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Registros recuperados: 15
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A joint electromagnetic and seismic study of an active pockmark within the hydrate stability field at the Vestnesa Ridge, West Svalbard margin ArchiMer
Goswami, Bedanta K.; Weitemeyer, Karen A.; Minshull, Timothy A.; Sinha, Martin C.; Westbrook, Graham; Chabert, Anne; Henstock, Timothy J.; Ker, Stephan.
We acquired coincident marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM), high-resolution seismic reflection and ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) data over an active pockmark in the crest of the southern part of the Vestnesa Ridge, to estimate fluid composition within an underlying fluid-migration chimney. Synthetic model studies suggest resistivity obtained from CSEM data can resolve gas or hydrate saturation greater than 5% within the chimney. Acoustic chimneys imaged by seismic reflection data beneath the pockmark and on the ridge flanks, were found to be associated with high-resistivity anomalies (+2-4 m). High-velocity anomalies (+0.3 km/s), within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) and low-velocity anomalies (-0.2 km/s) underlying the GHSZ, were also...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Gas hydrate; Svalbard; CSEM; Saturation; Pockmark; Vestnesa.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00283/39458/37928.pdf
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Anomalously deep BSR related to a transient state of the gas hydrate system in the western Black Sea ArchiMer
Ker, Stephan; Thomas, Yannick; Riboulot, Vincent; Sultan, Nabil; Bernard, Céline; Scalabrin, Carla; Ion, G; Marsset, Bruno.
A comprehensive characterization of the gas hydrate system offshore the western Black Sea was performed through an integrated analysis of geophysical data. We detected the Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR), which marks, in this area, the base of gas hydrate stability. The observed BSR depth does not fit the theoretical steady-state base of gas hydrate stability zone (BGHSZ). We show that the disparity between the BSR and predicted BGHSZ is the result of a transient state of the hydrate system due to the ongoing re-equilibrium since the Last Glacial Maximum. When gas hydrates are brought outside the stability zone due to changes in temperature and sea level, their dissociation generates an increase in interstitial pore pressure. This process is favorable to...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Gas hydrate; BSR; Excess pore pressure; Black Sea.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00474/58531/61081.pdf
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Authigenic carbonates from methane seeps of the Congo deep-sea fan ArchiMer
Pierre, Catherine; Fouquet, Yves.
Submersible investigations with the ROV Victor 6000 of some pockmark structures on the seafloor of the Congo deep-sea fan have shown that they are active venting sites of methane-rich fluids, associated with abundant fauna and carbonate crusts. Moreover, methane hydrates have been observed both outcropping and deep in the sediments in the centre of the "Regab" giant pockmark. Authigenic carbonates, mostly calcite sometimes mixed with aragonite, are cementing the sedimentary matrix components and fauna; diatoms are abundant but only as moulds, indicating that biogenic silica dissolution occurred in situ synchronous with carbonate precipitation. The occurrence of diagenetic barite and pyrite in some carbonate crusts demonstrates that they can be formed...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Oxygen isotopes; Carbon isotopes; Congo deep sea fan; Gas hydrate; Methane seep; Authigenic carbonate.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-2608.pdf
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Biogeochemistry and community composition of iron- and sulfur-precipitating microbial mats at the Chefren mud volcano (Nile Deep Sea fan, Eastern Mediterranean) ArchiMer
Omoregie, E; Mastalerz, V; De Lange, G; Straub, K; Kappler, A; Roy, H; Stadnitskaia, A; Foucher, Jean-paul; Boetius, A.
In this study we determined the composition and biogeochemistry of novel, brightly colored, white and orange microbial mats at the surface of a brine seep at the outer rim of the Chefren mud volcano. These mats were interspersed with one another, but their underlying sediment biogeochemistries differed considerably. Microscopy revealed that the white mats were granules composed of elemental S filaments, similar to those produced by the sulfide-oxidizing epsilonproteobacterium "Candidatus Arcobacter sulfidicus." Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that microorganisms targeted by a "Ca. Arcobacter sulfidicus"-specific oligonucleotide probe constituted up to 24% of the total the cells within these mats. Several 16S rRNA gene sequences from organisms...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Gulf of mexico; Sulfate reducing bacteria; Egyptian continental margin; Northeast pacific ocean; Ribosomal rna sequences; In situ hybridization; Anaerobic oxidation; Marine sediments; Gas hydrate; Oxiding bacteria.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-6201.pdf
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Caractérisation physique et géochimique d'hydrates de gaz d'environnements géologiques différents. Apport des techniques de Diffraction X Synchrotron et de Spectroscopie Raman. Contribution à l'étude de leur origine, formation et stabilité sur les marges ArchiMer
Bourry, Christophe.
