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Registros recuperados: 29
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African hunt for investment: any chance for success? AgEcon
Dyakov, Ignaty.
During recent two decades the world has witnessed a drastic increase in global FDI inflows. Gradually more and more investment has been directed to the developing countries in the attempt to diversify portfolios and use finance in the most efficient way. Not all developing regions of the world perfectly succeeded in attracting FDI. Large by labor force and territory, abundant in natural resources Sub-Saharan Africa could perform much better in this aspect. This paper once again reviews the opportunities for FDI in Africa and suggests possible ways for authorities of African states to overcome the existing situation.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: FDI; Africa; Determinants; Policy recommendations; Financial Economics; International Development; F21; O55.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94546
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Agglomeration Effects and Japanese Food Industry Investment in China: Evidence from the Cities AgEcon
Jin, Shaosheng; Tokunaga, Suminori; Akune, Yuko; Kageyama, Masahiro.
This paper uses the data from Chugoku Shinshutsu Kigyou Ichiran 2003-2004 (A View of Japanese Enterprises Investments in China 2003-2004) to study 1ocation choice of Japanese food industry investment in 231 Chinese cities from 1992 to 2001, paying a particular attention to agglomeration effects. A negative binominal model indicates that labor cost (WAGE) is the most important factor that deters Japanese food industry investment. Market size (GDP), raw material (MATER), port (PORT) and policy incentives (POLICY), however, have positive effects in Japanese food industry investment location choice in China. As for the three-tier agglomeration effects' test, the agglomeration effects of Japanese manufactures agglomeration (AG2) and Japanese food manufactures...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food industry; Agglomeration; Japan; China; FDI; Agribusiness; International Relations/Trade; F21; Q13; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25307
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Aid, Governance, and Private Foreign Investment: Some Puzzling Findings and a Possible Explanation AgEcon
Harms, Philipp; Lutz, Matthias.
Does official aid pave the road for private foreign investment or does it suffocate private initiative by diverting resources towards unproductive activities? In this paper we explore this question using data for a large number of developing and emerging economies. Controlling for countries' institutional environment, we find that, evaluated at the mean, the marginal effect of aid on private foreign investment is close to zero. Surprisingly, however, the effect is strictly positive for countries in which private agents face a substantial regulatory burden. After testing the robustness of this result, we offer a theoretical model that is able to rationalize our puzzling observation.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Aid; Foreign Direct Investment; Institutions; International Relations/Trade; F35; F21; O16; O19.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26128
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Assessing the Constraints and Opportunities for Private-Sector Participation in Activities Implemented Jointly: Two Case Studies from the US Initiative for Joint Implementation AgEcon
Powell, Mark R.; Lile, Ronald D.; Toman, Michael.
This paper assesses the constraints and opportunities for private-sector participation in Activities Implemented Jointly under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. After some initial background, the discussion turns to the United States Initiative on Joint Implementation (USIJI) - its objectives, proposal review and evaluation criteria, and a classification of project proposals by project type and stage of development. Two USIJI projects are developed as case studies. One case is an energy end use project that has gained formal acceptance and financing. The other case is an energy production project proposal that has not secured acceptance or financing. In both cases, transaction costs were substantial, and project proponents regarded...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Joint implementation; Public Economics; Q28; F21.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10555
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Democracy and FDI AgEcon
Busse, Matthias.
Many believe that multinational enterprises insensitively ignore political rights and civil liberties in the countries of their investments. Frequently, non-governmental organisations accuse multinationals of fostering repressive regimes in developing countries and consider foreign direct investment (FDI) as a tool of exploitation. This paper tries to examine empirically the complex relationship between democracy and FDI in a systematic way, using cross-sectional and panel data analysis. The results indicate that - on average - investments by multinationals are significantly higher in democratic countries, thereby refuting the hypothesis that political repression fosters FDI. Yet this positive link does not hold for the 1970s, when a considerable share of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: FDI; Democracy; Political Rights; Civil Liberties; Political Economy; C31; C 33; F21; F23.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26260
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Determinants of direct foreign investment: Evidence from Jordan AgEcon
Khrawish, Husni Ali; Siam, Walid Zakaria.
In order to show the effect of direct foreign investment flows on the economy of Jordan, this study comes to examine the economic and financial risks on FDI on the macro level over the period (1997- 2007). This study applies a version of the model developed by Chan and Gemayel (2004) by using Multiple Linear Regression Model. The analysis revealed that there exists significant and positive relationship between foreign direct investment flows into the economy of Jordan and economic and financial variables. The study claims for further FDI promotion through incentives to attract new investments. These factors are: providing targeted fiscal incentives, such as tax concessions, cash grants, and specific subsidies; improving domestic infrastructure; promoting...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Direct foreign investment; Economic and financial risks; Export of goods and services and exchange rate stability.; Financial Economics; International Development; F21; O53.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95943
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Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment of OECD Countries 1991-2001 AgEcon
Gast, Michael W..
