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Registros recuperados: 6
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Agricultural Distortion Patterns Since the 1950s: What Needs Explaining? AgEcon
Anderson, Kym; Croser, Johanna L.; Sandri, Damiano; Valenzuela, Ernesto.
This paper summarizes a new database that sheds light on the impact of trade-related policy developments over the past half century on distortions to agricultural incentives and thus also to consumer prices for food in 75 countries spanning the per capita income spectrum. Price-support policies of advanced economies hurt not only domestic consumers and exporters of other products but also foreign producers and traders of farm products, and they reduce national and global economic welfare. On the other hand, the governments of many developing countries have directly taxed their farmers over the past half-century, both directly (e.g., export taxes) and also indirectly via overvaluing their currency and restricting imports of manufactures. Thus the price...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Political economy; Agricultural price and trade policies; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; F59; H20; N50; O13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50305
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DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATION PROCESSES WITHIN THE SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION AgEcon
Lan, Czyan.
Trade and investment cooperation is one of important direction within the Shanghai Organization of Cooperation reveal. The special attention is given a interests of China in expanding its economic interests in Central Asia. The paper describes the potential for further trade and investment involvement of China to cooperation with other parties of the international organization.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Regional integration; Trade cooperation; Central Asia; China; International Development; International Relations/Trade; F15; F59.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94548
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Distribution of Agricultural NRAs across Countries and Products, 1955-84 and 1985-2007 AgEcon
Anderson, Kym; Croser, Johanna L..
The global database developed as an integral part of the World Bank's research project on Distortions to Agricultural Incentives, which is publicly available at www.worldbank.org/agdistortions, provides around 30,000 estimates of nominal rates of assistance to agricultural industries (NRAs) and associated consumer tax equivalents for 75 countries that together account for between 90 and 95 percent of the world’s population, farmers, agricultural output and total GDP. They also account for more than 85 percent of farm production and employment in each of Africa, Asia, Latin America and the transition economies of Europe and Central Asia as well as all OECD countries. More than 70 products are included (an average of 11 per country), which represents around...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural price and trade policies; Nominal rates of assistance; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; F59; H20; N50; O13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50307
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Political Economy of Distortions to Agricultural Incentives: Introduction and Summary AgEcon
Anderson, Kym.
During the 1960s and 1970s most developing countries imposed anti-agricultural policies, while many high-income countries restricted agricultural imports and subsidized their farmers. Both sets of policies inhibited economic growth and poverty alleviation in developing countries, while doing little to assist small farmers in high-income countries. Since the 1980s, however, many developing countries began to reduce the anti-agricultural bias of sectoral policies, and from the early 1990s the European Union began to move away from price supports to more-direct forms of farm income payments. This paper summarizes a forthcoming book that seeks to explain this evolving pattern of distortions to incentives conceptually and econometrically by making use of new...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Political economy; Agricultural price and trade policies; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; F59; H20; N50; O13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50306
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Sensitive Product Treatment in Agricultural Trade Negotiations AgEcon
Durand-Morat, Alvaro; Wailes, Eric J.; Sharp, Misti.
The fact that trade, and especially agricultural trade, remains far from free is puzzling, since the superiority of free trade receives overwhelming support among economists (Gawande and Krishna, 2003; Rodrik, 1994). International trade scholars have devoted significant resources to forecasting the impact of trade policy reforms (for a survey of these studies see Congressional Budget Office, 2005), and their findings are relevant inputs for officials negotiating a trade agreement as well as for politicians in charge of ratifying it. The perceived gains and losses attached to different outcomes have been identified as a significant factor shifting the outcome of a trade agreement negotiation (McMillan, 1990). Less well-known are the factors that would...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade negotiations; Agricultural trade; Free trade agreements; Political economy; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; F59; Q17.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103835
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Violence, Political Instability, and International Trade: Evidence from Kenya’s Cut Flower Sector AgEcon
Muhammad, Andrew; D'Souza, Anna; Amponsah, William A..
Abstract: We assess whether and how violence and political instability affect trade between developed and developing countries considering the special case of EU imports of Kenyan roses after the 2007/08 post-election violence and political instability in Kenya. Using the Rotterdam model to estimate EU demand for roses from Kenya and other global competitors, we find evidence of a structural change in the import growth rate for Kenya, approximately equivalent to an 18.6% tariff. These results highlight the importance of non-tariff barriers to trade and contribute to the growing literature on the role of insecurity and instability in hindering international trade.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Kenya; Africa; EU; Election violence; Cut flowers; Roses; Imports; International trade; Demand and Price Analysis; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; F14; F23; F59; O13; Q17.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118374
Registros recuperados: 6
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