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Registros recuperados: 87
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A expansão da União Européia em 2004 e seus impactos no agronegócio brasileiro AgEcon
Oliveira, Samuel Jose de Magalhaes; Ferreira Filho, Joaquim Bento de Souza.
International trade has acquired increasing importance for the Brazilian economy, especially for agribusiness. In this way, understanding other countries policies that affects international trade and its impacts in this country is equally important. The European Union (EU) is one of the most important Brazilian trade partners and it is known by strong interference on its agricultural sector. The recent European enlargement and the last Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) Reform have been studied at different regions of the World but there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impacts of this on Brazilian rural sectors. This paper aims to assess the impacts of the 2004 EU enlargement on Brazilian agribusiness using the general equilibrium model Global Trade...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International economics; International trade; General equilibrium; Economic integration.; Political Economy; F11; F15; Q17..
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61192
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A spatial bio-economic modelling approach on the trade-offs between global bioenergy demand, agricultural intensification, expansion, and trade AgEcon
Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander; Beringer, Tim; Muller, Christoph; Lucht, Wolfgang.
Increased future demands for food, fibre and fuels from biomass can only be met if the available land and water resources on a global scale are used and managed as efficiently as possible. The main routes for making the global agricultural system more productive are through intensification and technological change on currently used agricultural land, land expansion into currently non-agricultural areas, and international trade in agricultural commodities and processed goods. In order to analyse the trade-offs and synergies between these options, we present a global bio-economic modelling approach with a special focus on spatially explicit land and water constraints as well as technological change in agricultural production. For a given bioenergy demand...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land use change; Spatial modelling; Technological change; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Land Economics/Use; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C61; F15; Q24; Q25.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51458
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AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD TRADE IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: THE CASE OF SLOVENIAN INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan; Hartmann, Monika.
One of the striking features in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries is the deterioration of their agricultural and food trade balance during transition to a market economy as imports increased faster than exports or exports even declined. This paper investigates the Slovenian agricultural and food trade in more detail focusing on changes in the geographical distribution of trade and the nature of trade specialization on the basis of the Grubel-Lloyd Intra-Industry Trade index and Marginal Intra-Industry Trade Indices. The results indicate that Slovenian agricultural and food trade largely remains of the inter-industry type with specialisation of exports towards the former Yugoslav markets and imports from the European Union. The proportion of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intra-industry trade; Integration; Agro-food sector; Industrial Organization; F14; F15; P52; Q17.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14940
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AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD TRADE IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: THE CASE OF SLOVENIAN INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan; Hartmann, Monika.
One of the striking features in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries is the deterioration of their agricultural and food trade balance during transition to a market economy as imports increased faster than exports or exports even declined. This paper investigates the Slovenian agricultural and food trade in more detail focusing on changes in the geographical distribution of trade and the nature of trade specialization on the basis of the Grubel-Lloyd Intra-Industry Trade index and Marginal Intra-Industry Trade Indices. The results indicate that Slovenian agricultural and food trade largely remains of the inter-industry type with specialisation of exports towards the former Yugoslav markets and imports from the European Union. The proportion of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intra-industry trade; Integration; Agro-food sector; Intra-industrieller Handel; Integration; Agrar- und Ernährungssektor; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Industrial Organization; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; F14; F15; P52; Q17.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92027
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Agricultural Trade Flows among Developing Countries: Do Regional Preferential Trade Agreements make a Difference? AgEcon
Tembo, Gelson; Jayne, Thomas S..
Regional integration through trade is recognized as one way to foster economic growth and poverty reduction. This paper uses the gravity model and 11-year panel data (1996-2006) on Southern African Development Community (SADC) member countries to study Zambia’s regional agricultural trade flows and the impact of the SADC Trade Protocol (SADC-TP). Zambia’s volume of trade is significantly related to most of the standard gravity variables. The results indicate that Zambia has been largely trading below potential, especially with respect to exports. There have been improvements in Zambia’s trade flows during the SADC-TP period but only with a few countries. Further improvements will require re-examining protocol implementation and individual countries’...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Southern Africa; Regional trade; Gravity analysis; Zambia; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade; Marketing; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C23; C51; F12; F14; F15.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51733
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An Account of Geographic Concentration Patterns in Europe AgEcon
Brulhart, Marius; Traeger, Rolf.