Using a fixed-effects panel data approach, FDI flows of 22 OECD countries are explained by gravity equations over the period 1991-2001. It is distinguished between all available observations, Intra-EU25 observations only, and observations not belonging to the EU25 area in order to control for EU-specific effects. Regressions are repeated with exports as dependent variable in order to capture diverging influences for trade flows. Changes in total market size and relative market size are important factors that lead both FDI and exports in the same direction. However, relative market size is only significant in the FDI equation when variation between the EU25 area and other investment is taken into account, thus indicating a concentration of FDI within...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Foreign direct investment and international trade; Multinational firms; Model with panel data; Agricultural Finance; F21; F23; F14; C23.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24595
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Environmental Regulation and the Export Dynamics of Energy Technologies AgEcon
Costantini, Valeria; Crespi, Francesco.
The pollution haven hypothesis affirms that an open market regime will encourage the flow of low technology polluting industries toward developing countries, due to potential comparative advantages related to low environmental standards. In contrast, the hypothesis suggested by Porter and van der Linde claims for a competitive dynamic behaviour by innovating firms, allowing a global diffusion of environmental-friendly technologies. Environmental regulation may represent a relevant mechanism through which technological change is induced. In this way countries subject to more stringent environmental regulations may become net exporters of environmental technologies. This paper provides new evidence on the evolution of export flows of environmental...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Regulation; Trade and Environment; Energy Technologies; Environmental Economics and Policy; F18; F21; Q43; Q55; Q56.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9550
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Export Growth In India: Has FDI Played a Role? AgEcon
Sharma, Kishor.
Export growth in India has been much faster than GDP growth over the past few decades. Several factors appear to have contributed to this phenomenon including foreign direct investment (FDI). However, despite increasing inflows of FDI especially in recent years there has not been any attempt to assess its contribution to India's export performanceone of the channels through which FDI influences growth. Using annual data for 1970-98 we investigate the determinants of export performance in India in a simultaneous equation framework. Results suggest that demand for Indian exports increases when its export prices fall in relation to world prices. Furthermore, the real appreciation of the rupee adversely effects India's exports. Export supply is positively...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Exports; Commercial policy; Export subsidies; Foreign direct investment; Exchange rates and India; F21; International Relations/Trade; F1; F13; F14.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28372
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Impact of Foreign Intellectual Property Rights Protection on U.S. Exports and FDI AgEcon
Gu, Weishi.
This version of the paper is subject to changes.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Export; FDI; Technology transfer; Intellectual property rights; GMM; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C33; F21; F23; F14; O34; K33.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49414
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Implementing the Clean Development Mechanism: Lessons from U.S. Private-Sector Participation in Activities Implemented Jointly AgEcon
Lile, Ronald D.; Powell, Mark R.; Toman, Michael.
The "Clean Development Mechanism" (CDM) contained in the December 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change provides, for the first time, the capacity for industrialized countries to claim credits for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions or offsets undertaken in cooperation with host developing countries. However, the Protocol provides no guidance on how these cooperative activities for GHG reduction and sustainable development would be undertaken in practice, including the particularly important issue of the relationship of the private sector vis-à-vis government institutions in designing, financing, and securing approval for jointly implemented GHG abatement projects. The pilot program for "Activities...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Joint implementation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; F21.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10868
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India's Reform of External Sector Policies and Future Multilateral Trade Negotiations AgEcon
Srinivasan, T.N..
I evaluate India's transition from an inward-oriented development strategy to greater participation in the world economy. While tariff rates have decreased significantly over the past decade, India is still one of the more autarkic countries. Despite improvement over the past in export performance, India continues to lag behind its South- and East Asian neighbors. Second, official debt flows have been largely replaced by foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio investment in the 1990s. India's ability to attract FDI would be greatly enhanced by further reforms. I argue that India's participation in a future round of multilateral trade negotiations would benefit India. I outline the further reforms most needed: reform of labour and bankruptcy laws,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: India; Antidumping; Developing countries; Economic reform; Export performance; Foreign direct investment; Intellectual property rights; Multilateral trade negotiations; Quantitative restrictions; Real exchange rate; Tariff and non-tariff barriers; World Trade Organization; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; F15; F21; F35; H54; K31; O34; O38; O53; P11.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28428
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Internationalisierung der Dienstleistungserstellung: Konsequenzen fur den schweizerischen Arbeitsmarkt AgEcon
Henneberger, Fred; Ziegler, Alexandre.
This paper analyses the potential employment effects of foreign direct investment in the Swiss services industry. First, the theoretical analysis considers the consequences on domestic employment resulting from the specific characteristics of services compared with those of industrial goods. It is demonstrated that conventional research in this field systematically ignores important factors which influence domestic employment. We point out that, not only the degree of tradability of services, but also the mobility of consumers and producers, as well as the motives underlying the decisions for foreign investment have a crucial influence on the consequences to be expected for the domestic labour market. Second, an initial attempt was undertaken to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Foreign direct investment; Employment effects; Services; Tourism; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital; F21; F23; J23; L80; L83.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26248
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Local Communities in front of Big External Investors: An Opportunity or a Risk? AgEcon
Antoci, Angelo; Russu, Paolo; Ticci, Elisa.
