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Registros recuperados: 47
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Agricultural Trade and Freshwater Resources AgEcon
Reimer, Jeffrey J..
Approximately 75% of all water used by humans goes towards food production, much of which is traded internationally. This study formally models how this works in the case of crop agriculture, making use of recent advances in international trade theory and new data on the productivity by which countries use water for crop agriculture. The strength of the model lies in its ability to predict, when there is a shock to the system, how trade between pairs of specific countries changes for products that use water intensively. In one application of the model, international trade in final products is shown to be a means for countries to deal with short- and long-run shocks to water resources that are too big for one country to handle by itself in isolation. In...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate change; Simulation; Trade liberalization; Water; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; F11; F18; Q25; Q54.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123944
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Agricultural Trade Liberalisation and Strategic Environmental Policy AgEcon
Glebe, Thilo W.; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe.
We use an extended partial equilibrium trade model to derive optimal environmental policy responses to tariff reduction requirements and assess the impact of such policies on the welfare of trading partners. We find that countries which attribute preferential political weights to farmers' welfare have an incentive to implement environmental policies that deviate from the Pigouvian solution - even if production is not de facto linked to environmental externalities. We clarify the conditions under which trading partners do not gain from unilateral trade liberalisation if trade concessions are accompanied by strategic environmental policy changes. We postulate a role for the WTO in overseeing the process of domestic policy formulation.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade liberalisation; Strategic environmental policy; Multifunctionality; Agri-environmental policy; WTO; Environmental Economics and Policy; D60; F11; F18; Q17.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24609
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ARGOS - Modelling the Economic, Environmental, and Social Implications for New Zealand from Different Scenarios Relating to the Demand and Supply of Organic Products AgEcon
Saunders, Caroline M.; Emanuelsson, Martin.
This paper reports on some of the initial findings of the ARGOS (Agricultural Research Group on (Sustainability) programme, a 6 year quasi-experimental research project with the aim to model the economic, environmental, and social differences between organic, environmentally friendly and conventional systems of production. In the first section the paper reviews the development of organic markets, details the production costs and reports some preliminary results from ARGOS. The information is then used to develop potential future scenarios relating to the organic sector, which are assessed using the Lincoln Trade and Environment Model (LTEM), a partial equilibrium trade model that differentiates between organic and conventional production methods. This...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Sustainability; New Zealand; Organic markets; ARGOS; Demand and Price Analysis; F18; Q17.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24724
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Assessing the European Union emissions trading directive AgEcon
Convery, Frank J.; Redmond, Luke; Dunne, Louise; Ryan, Lisa B..
The Emissions Trading scheme now (January 2003) in prospect in the European Union is likely to be the first trans-national greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme in the world. With the participation of the European Economic Area [EEA] countries and with the forthcoming EU enlargement, 30 countries could be involved in this scheme by 2012. Under European Union law, the European Commission is responsible for making proposals, which are then decided upon by the Council of Ministers - on a 'qualified majority' basis in this case - representing the 15 Member State governments, and the European Parliament. In the case of this Directive, the Commission prepared its initial proposals, which have then been scrutinised by the European Parliament and the Council...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Emissions trade; Directive; Europe; International Relations/Trade; F18; N54; Q56.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28794
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Border Enforcement and Firm Response in the Management of Invasive Species AgEcon
Ameden, Holly A.; Cash, Sean B.; Zilberman, David.
This analysis presents a theoretical model of firm response to border enforcement and evaluates both the intended and unintended effects under two enforcement regimes: destruction versus treatment of contaminated shipments. The results indicate that importers may respond to increased inspection by reducing shipments and decreasing due care. In response to increased pest populations, firms may reduce shipments and increase due care, indicating that an enforcement response may not be necessary. The analysis reveals the importance of the nature of the due-care technology, as well as the relationships underlying the probability of detection, in determining the effects of enforcement.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Border enforcement; Environmental regulation; Invasive species; Trade and environment; F18; L51; Q17; Q56; Q58.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37112
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Carbon Leakage with International Technology Spillovers AgEcon
Gerlagh, Reyer; Kuik, Onno.