Using entropy indices and associated bootstrap tests, we describe the distribution of economic sectors across Western European regions over the 1975-2000 period. We decompose geographic concentration into its within-country and between-country components. In addition, we estimate centre-periphery gradients in sectoral location patterns and the impact of EU membership on countries' internal geography. It is found that manufacturing has become gradually more concentrated, although the locational bias towards central regions has become weaker. Conversely, market services have been relocating towards centrally located regions. EU integration appears to have strengthened countries' internal concentration trends.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Geographic concentration; EU regions; Centre-periphery gradients; Entropy indices; Bootstrap inference; Community/Rural/Urban Development; R12; R14; F15.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26155
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An EU-Canada bilateral trade agreement: A DefraTAP application AgEcon
Kitou, Elisavet; Philippidis, George.
The first round of negotiations held in Ottawa on the 19th October, 2009, heralded the opening of bilateral trade talks intent on reaching a Canadian-European Union (EU27) free trade area (FTA) agreement. A second round of negotiations were staged in Brussels in January, whilst further rounds are scheduled for 2010, with the longer term aim of ratifying an agreement within 24-30 months. Although stumbling blocs will be encountered, the divergent political interests of each region are compatible. In Canada, a FTA with its second largest trading partner offers a viable alternative to its current overdependence on the US. Similarly, the EU27 sees an opportunity to regain a competitive foothold in the North American market. This paper re-examines the long run...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: EU27; Canada; Economic integration; Sensitive products; International Relations/Trade; C68; F11; F15; F17.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91679
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Assessing the Economic Impacts of Incorporating Romania's Agricultural and Food Sectors into EU's Customs Union: An Applied General Equilibrium Approach AgEcon
Scrieciu, Silviu Serban.
Join the European Union club implies, among many other policy changes, full integration of Romania's expected to have significant implications for domestic farmers and food processors. The paper constructs a single-country Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model to investigate the impact of tariff border adjustments on changes in relative prices, production and trade patterns associated with fifteen local agro-food activities. Moreover, the modeling work identifies those agro-food sectors that have the potential to benefit the most from EU enlargement in terms of output effects given that Romanian producers are capable of fully responding to the incentives provided with integration. These mainly include (bovine) live animals and meat products, sugar and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: EU enlargement; Customs union; Agriculture; Romania; AGE modelling; Political Economy; D58; F15; 013.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30543
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Assessing the Economic Impacts of Incorporating Romania's Agricultural and Food Sectors into EU's Customs Union: An Applied General Equilibrium Approach AgEcon
Scrieciu, Silviu Serban.
Joining the European Union club implies, among many other policy changes, full integration of Romania's economy into EU's customs union. This is expected to have significant implications for domestic farmers and food processors. The paper constructs a single-country Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model to investigate the impact of tariff border adjustments on changes in relative prices, production and trade patterns associated with fifteen local agro-food activities. Moreover, the modelling work identifies those agro-food sectors that have the potential to benefit the most from EU enlargement in terms of output effects given that Romanian producers are capable of fully responding to the incentives provided with integration. These mainly include (bovine)...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: EU enlargement; Customs union; Agriculture; Romania; AGE modelling; Political Economy; D58; F15; O13.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30583
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Assessing the Impact of ACP/EU Economic Partnership Agreement on West African Countries AgEcon
Busse, Matthias; Grossmann, Harald.
The European Union is currently negotiating free trade agreements, called Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), with African countries as part of the Cotonou Agreement between the European Union and African, Caribbean and Pacific countries. The paper empirically assesses the impact of the EPAs on trade flows and government revenue for 14 West African countries. The results indicate that the decline in import duties due to the preferential tariff elimination might be of some cause for concern and that complementary fiscal and economic policies have to be implemented before or at the time the EPAs come into force.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic Partnership Agreements; EU; ECOWAS; Africa; International Relations/Trade; F15; O24; O55.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26198
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Augmented Gravity Model: An Empirical Application to Mercosur-European Union Trade Flows AgEcon
Martinez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Nowak-Lehmann, Felicitas.
