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Registros recuperados: 22
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Austrian Border Regions and Eastern Integration A Low Competitiveness - High Growth Paradoxon AgEcon
Mayerhofer, Peter.
Many regions on the EU Eastern borders have developed favourably after the opening up of the border and the implementation of association agreements with the CEECs. This was often seen as a positive sign for the further perspectives of these regions after EU enlargement. In this paper we take a closer look at the mechanisms involved in a case study for Austria. Based on a very disaggregated data set at a regional as well as sectoral level we find that neither sectoral preconditions nor locational advantages can explain the good performance of (rural) border regions after 1989. Using multivariate cluster analyses we group 3-digit-industries to theoretically founded typologies indicating different sector characteristics and find that (fast growing) rural...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Border Regions; Integration; EU Enlargement; Regional Competitiveness; Austria; International Relations/Trade; F02; F15; R11; R12.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26234
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Deregulating and Liberalizing the North-American Telecommunications Market: Explaining the US-Approach AgEcon
Cowhey, Peter F.; Richards, John E..
This paper examines the substantial regulatory changes in North American telecommunications markets over the past decade. We argue that a combination of U.S. domestic politics and the logic of international strategic positioning produced substantial and far-reaching reform driven primarily by multilateral actions at the WTO and a set of unilateral U.S. initiatives (primarily benchmarks). Internationally, although NAFTA played an important role as a "building block" for the WTO agreement, we argue the lack of market coverage and more far-reaching WTO agreement ultimately limited NAFTA's role in driving reform. The logic of U.S. domestic politics also played a central role by putting certain constraints on what the U.S. would accept in a telecommunications...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Economic Order; NAFTA; Trade Negotiations; Telecommunications; International Relations/Trade; F02; F13; L96.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26378
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Developing Countries and the Multilateral Trading System After Doha AgEcon
Srinivasan, T.N..
The Fourth Session of the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO), held in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001, launched a new round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) and a work programme (WP) for the WTO involving the negotiating agenda and steps for meeting the challenges facing the multilateral trading system. The paper evaluates the WP, in particular, whether it would redress the unfavourable balance between benefits and costs to developing countries DCs of the agreement that concluded the previous (Uruguay) round of MTN. It discusses the failure of the third session in Seattle to launch a new round in December 1999, and also documents the unfavourable balance. While concluding that with adequate preparation, the negotiators could...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: World Trade Organization (WTO); Multilateral trade negotiations; Developing countries; Antidumping; Trade Related Intellectual Property Services (TRIPS); Trade and labour standards; Trade and environment; Preferential trade agreements; International Relations/Trade; F02; F13; F15; F16; F18; O19; O34.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28496
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Die WTO auf dem Weg nach Katar: Anstehende Probleme - neue Herausforderungen AgEcon
Senti, Richard.
In wenigen Monaten wird in Katar die Ministerkonferenz der Welthandelsorganisation (WTO) über die Abhaltung einer neuen Handelsrunde entscheiden. Auf Grund der gegenwärtigen Vorarbeiten werden zwei Themenkreise auf der Traktandenliste der Verhandlungen erwartet: erstens die weitere Umsetzung der in der Uruguay-Runde beschlossenen Liberalisierungsmassnahmen in den Bereichen Agrar-, Textil- und Dienstleistungshandel, und zweitens die Behandlung der Fragen über die künftige Zusammenarbeit mit den Nichtregierungsorganisationen (NGOs), die Aufnahme der Volksrepublik China in die WTO und die allenfalls stärkere Ausrichtung der Welthandelsordnung auf den Umweltschutz, das Arbeitsrecht und die Sozialpolitik. Das vorliegende Diskussionspapier hat zum Ziel, die...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Economic Order; Commercial Policy; Trade Negotiations; International Relations/Trade; F02; F13.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26315
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Eastern Enlargement of the EU: A Comprehensive Welfare Assessment AgEcon
Kohler, Wilhelm.
