes and submitting the contracts to competitive tender. This paper investigates whether there are any gains to be had by combining the potential benefits of both approaches. Landholders’ risk aversion to only partially controlled outcomes may offset incentive effects if the fall in participation outweighs any increases in individual effort. Controlled lab experiments were designed on the basis of a theoretical model and were run in two countries, with varying rates of payments linked to environmental outcomes. Results...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Conservation tenders; Auctions; Incentive contracts; Agricultural policy; Environmental policy; Market-based instruments; Experimental economics; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; C92; D44; D82; D86; H57; Q24; Q28.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100883
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Economic Behavior in the Face of Resource Variability and Uncertainty Ecology and Society
McAllister, Ryan R J; CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences; ryan.mcallister@csiro.au; Tisdell, John G; University of Tasmania; John.Tisdell@utas.edu.au; Reeson, Andrew F; CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences; andrew.reeson@csiro.au; Gordon, Iain J; CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences; The James Hutton Institute (Current Address); iain.gordon@csiro.au.
Policy design is largely informed by the traditional economic viewpoint that humans behave rationally in the pursuit of their own economic welfare, with little consideration of other regarding behavior or reciprocal altruism. New paradigms of economic behavior theory are emerging that build an empirical basis for understanding how humans respond to specific contexts. Our interest is in the role of human relationships in managing natural resources (forage and livestock) in semiarid systems, where spatial and temporal variability and uncertainty in resource availability are fundamental system drivers. In this paper we present the results of an economic experiment designed to explore how reciprocity interacts with variability and uncertainty. This behavior...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Agistment; Experimental economics; Grazing; Investment game; Livestock mobility; Nomadism; Reciprocity; Trust game.
Ano: 2011
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Equity judgments and context dependence: Knowledge, efficiency and incentives AgEcon
Schilizzi, Steven.
Distributional equity concerns are often at least as important as economic efficiency and ecological sustainability in environmental and natural resource management policies. Until recently, however, economists have shied away from tackling equity issues, primarily because equity appeared as a slippery concept, varying across people and circumstances. This study takes this context-dependence of equity judgments as a starting point and shows that such dependence, far from being random, is systematic. A series of controlled laboratory treatments with University students were designed to investigate the role on distributional equity judgments of such context factors as knowledge of one’s position in society, how the existence of equity-efficiency tradeoffs...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Equity; Fairness; Resource allocation; Environmental policy; Experimental economics; Welfare economics; Public choice; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Public Economics; C92; D03; D63; H23; Q56; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100887
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Expected Utility or Prospect Theory Maximizers? Results from a Structural Model based on Field-experiment Data AgEcon
Bocqueho, Geraldine; Jacquet, Florence; Reynaud, Arnaud.
We elicit risk preferences of French farmers in a field experimental setting under expected utility theory and cumulative prospect theory. We use two different estimation methods, namely the interval approach and the estimation of a random preference model. On average, farmers are risk averse and loss averse. They also exhibit an inverse S-shaped probability weighting function, meaning that they tend to overweight small probabilities and underweight high probabilities. We infer from our results that CPT explains farmers’ behaviour better than EUT in the context of our experiment. We also investigate how preferences correlate with individual socio-demographic characteristics. We find that education and agricultural innovation are negatively linked with risk...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Risk preferences; Field experiment; Experimental economics; Prospect theory; Risk and Uncertainty; C91; D81; J16; Q12.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114257
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EXPERIMENTAL EXAMINATION OF A THIN MARKET: PRICE BEHAVIOR IN A DECLINING TERMINAL MARKET REVISITED AgEcon
Nelson, Robert G.; Turner, Steven C..
Perceived characteristics of thin markets are described and approaches to furthering their study are suggested. Design features of a laboratory thin market, patterned after a typical livestock marketing situation, are described. Price bias and variation from a "thick" private negotiation market with 22 traders is compared to that from a "thin" auction market with 8 traders. No systematic price bias was found in any of the markets. Price variation was actually lower in the thin auction market.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Auction; Experimental economics; Price discovery; Thin market; Marketing.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15328
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EXPERIMENTAL MARKETS USING THE ELECTRONIC MARKET PLACE (EMP) AgEcon
Fackler, Paul L.; McNew, Kevin.
A computer system for implementing electronic markets on networks of personal computers is described. The program allows a researcher or teacher to design market simulations to meet a variety of goals, and records a complete set of market activities for analysis. Illustrations of example markets are provided, and the classroom application of market simulations in teaching agricultural economics is discussed.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Computer software; Experimental economics; Simulations; Marketing.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15094
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