In the current age of trade and financial openness, local economies in developing countries are becoming increasingly exposed to external investments. The objective of the proposed two-sector model with environmental externalities is to provide an insight into the interaction between external investors and local communities with a focus upon the different strategies and income sources available to each category. In this context, analysis suggests that environmental regulations and incentives offered in order to attract external capital investment (whether foreign or national) may have an un-uniform impact on the two typologies of actors.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Foreign Direct Investments; Environmental Negative Externalities; Structural Changes; Poverty Alleviation; International Development; F21; F43; D62; O11; O13; O15; O41; Q20.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98093
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Location Preference for Risk-Averse Dutch Dairy Farmers Immigrating to the United States AgEcon
Richardson, James W.; Herbst, Brian K.; Duncan, Anthony; den Besten, Mark; van Hoven, Peter.
Increased environmental regulations and a milk quota that restricts growth have increased the interest in immigration to the United States by Dutch dairy farmers. A risk-based economic analysis of 23 representative U.S. dairy farms versus a representative Dutch farm shows that risk-averse Dutch dairy farmers would prefer to liquidate their dairy farms and invest in a large dairy in Idaho or north Texas. The risk ranking suggested that continuing to farm in the Netherlands rather than immigrating to the United States is preferred over only two of the 23 U.S. representative farms analyzed.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Dairy relocation; Production economics; Ranking risky alternatives; Risk analysis; F21; F22; Q12; Q14; E37; D81.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37061
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Multinational Activity in a Macroeconomic Model of the Small Open Economy AgEcon
Otto, Alkis Henri.
We study the effects of FDI and increasing multinational activity utilizing a macroeconomic two-sector model of the small open economy with flexible exchange rates and perfect capital mobility. The focus is on horizontal greenfield investment and its impact on production, exchange rates, trade, and welfare. In the host country, an increase in multinational activity harms the established industries. Nevertheless it increases welfare. In the home country, an increase in multinational activity lowers domestic output of the established industries too and, thereby, decreases welfare.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Foreign Direct Investment; Multinational activity; Welfare effects; Macroeconomic effects; International Relations/Trade; F21; F41.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26242
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Option Value, Policy Uncertainty, and the Foreign Direct Investment Decision AgEcon
Chen, Yu-Fu; Funke, Michael.
In this paper we analyse the impact of policy uncertainty on foreign direct investment strategies. The paper follows the real options approach, which allows to investigate the value to a firm of waiting to invest and/or disinvest, when payoffs are stochastic due to political uncertainty and investments are partially reversible. Across the board we find that political uncertainty can be very detrimental to FDI decisions.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Real options; Investment; Foreign Direct Investment; Political Uncertainty; International Relations/Trade; D81; D92; E22; F21.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26373
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Police-powers, regulatory takings and the efficient compensation of domestic and foreign investors AgEcon
Aisbett, Emma; Karp, Larry S.; McAusland, Carol.
In customary international and public law, “takings” resulting from regulations designed to protect the public good are generally excluded from compensation rules; this exclusion is known as a police powers carve-out (PPCO). Increasingly, this PPCO is being challenged, particularly in international investment law. This paper analyzes the efficiency properties of a PPCO in a model with endogenous regulation, investment and entry. We design a one-parameter family of carve-out/compensation schemes that induce efficient regulation and firm level investment even when the regulator suffers fiscal illusion and the social benefit from regulation is private information to the regulator. We show that offering a carve-out reduces the subsidy to risky industry...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Regulatory takings; Expropriation; Environment; Foreign direct investment; NAFTA; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; F21; H4; K3; Q58.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42842
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Political Risk, Institutions and Foreign Direct Investment AgEcon
Busse, Matthias; Hefeker, Carsten.
The paper explores the linkages between political risk, institutions and foreign direct investment inflows. Using different econometric techniques for a data sample of 83 developing countries and the period 1984 to 2003, we identify those indicators that matter most for the activities of multinational corporations. Overall, 12 different indicators for political risk and institutions are employed in the empirical analysis. The results show that government stability, the absence of internal conflict and ethnic tensions, basic democratic rights and ensuring law and order are highly significant determinants of foreign investment inflows.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political Risk; Institutions; FDI; Multinational Corporations; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy; C31; C 33; F21; F23.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26388
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Regulatory Takings and Environmental Regulation in NAFTA's Chapter 11 AgEcon
Aisbett, Emma; Karp, Larry S.; McAusland, Carol.
NAFTA's investment treaty has led to several expropriation compensation claims from investors hurt by new environmental regulations. Expropriation clauses in international treaties solve post-investment moral hazard problems such as hold-ups. However, these clauses can interact with National Treatment clauses in a manner that hinders investment. A police powers carve-out from the definition of expropriation can be Pareto-improving and can increase the level of foreign investment.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Foreign direct investment; Regulatory takings; Expropriation; NAFTA; National Treatment; Environment; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; K3; Q58; F21.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7195
Registros recuperados: 29
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