This paper takes a welfare-view on eastern enlargement of the EU, focusing on incumbent countries. Enlargement is decomposed into three elements: Single-market integration on commodity markets, budgetary costs from EU-expenditure policies, and single market- induced migration from new to present member countries. I first use an analytical model to derive a welfare equation that identifies the principle channels for incumbent country welfare gains and losses from enlargement, including product differentiation, capital accumulation, and unemployment due to search-costs. I then propose a method that allows to extend welfare results obtained from a detailed calibrated version of this model for Germany to other incumbent countries. The approach relies on model...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: EU Enlargement; Economic Integration; Commercial Policy; Migration; Welfare Analysis; Computable General Equilibrium; Search Unemployment; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; F02; F12; F13; F15; F22.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26377
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Globalisation of Indian Diets and the Transformation of Food Supply Systems AgEcon
Pingali, Prabhu L.; Khwaja, Yasmeen.
This paper examines the change in the nature of food demand in India in the last twenty years. It identifies two distinct stages of diet transition associated with the period of economic growth. During the first stage, income-induced diet diversification, consumers move away from inferior goods to superior foods and substitute some traditional staples, especially rice. In the second stage, diet globalisation, the influences of globalisation are much more marked with increased consumption of proteins, sugars and fats. Diet diversification has marked the process of transformation in food production systems. The implications for small and marginal farmers could be serious, unless there are incentives and policies that allow them to move away from subsistence...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: India; Globalization; Diet Transformation; Food Supply; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; F02; Q18.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23796
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Handelspolitik in der Europaischen Gemeinschaft - Institutioneller Rahmen, Verhaltnis zur Binnenmarktpolitik und Rolle in der Weltwirtschaft AgEcon
Koopmann, Georg.
Das Papier untersucht die Arbeitsweise der Handelspolitik in der Europäischen Gemeinschaft, den Zusammenhang zwischen Binnen- und Außenmarktpolitik und weltwirtschaftliche Implikationen der EG-Handelspolitik auf verschiedenen Ebenen. Es wird gezeigt, dass die gemeinsame Handelspolitik weitgehend Reflex der Binnenmarktpolitik ist, aber nicht zur Abschottung des Binnenmarktes geführt hat. Auch das Bestreben der EG, die multilaterale handelspolitische Agenda zu erweitern, entspricht der Binnenmarktlogik, doch würde der WTO damit ein Bärendienst erwiesen. The paper analyses the workings of trade policy in the European Community, it revisits the external dimension of the single European market and discusses broader implications of EC trade policy at various...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Internationale Wirtschaftsordnung; Handelspolitik; Wirtschaftliche Integration; International Relations/Trade; F02; F13; F15.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26271
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Imposing WTO disciplines on domestic support: an assessment of the Doha Round Approach AgEcon
Blandford, David.
The elements of the approach to disciplining domestic support for agriculture in the Doha round of WTO negotiations are evaluated using data for a selection of OECD countries. Despite a substantial increase in complexity in comparison to the Uruguay Round Agreement, the new approach is unlikely to require real reductions in trade-distorting support. As a result it is unlikely to stimulate further reforms in domestic agricultural policies in OECD countries. RESUMEN: En este artículo se evalúan los instrumentos del enfoque utilizado en la Ronda de Doha de la Organización Mundial de Comercio para establecer disciplinas en relación con la ayuda interna a la agricultura. El análisis se lleva a cabo para un conjunto de países de la OCDE. A pesar de la mayor...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International trade; Agriculture; Domestic support; WTO; International Relations/Trade; F02; F13; F14.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28766
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Industrial specialisation and geographic concentration: Two sides of the same coin? Not for the European Union AgEcon
Aiginger, Karl; Davies, Stephen W..
Some recent studies have shown that specialisation of countries has tended to increase, while regional concentration of countries has tended to decrease. This seems to be counterintuitive at first glance. In this paper, we use the entropy index - as the indicator of structural change with the neatest aggregation properties to show how this divergence can happen. The main purpose of the paper is methodological, but we also apply the methodology to a specific case study: Manufacturing in the European Union since 1985. We confirm for this interesting period that increasing industrial specialisation has been offset by faster growth in the smaller Member States, with the net effect that industries have become somewhat less geographically concentrated. In terms...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Structural change; Geographical concentration; Industrial specialisation; European integration; Entropy; F02; F15; L60.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37627
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Investment Policies and Telecommunications Regimes AgEcon
Drabek, Zdenek.