Clathrate hydrates are inclusion compounds consisting of an ice-like network of water cages surrounding occluded guest molecules. They occur beneath the oceans and in polar regions, where low temperature and high pressure conditions prevail. Natural gas hydrates, mainly composed of methane occur worldwide and may contain huge natural gas amount, but they can also play an important role in continental slope stability or climate change, due to the potentially enormous "greenhouse" feedback effect of methane. The knowledge of their occurrence in the natural environment, their physical, chemical or thermodynamical properties is essential to prevent geohazards, to anticipate their role in climate change or to develop technologies to take advantage of this...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: X Ray synchrotron diffraction; Raman spectroscopy; Geochemistry; Gas hydrate; Eau interstitielle; Diffraction X synchrotron; Spectroscopie Raman; Géochimie; Hydrate de gaz.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/these-6236.pdf
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Detection of free gas and gas hydrate based on 3D seismic data and cone penetration testing: An example from the Nigerian Continental Slope ArchiMer
Sultan, Nabil; Voisset, Michel; Marsset, Tania; Vernant, Antoine-mathieu; Cauquil, E; Colliat, J; Curinier, V.
We present a new method to characterize free gas, gas hydrates and carbonate concretions occurrence which are considered as high-risk factors for sub-sea developments in the Niger delta. This method is based on the combination of 3D seismic data to the geotechnical site characterizations using piezocone CPTU tests (Cone Penetration Test with additional measurement of the pore water pressure). A special processing of the 3D seismic data has enabled the determination of the interval compressional velocity. Using the effective-medium theory, velocity anomalies (negative and positive) within the first 15 m were translated in gas hydrate and free gas distribution. The calibration of the P wave velocity anomalies was done thanks to in-situ geotechnical testing...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Piezocone; Niger delta; Gas hydrate; Free gas; Effective medium theory.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-2610.pdf
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Dynamics of gas hydrate: case of the Congo continental slope ArchiMer
Sultan, Nabil; Foucher, Jean-paul; Cochonat, Pierre; Tonnerre, T; Bourillet, Jean-francois; Ondreas, Helene; Cauquil, E; Grauls, D.
A numerical model is developed to study the temperature effect on stability and phase transformation of gas-hydrate. The model uses a mathematical formulation based on the enthalpy form of the conservation law of energy. The use of the enthalpy form instead of the temperature form as often done in the literature has made the problem numerically simpler. The model is then applied to describe the effect of sea bottom temperature variations on the stability of gas hydrate occurrences and on the seafloor reflectivity in sediments of the Congo continental slope. Indeed, a migrating seafloor reflectivity front is observed on 3D seimic images from two surveys performed 6 months apart and interpreted as a migrating gas hydrate stability zone. Seawater temperature...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Temperature; Stefan problem; Seafloor reflectivity; Gas hydrate; Heat flow; Finite difference; Continental margins.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2004/publication-702.pdf
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Empirical expressions for gas hydrate stability law, its volume fraction and mass-density at temperatures 273.15 K to 290.15 K ArchiMer
Lu, Zhengquan; Sultan, Nabil.
A series of empirical expressions for predicting gas hydrate stability, its volume fraction out of pore space and gas hydrate mass-density were established in different systems in consideration of gas composition (CH4, C2H6, H2S) and salinity (NaCl, seawater), and pore size at temperature between 273.15 and 300 K, based on our gas hydrate thermodynamic model (Sultan et al., 2004b, c). Six of the developed expressions for predicting gas hydrate stability were validated against the available published experimental data and they were also compared with other models. At temperature 273.15 to 290.15 K, the ARDPs (Average Relative Deviation of Pressures between the prediction and the experimental data) have shown that these empirical expressions are in agreement...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Empirical expressions; Mass density; Fraction out of pore space; Stability law; Gas hydrate.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-4958.pdf
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Etude de la dynamique des pockmarks associés à la présence d'hydrates de gaz : enseignements généraux à partir de deux cas d'école situés sur la marge africaine ArchiMer
De Prunele, Alexis.