In this paper we study the effect of international technology spillovers on carbon leakage. We first develop and analyse two simple competing models for carbon leakage. The first model represents the pollution haven hypothesis. It focuses on the international competition between firms that produce energy-intensive goods. The second model highlights the role of a globally integrated carbon-energy market. We calculate formulas for the leakage rates in both models and, through meta-analysis, show that the second model captures best the major mechanisms reported in the CGE literature on carbon leakage. We extend this model with endogenous energy-saving technology and international technology spillovers. This feature is shown to decrease carbon leakage. We...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon-Leakage; Climate Policy; Induced Technological Change; Trade and Environment; Environmental Economics and Policy; F18; O39; Q25; Q4.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9328
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CDM Baseline Construction for Vietnam National Electricity Grid AgEcon
Tuyen, Tran Minh; Michaelowa, Axel.
For projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a baseline has to be set to allow calculation of the greenhouse gas emissions reductions achieved. An important obstacle to CDM project development is the lack of data for baseline definition; often project developers do not have access to data and therefore incur high transaction costs to collect them. The government of Vietnam has set up all necessary institutions for CDM, wants to promote CDM projects and thus is interested to reduce transaction costs. We calculate emission factors of the Vietnam electricity grid according to the rules defined by the CDM Executive Board for small scale projects and for large renewable electricity generation projects. The emission factors lie between 365 and 899 g...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: CDM; Baseline; Electricity generation; Vietnam; Public Economics; Risk and Uncertainty; D62; F18; Q25; Q41.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26393
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Climate Change Meets Trade in Promoting Green Growth: Potential Conflicts and Synergies AgEcon
Zhang, ZhongXiang.
To date, border adjustment measures in the form of emissions allowance requirements (EAR) under the U.S. proposed cap-and-trade regime are the most concrete unilateral trade measure put forward to level the carbon playing field. If improperly implemented, such measures could disturb the world trade order and trigger a trade war. Because of these potentially far-reaching impacts, this paper focuses on this type of unilateral border adjustment, which requires importers to acquire and surrender emissions allowances corresponding to the embedded carbon contents in their goods from countries that have not taken climate actions comparable to that of home country. This discussion is mainly on the legality of unilateral EAR under the WTO rules. Given that the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Post-2012 climate negotiations; Border carbon adjustments; Carbon tariffs; Emissions allowance requirements; Cap-and-trade regime; Lieberman-Warner bill; Waxman-Markey bill; World Trade Organization; Kyoto Protocol; Developing countries; United States; Environmental Economics and Policy; F18; Q48; Q54; Q56; Q58.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59475
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Derechos de emision temporales procedentes de actividades de forestacion y reforestacion en el EU ETS AgEcon
Bachiller Mendez, Ignacio; Fernandez-Cavada, Jose Luis; Martin Juez Labat, Jaime.
Resumen En este trabajo se examina el marco regulatorio establecido por la Convención Marco sobre Cambio Climático, el Protocolo de Kioto y sus Mecanismos de Flexibilidad, entre ellos el Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio (MDL) y el sistema europo de Comercio de Derechos de Emisión (EU ETS). Partiendo de este marco general se expone de qué modo se han incorporado las actividades de forestación y reforestación en el ámbito del MDL y su situación actual en el EU ETS. Se analizan los costes de transacción de este tipo de proyectos de MDL y el estado del mercado de derechos temporales que genera. Finalmente, a la vista de los elementos descritos, se formulan unas conclusiones con respecto a la conveniencia y expectativas del desarrollo futuro de este mercado....
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Temporary allowances; EU ETS; Afforestation; CDM; Reforestation; Derechos temporales; EU ETS; Forestacion; MDL; Reforestación; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; F18; Q23; Q54; Q56.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7057
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Developing Countries and the Multilateral Trading System After Doha AgEcon
Srinivasan, T.N..