This paper looks at the role of the key international agreements in the process of liberalization of the telecommunications industry. We analyse in particular the role of the WTO agreement in furthering liberalization around the world, and the extent to which it provides protection for foreign investors. The analysis includes assessments of not only market access but also the treatment of property rights, rights of way, financial conditions and regulations as well as issues related to market structure and competition. Outstanding issues representing impediments of these agreements are also identified. The approach is to a large extent based on a comparison with other relevant international agreements, especially with NAFTA. The WTO agreement comes out of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Economic Order; WTO; NAFTA; Trade Negotiations; International Investment; Telecommunications Services; International Relations/Trade; F02; F13; L96.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26359
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Laboratory Protocols 2008: Maize Nutrition Quality and Plant Tissue Analysis Laboratory AgEcon
Gallicia, L.; Nurit, E.; Rosales, A.; Palacios-Rojas, N..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Zea mays; Maize; Wheats; Triticum; Transgenic plants; Genetic engineering; Gene transfer; Genetic transformation; DNA hybridization; Phenotypes; Selection; Tissue culture; In vitro culture; Biolistics; Research projects; Methods; Molecular cloning; PCR; Crop Production/Industries; F02; F30.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56177
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Liberalizing and Re-Regulating Telecommunications in Europe: A Common Framework and Persistent Differences AgEcon
Holmes, Peter; Young, Alasdair R..
This paper analyses the role of the European Union in promoting liberalisation among its member states and in crafting the multilateral regime for telecommunications services. It begins by analysing the origins of the EU regime, describing its contours and assessing its implementation. It then examines the interaction between the EU and the multilateral regime, examining the Uruguay Round and post-Uruguay Round negotiations on telecommunications services and outlining the issues under consideration in the GATS 2000 negotiations. It then proceeds to assess how the regulatory developments at the national, European and multilateral levels coexist and interact. Dieses Papier analysiert die Rolle der Europäischen Union bei der Liberalisierung der...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Economic Order; European Union; Trade Negotiations; Telecommunications; International Relations/Trade; F02; F13; L96.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26244
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Liberalizing Basic Telecommunications: The Asian Experience AgEcon
Fink, Carsten; Mattoo, Aaditya; Rathindran, Randeep.
The liberalization of the basic telecommunications sector in Asian countries is examined in this paper with a view to identify the elements of good policy and examine how it can be promoted through multilateral negotiations. We find that despite the move away from traditional public monopolies, most Asian governments are still unwilling to allow unrestricted entry, eliminate limits on private and foreign ownership, and establish strong independent regulators. Where comprehensive reform including privatization, competition and regulation has been implemented, there are significantly higher levels of main line availability, service quality and labor productivity. Somewhat surprisingly, there has not been much unilateral liberalization since the last round of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Economic Order; Trade Negotiations; Market Liberalization; Services Trade; Telecommunication Services; International Relations/Trade; F02; F13; L96.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26311
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Limited Cooperation in International Environmental Agreements AgEcon
Karp, Larry S.; Sacheti, Sandeep.
Governments' desire to ameliorate environmental problems may conflict with other goals. Policy levels which balance different objectives can be altered by policy changes in other countries. A decrease in the importance of the pollution problem, or an increase in its global extent, increase the likelihood that tighter environmental regulations in one region induce laxer policies elsewhere. The transboundary character and the importance of environmental externalities also affect the amount of cooperation needed to improve members' welfare in a coalition. More global pollution problems require a larger coalition. However, the critical coalition size may be larger or smaller for more severe problems.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental policy; Limited cooperation; International environmental agreements; Strategic complements and substitution; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; F02; F13; H21; L13; Q28.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6286
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Non-Tariff Barriers and the Telecommunications Sector AgEcon
Stephenson, Sherry M..
This paper discusses the nature, importance, and measurement of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) in services trade with particular reference to telecommunications services. It is shown that although more effectively addressed for the telecom sector at the multilateral level than for other service sectors, NTBs are still widespread and would appear to have a large potential for restricting trade in services. The paper reviews the scope and classification of non-tariff barriers to services trade and sets out an alternative typology for their classification, highlighting the fact that NTBs may be either government-imposed, may result from non-competitive market structures, or from the absence of appropriate regulation. The latter is shown to constitute one of the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Economic Order; Trade Negotiations; Non-Tariff Barriers; Telecommunications Services; International Relations/Trade; F02; F13; L96.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26213
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Pegs, Baskets, and the Importance of Policy Credibility: Lessons of the 1992-92 ERM Crisis AgEcon
Volz, Ulrich.