The present work describes the dynamics of two pockmark areas, off West Africa. The intention is to propose two different approaches to study the relationships between fluid migration and pockmarks. The first investigated area corresponds to a pockmark cluster called Preowei, located off Nigeria. Geochemical analyses and modeling were combined with seismic data to detail the hydrocarbon migration pattern at this area, with implication on both the pockmark formation and the evolution of their morphology. The proposed interpretation seeks to identify the conceptual bases of pockmark evolution over time at this area. It is argued that the cluster has been active for at least 2700 years, and it is still at the stage of hydrate formation for some pockmarks and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Hydrate de gaz; Marge africaine; Hydrates; Gas hydrate; Pockmark; African margin; Hydrate.
Ano: 2015 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00498/60936/64329.pdf
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Free gas and gas hydrates from the Sea of Marmara, Turkey Chemical and structural characterization ArchiMer
Bourry, Christophe; Chazallon, Bertrand; Charlou, Jean-luc; Donval, Jean-pierre; Ruffine, Livio; Henry, Pierre; Geli, Louis; Cagatay, M. Namik; Inan, Sedat; Moreau, Myriam.
Gas hydrates and gas bubbles were collected during the MARNAUT cruise (May-June 2007) in the Sea of Marmara along the North Anatolian Fault system, Turkey. Gas hydrates were sampled in the western part of the Sea of Marmara (on the Western High), and three gas-bubble samples were recovered on the Western High, the Central High (center part of the Sea of Marmara) and in the Cinarcik Basin (eastern part of the Sea of Marmara). Methane is the major component of hydrates (66.1%), but heavier gases such as C-2, C-3, and i-C-4 are also present in relatively high concentration. The methane contained within gas hydrate is clearly thermogenic as evidenced by a low C-1/C-2 + C-3 ratio of 3.3, and carbon and hydrogen isotopic data (delta C-13(CH4) of -44.1 parts per...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Isotopes; Thermogenic gas; Gas bubbles; Gas hydrate; Sea of Marmara.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/publication-6844.pdf
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Gas hydrate distributions in sediments of pockmarks from the Nigerian Margin - Results and interpretation from shallow drilling ArchiMer
Wei, Jiangong; Pape, Thomas; Sultan, Nabil; Colliat, Jean-louis; Himmler, Tobias; Ruffine, Livio; De Prunele, Alexis; Dennielou, Bernard; Garziglia, Sebastien; Marsset, Tania; Peters, Carl A.; Rabiu, Abdulkarim; Bohrmann, Gerhard.
A joint research expedition between the French IFREMER and the German MARUM was conducted in 2011 using the R/V Pourquoi pas? to study gas hydrate distributions in a pockmark field (1141 – 1199 meters below sea surface) at the continental margin of Nigeria. The sea floor drill rig MeBo of MARUM was used to recover sediments as deep as 56.74 meters below seafloor. The presence of gas hydrates in specific core sections was deduced from temperature anomalies recorded during continuous records of infrared thermal scanning and anomalies in pore water chloride concentrations. In situ sediment temperature measurements showed elevated geothermal gradients of up to 258 °C/km in the center of the so-called pockmark A which is up to 4.6 times higher than that in the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Gas hydrate; Pockmark; Chloride profile; Infrared thermal imaging; Fluid flow; Nigerian continental margin; MeBo drill rig.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00213/32382/30846.pdf
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Gas migration pathways and slope failures in the Danube Fan, Black Sea ArchiMer
Hillman, Jess I. T.; Klaucke, Ingo; Bialas, Joerg; Feldman, Howard; Drexler, Tina; Awwiller, David; Atgin, Orhan; Cifci, Gunay; Badhani, Shray.