The Fourth Session of the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO), held in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001, launched a new round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) and a work programme (WP) for the WTO involving the negotiating agenda and steps for meeting the challenges facing the multilateral trading system. The paper evaluates the WP, in particular, whether it would redress the unfavourable balance between benefits and costs to developing countries DCs of the agreement that concluded the previous (Uruguay) round of MTN. It discusses the failure of the third session in Seattle to launch a new round in December 1999, and also documents the unfavourable balance. While concluding that with adequate preparation, the negotiators could...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: World Trade Organization (WTO); Multilateral trade negotiations; Developing countries; Antidumping; Trade Related Intellectual Property Services (TRIPS); Trade and labour standards; Trade and environment; Preferential trade agreements; International Relations/Trade; F02; F13; F15; F16; F18; O19; O34.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28496
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Does Agricultural Trade Liberalization under FTA Reduce Pollution from Agriculture? : The Case of the Japan-Korea FTA AgEcon
Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Sawauchi, Daisuke; Masuda, Kiyotaka.
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate over agricultural trade and environment by asking: Does agricultural trade liberalization under free trade agreement (FTA) reduce pollution from agriculture? In order to contribute to answering the above research question, we measure the potential impact of environmental pollution from agriculture caused by agricultural trade liberalization under the Japan-Korea FTA (JKFTA), using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model and the OECD Nitrogen Balance Database. The scenario we model assumes the complete removal of all import tariffs between Japan and Korea, not only in the agricultural sector but in non-agricultural sectors, as well. The results show the JKFTA is likely to lead to an overall...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade and environment; Free trade agreement; Computable general equilibrium modeling; Agriculture; Japan; Korea; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; C68; F14; F15; F18; Q17; Q56.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9969
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Economic Determinants of Invasion and Discovery of Nonindigenous Insects AgEcon
Hlasny, Vladimir; Livingston, Michael J..
Introductions of nonindigenous organisms into the United States have been linked to international trade. The individual contributions of imports, immigration, and international travel, however, are poorly understood because introduction dates are unavailable. We examine relationships between economic trends and discoveries of nonindegenous insects and use these relationships to infer the timing and determinants of introductions. We find that a few variables can explain much variation in species introductions and identifications. The most significant contributor to the introduction appears to be agricultural imports. Currently available proxies for academic effort are weak determinants of the probability that introduced species are identified.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Identifications; Insects; Introductions; Invasive species; Nonindegenous; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; F18; N7; Q56.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45044
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Enforcement and Environmental Quality in a Decentralized Emission Trading System AgEcon
D'Amato, Alessio; Valentini, Edilio.
This paper addresses the issue of whether the powers of monitoring compliance and allocating tradeable emissions allowances within a federation of countries should be appointed to a unique federal regulator or decentralized to several local regulators. To this end, we develop a two stage game played by environmental regulator(s) and the polluting industries of two countries. Regulator(s) choose the amount of emission allowances to be issued and set the level of monitoring effort to achieve full compliance, while regulated firms choose actual emissions and the number of permits to be held. We identify various, possibly conflicting, spillovers among states in a decentralized setting. We show that cost advantage in favor of local regulators is not sufficient...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions Trading; Environmental Federalism; Enforcement; Monitoring Cost; Environmental Economics and Policy; F18; K42; Q53.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46654
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ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN THE FTAA AgEcon
Colyer, Dale.
Paper presented at the 24th West Indies Agricultural Economics Conference, Granada, July 19-12, 2002. Environmental issues have become important in trade agreement negotiations. NAFTA explicitly includes environmental provisions and they are affecting ongoing WTO and FTAA negotiations. The final role of the environment in the FTAA is uncertain, given opposition by most of the members. The draft FTAA agreement does not contain a separate section on the environment, but a U.S. position paper indicates that environmental provisions are important and that U.S. negotiators will seek to incorporate environmental concerns into specific chapters such those on investment and agriculture. The large number and varied economic and environmental conditions of the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International trade; Trade agreements; Agricultural trade; Environment; Trade and environment; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; F1; F13; F15; F18.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19107
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Environmental Provisions in Free Trade Agreements AgEcon
Colyer, Dale.