This paper argues that, in contrast to the popular bipolar view on exchange rate choices, intermediate regimes in general and regional exchange rate systems such as the European Monetary System (EMS) in particular should not be ruled out per se even in today's world of highly mobile capital. The paper highlights that the 1992/93 crisis of the EMS' Exchange Rate Mechanism was a crisis of an exchange rate system and not just the collapse of unilateral pegs pursued by individual countries. Based on an assessment of credibility of the EMS before and during the crisis, the paper discusses distinct features that add to the credibility of regional exchange rate systems. It reasons that a system that is built around well-defined rules, and which is managed very...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Exchange rate regimes; Regional monetary systems; EMS crisis; Policy credibility; Financial Economics; F02; F33; F36; F42.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26238
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Property Rights, Mobile Capital, and Comparative Advantage AgEcon
Karp, Larry S..
Recent papers use sector-specific factor models with mobile labor to show that imperfect property rights can be a source of comparative advantage. In these model, weaker property rights to the specific factor in a sector attract the mobile factor and increase the country's comparative advantage for that sector. If capital in addition to labor is mobile, and if the benefits of capital are non-excludable or if the degree of property rights is endogenous, a deterioration of property rights has ambiguous effects on comparative advantage. The presence of a second mobile factor also makes the relation between the equilibrium wage-rental ratio and the degree of property rights ambiguous.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Imperfect property rights; Comparative advantage; General equilibrium.; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; F02; F16; F18; D23.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25113
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Protektion passe? AgEcon
Hasse, Rolf H..
Die Frage nach dem Stand und der Entwicklung des Handelsprotektionismus wird vielfach vereinfachend beantwortet: Danach haben die GATT-Runden einen kontinuierlichen Abbau bewirkt. Diese Aussage wird überprüft. Dabei wird von vier Thesen ausgegangen: (1) Protektionismus ist ein integraler Bestandteil der internationalen Arbeitsteilung. (2) Die internationale Arbeitsteilung hat stetig zugenommen, ebenso aber auch die Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen zugunsten der nationalen Wertschöpfung. (3) Die Analyse der GATT-Runden klammert wesentliche Protektionswirkungen der Währungspolitik aus. (4) Die Ausweitung der GATTPrinzipien auf den Dienstleistungshandel (GATS) sowie den Handel mit geistigem Eigentum (TRIPS) wird einen Zuwachs an (neuem) Protektionismus hervorrufen,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Economic Order; Commercial Policy; Trade Negotiations; International Relations/Trade; F02; F13.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26239
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RATIONAL INCOMPATIBILITY WITH INTERNATIONAL PRODUCT STANDARDS AgEcon
Barrett, Christopher B.; Yang, Yi-Nung.
This paper considers the incentives of firms to conform to an exogenous international product standard. Product standardization enables traditional, price-based international competition. But the existence of redesign costs or network effects creates market frictions that diminish the incentive to standardize if there already exists a different technology in an established market. This leads to multi-attribute competition between products and will generally reduce trade flows. Not only do incumbent firms using a different technology have an incentive to deviate from the international standard, but a host country government that is also concerned for the welfare of consumers who own the old technology has no incentive to enforce the international standard....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Compatibility; International standardization; Network effects; Redesign costs; Technical barriers to trade; International Relations/Trade; F02; F13; F15; L11; L13; L51.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14597
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Transfers, Agglomeration and German Unification AgEcon
Ross, Matthias.
This paper analyses in the framework of a 2-region economic geography model the impact of transfers on agglomeration of economic activity. Two main results can be derived: First, subsidies to the activity of firms are more efficient to avoid agglomeration than subsidies to consumers (social policy). Second, if a less developed region starts its catch up process first increasing and afterwards decreasing transfers are necessary to avoid agglomeration. Due to these results east Germany's slowdown of convergence may be a consequence of too less transfers and especially too less firm subsidies. Furthermore, if East Germany locates still at the first stage of convergence even increasing transfers would be necessary to guarantee convergence. Im Rahmen eines...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic geography; Economic integration; Transfers; Tax policy; East Germany; Political Economy; R12; F02; H7.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26161
Registros recuperados: 22
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