This paper applies the gravity trade model to assess Mercosur-European Union trade, and trade potential following the agreements reached recently between both trade blocs. The model is tested for a sample of 20 countries, the four formal members of Mercosur plus Chile and the fifteen members of the European Union. A panel data analysis is used to disentangle the time invariant country-specific effects and to capture the relationships between the relevant variables over time. We find that the fixed effect model is to be preferred to the random effects gravity model. Furthermore, a number of variables, namely, infrastructure, income differences and exchange rates added to the standard gravity equation, are found to be important determinants of bilateral...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Gravity equation; Panel data; Infrastructure; Integration; International Relations/Trade; F14; F15.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43996
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Austrian Border Regions and Eastern Integration A Low Competitiveness - High Growth Paradoxon AgEcon
Mayerhofer, Peter.
Many regions on the EU Eastern borders have developed favourably after the opening up of the border and the implementation of association agreements with the CEECs. This was often seen as a positive sign for the further perspectives of these regions after EU enlargement. In this paper we take a closer look at the mechanisms involved in a case study for Austria. Based on a very disaggregated data set at a regional as well as sectoral level we find that neither sectoral preconditions nor locational advantages can explain the good performance of (rural) border regions after 1989. Using multivariate cluster analyses we group 3-digit-industries to theoretically founded typologies indicating different sector characteristics and find that (fast growing) rural...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Border Regions; Integration; EU Enlargement; Regional Competitiveness; Austria; International Relations/Trade; F02; F15; R11; R12.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26234
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Border Effects and Border Regions: Lessons from the German Unification AgEcon
Nitsch, Volker.
This paper examines data on trade flows between West German Bundesländer (federal states) and East Germany to explore the effect of national borders on trade. Although the data cover only a small fraction of intra-German trade flows, I find a home bias of about factor 2.2; West German shipments to East Germany are about 120% larger than deliveries to an otherwise similar foreign country. Based on this result, possible implications for border regions are discussed.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Home bias; Intranational trade; Gravity regression; Unification; International Relations/Trade; F 14; F15.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26291
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Borders, Market Size and Urban Growth, The Case of Saxon Towns and the Zollverein in the 19th Century AgEcon
Ploeckl, Florian.
Changes in trade institutions, such as the abolishment of tariff barriers, have a potentially strong impact on economic development. The Zollverein, the 1834 customs union between German states, erased borders in much of central Europe. This paper investigates the Zollverein's economic impact through a study of urban population and its growth in the German state of Saxony. A model of the effect of market access on urban growth is combined with an extensive data set on town populations in Saxony and its neighbors as well as an improved distance measure based on GIS techniques, which take into account elevation patterns, roads, and rivers. The results show that Zollverein membership led to significantly higher growth for towns close to the border with...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: F15; N93; R12; International Relations/Trade; Zollverein; Saxony; Customs Union; Market Access; Economic Geography; GIS; Distance measurement.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/229132
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Can a Preferential Trade Agreement Benefit Neighbor Countries without Compensating Them? AgEcon
Endoh, Masahiro; Hamada, Koichi; Shimomura, Koji.
PTAs are generally negotiated without any tariff concessions or transfers to non-member countries. Can such a PTA benefit the neighbors’ welfare? In a two-good competitive equilibrium model in the absence of an entrepot, a PTA without concessions to the outsider will hurt the outsider’s welfare when goods are normal. If one of the member countries is an entrepot, however, it definitely improves the neighbors’ welfare. In a multiple-good model, a PTA without concessions deteriorates the neighbors’ welfare, provided that all the goods are normal and substitutes, and that initial tariff levels are small.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: PTA; Neighbor’s Welfare; Kemp-Wan Theorem; WTO; GATT Article 24; Entrepot; International Relations/Trade; F11; F13; F15.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6334
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CAP Reform in the Light of the WTO Doha Round Negotiations AgEcon
Halmai, Peter; Elekes, Andrea.