Numbers of free trade ageements and those with environmental provisons have grownn rapidly. Enviomental measures include those to protect and enhance the environment, environmental cooperation and citizen particpation activties. Many appear to have made important contributions to environmental activities although often constrained by limited funds.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Free trade; Trade agreements; Environment; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F18.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123723
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Environmental Regulation and the Export Dynamics of Energy Technologies AgEcon
Costantini, Valeria; Crespi, Francesco.
The pollution haven hypothesis affirms that an open market regime will encourage the flow of low technology polluting industries toward developing countries, due to potential comparative advantages related to low environmental standards. In contrast, the hypothesis suggested by Porter and van der Linde claims for a competitive dynamic behaviour by innovating firms, allowing a global diffusion of environmental-friendly technologies. Environmental regulation may represent a relevant mechanism through which technological change is induced. In this way countries subject to more stringent environmental regulations may become net exporters of environmental technologies. This paper provides new evidence on the evolution of export flows of environmental...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Regulation; Trade and Environment; Energy Technologies; Environmental Economics and Policy; F18; F21; Q43; Q55; Q56.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9550
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Existe un conflicto entre la globalizacion del turismo y los recursos naturales? AgEcon
Font, Antoni Riers; Parrilla, Javier Capo; Tous, Teresa Palmer.
La globalización, así como el turismo internacional, son dos de los fenómenos económicos más analizados en los últimos años, tanto por su creciente importancia como por sus visibles efectos sobre la economía. La notable expansión del turismo tiene como origen, en gran parte, las mismas causas que explican la globalización económica, de ahí que, a menudo, se hable de‘globalización turística’. Uno de los argumentos más utilizados por los detractores de la globalización es su elevado impacto en términos ambientales. En este sentido, resulta obligado reflexionar sobre la existencia de un potencial conflicto entre el, cada vez mayor, desarrollo turístico y la conservación de los recursos naturales. Una cuestión ésta que adquiere especial importancia en el caso...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Globalization; Tourism; Environmental Impacts; Management Tools of Natural Resources; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; F18; H23; L83; Q34.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7994
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From “May Contain” to “Does Contain”: The price and trade effects of strict information requirements for GM maize under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety AgEcon
Bouet, Antoine; Gruere, Guillaume P.; Leroy, Laetitia.
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/22/10.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Genetically modified food; International Trade; Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q17; Q18; F18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61533
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Global Demand for U.S. Environmental Goods and Services AgEcon
Avery, Brock; Boadu, Frederick O..
This paper reports import demand elasticities for environmental goods and services (EGS) for the world in aggregate and for six world regions. The paper involves a pooled cross-section and time-series estimation procedure and makes per capita demand for EGS a function of economic, political, and structural factors. The results show that per capita incomes, exchange rates, political and economic freedoms, and debt affect the demand for EGS. The results also show that demand for EGS is tied to the particular environmental problem facing a particular region. Exporters of EGS need to disaggregate world markets to better target products.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Demand elasticities; Environmental goods; International trade; F18; F14.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42895
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Global Fair Trade Innovations: Trends 1999-2011 AgEcon
Marconi, Nicholas G.; DiMarcello, Nicholas, III; Hooker, Neal H..
The global Fair Trade market has experienced substantial growth over the past 13 years, as measured by both share and number of innovations. This has developed into a new worldwide market segment, and has helped improve the lives of hundreds of thousands of people. This report compiles data from Mintel’s Global New Product Database (www.gnpd.com), which records food, beverage, health and beauty products launched throughout the world. The company archives extensive information about each product, permitting users to explore emerging marketing strategies. From 1999 through 2011, GNPD recorded 4,465 Fair Trade innovations. These products were sold in over 40 countries. This paper provides a descriptive and comparative statistical analysis of Fair Trade trends...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Fair Trade; Third party certifiers; Organic; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; F13; F16; F18.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123530
Registros recuperados: 47
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