A large geophysical dataset, including bathymetry, and 2D and 3D P-cable seismic data, revealed evidence of numerous gas flares near the S2 Canyon in the Danube Fan, northwestern Black Sea. This dataset allows us to investigate potential relationships between gas migration pathways, gas vents observed at the seafloor and submarine slope failures. Vertical gas migration structures as revealed in the seismics appear to be concentrated near submarine slope failure structures. Where these seismically defined features extend upwards to the seafloor, they correlate with the location of gas flares. However, not all these structures reach the seafloor, in some cases because they are capped by overlying sediments. A strong correlation is inferred between gas...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Gas migration; Chimneys; Gas hydrate; Danube Fan; Slope failure; Black Sea.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00439/55013/57803.pdf
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Methane in shallow subsurface sediments at the landward limit of the gas hydrate stability zone offshore Western Svalbard ArchiMer
Graves, Carolyn A.; James, Rachael H.; Sapart, Celia Julia; Stott, Andrew W.; Wright, Ian C.; Berndt, Christian; Westbrook, Graham; Connelly, Douglas P..
Offshore western Svalbard plumes of gas bubbles rise from the seafloor at the landward limit of the gas hydrate stability zone (LLGHSZ; ∼400 m water depth). It is hypothesized that this methane may, in part, come from dissociation of gas hydrate in the underlying sediments in response to recent warming of ocean bottom waters. To evaluate the potential role of gas hydrate in the supply of methane to the shallow subsurface sediments, and the role of anaerobic oxidation in regulating methane fluxes across the sediment-seawater interface, we have characterised the chemical and isotopic compositions of the gases and sediment pore waters. The molecular and isotopic signatures of gas in the bubble plumes (C1/C2+ = 1 × 104; δ13C-CH4 = -55 to -51 ‰; δD-CH4 = -187...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Methane; Seafloor sediments; Gas hydrate; Offshore Svalbard; Seabed fluxes; Anaerobic oxidation.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00358/46914/46819.pdf
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Modeling on gas hydrate formation conditions in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau permafrost ArchiMer
Lu, Zhen Quan; Sultan, Nabil; Jin, Chun Shuang; Rao, Zhu; Luo, Xu Rong; Wu, Bi Hao; Zhu, You Hai.
Based on field investigated gas geochemistry and predecessors' data such as the permafrost ground temperature, thermal gradients within/below the frozen layer, the modeling on gas hydrate formation conditions is conducted in the Qinghai Tibet plateau permafrost. The modeled results show that the permafrost characteristics generally meet gas hydrate formation conditions in the study area. Gas composition, temperature-related permafrost parameters (e. g. permafrost thickness or its ground temperature and thermal gradients within / below the frozen layer) are the most important factors affecting gas hydrate occurrences, whose variance may cause the heterogeneity of gas hydrate occurrences in the study area. The most probable gas hydrate is the kind of hybrid...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Qinghai Tibet plateau; Modeling; Formation conditions; Gas hydrate; Permafrost.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/publication-6230.pdf
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Phase Equilibria of the CH4-CO2 Binary and the CH4-CO2-H2O Ternary Mixtures in the Presence of a CO2-Rich Liquid Phase ArchiMer
Legoix, Ludovic; Ruffine, Livio; Donval, Jean-pierre; Haeckel, Matthias.
The knowledge of the phase behavior of carbon dioxide (CO2)-rich mixtures is a key factor to understand the chemistry and migration of natural volcanic CO2 seeps in the marine environment, as well as to develop engineering processes for CO2 sequestration coupled to methane (CH4) production from gas hydrate deposits. In both cases, it is important to gain insights into the interactions of the CO2-rich phase—liquid or gas—with the aqueous medium (H2O) in the pore space below the seafloor or in the ocean. Thus, the CH4-CO2 binary and CH4-CO2-H2O ternary mixtures were investigated at relevant pressure and temperature conditions. The solubility of CH4 in liquid CO2 (vapor-liquid equilibrium) was determined in laboratory experiments and then modelled with the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Gas hydrate; CH4; CO2-rich mixtures; Phase equilibria; Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) cubic equation of state (EoS).
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00414/52538/53349.pdf
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