Our paper focuses on the question: how the measures of June 2003 agreement can help the EU to meet the new WTO commitments. As decoupling of direct payments and WTO classification of the new payments seem to be one of the most important questions from the point of view of WTO negotiations, our analysis focuses mainly on the Single Farm Payment (SFP). We assesses the decoupled nature of the single farm payment (SFP) based on WTO and OECD criteria. We conclude that the SFP meets not only the current WTO (design based) criteria of decoupling, but can also be qualified as effective fully decoupled system using the OECD terminology.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: CAP reform; WTO; Decoupling; International Relations/Trade; Q17; Q18; F13; F15.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24693
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CAP UNDER FIRE: THE BUDGETARY REVIEW AND THE CAP AgEcon
Elekes, Andrea; Halmai, Peter.
During the process of the budgetary review the CAP faces its greatest challenge of its history: not only the (common) financing of the CAP, but the future of the CAP itself is at stake. It is obvious that the reform steps implemented so far – even though they have several forward-looking elements – do not result in a CAP sustainable on the long run. Further changes are inevitable. Basing our analysis on the theories of fiscal federalism and other political economy approaches, we try to answer the following questions. Is common financing of a reformed CAP justified? Can national co-financing be extended? Is it justified to keep the system of commonly financed direct payments?
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: European Union; Common Agricultural Policy; Fiscal federalism; Budget review; Agricultural and Food Policy; F15; F36; H41; H50; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114345
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Changing contributions of different agricultural policy instruments to global reductions in trade and welfare AgEcon
Croser, Johanna L.; Anderson, Kym.
Trade negotiators and policy advisors are keen to know the relative contribution of different farm policy instruments to international trade and economic welfare. Nominal rates of assistance or producer support estimates are incomplete indicators, especially when (especially in developing countries) some commodities are taxed and others are subsidized in which case positive contributions can offset negative contributions. This paper develops and estimates a new set of more-satisfactory indicators to examine the relative contribution of different farm policy instruments to reductions in agricultural trade and welfare, drawing on recent literature on trade restrictiveness indexes and a recently compiled database on distortions to agricultural prices for 75...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural price and trade policies; Trade restrictiveness index; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; F15; N57; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58881
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Concentration and Specialisation Trends in Germany since Reunification AgEcon
Suedekum, Jens.
In this paper we describe the development of regional specialisation and geographical concentration in Germany between 1993 and 2001. Somewhat contrary to theoretical expectations derived from the recent literature in location theory, we neither find compelling evidence for a specialisation process of German regions, nor for a concentration process of industries. By and large and with some exceptions, this conclusion holds both for West Germany and Germany as a whole, as well as for all levels of territorial aggregation (NUTS1-NUTS3). Urban areas are stronger specialised than rural districts, but also subject to faster de-specialisation. Those regions, which have increased regional specialisation against the trend, have performed significantly better in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Regional Specialisation; Geographical Concentration; Economic Integration; Location Theory; Employment Growth; Germany; Community/Rural/Urban Development; F14; F15; R12.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26294
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Declining "Common" Agricultural Policy? CAP Reform of 2003 and Its National Implementation in the Member States AgEcon
Halmai, Peter; Elekes, Andrea.
This paper focuses on the basic element of the 2003 CAP reform process: on the single farm payment and its national implementation models. We examine possible economic impacts (production distorting effects, redistribution, restructuring, resource allocation and effects on land market) of the basic SFP models. In sum, we can say that the 2003 CAP reform and the new support provide an opportunity to overcome some of the difficulties the CAP faces with. However, the wide range of national diversities threatens the principle of the single market, and transparency and operation of the common market organizations. As there is a wide range of possible constructions member states can decide for, the common nature of the CAP gets more and more questionable.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: CAP reform; Decoupling; Single farm payment; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q17; Q18; F13; F15.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24480
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