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Changements adaptatifs induits par la pêche chez les populations halieutiques ArchiMer
Marty, Lise.
Fishing is an important source of mortality in harvested populations and therefore may induce adaptive responses. These responses affect life-history traits in particular, which have consequences for stocks’ dynamics, and thus can alter the demographic direct effect of fishing (i.e. the reduction in stock’s biomass). Fishing-induced adaptive changes depend, non-exclusively, on two processes: evolution and phenotypic plasticity. These two components are observed at the phenotypic level because functional genes coding for the traits undergoing adaptive changes have not yet been identified. These two origins are confounded in individual phenotypes, and the impact of adaptive changes in the long run remains therefore unclear: evolutionary changes are expected...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: : Pêche; Évolution adaptative; Plasticité phénotypique; Norme de réaction; Dérive génétique; Érosion génétique; Age et taille à maturation; Croissance; Survie; Trade-offs; Densité-dépendance; Gadidées de mer du nord; Fishing; Adaptive evolution; Phenotypic plasticity; Reaction norm; Genetic drift; Genetic erosion; Age and size at maturation; Growth; Survival; Trade-offs; Density-dependence; North sea Gadoids.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00079/19013/16591.pdf
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Diversidade genética da soja entre períodos e entre programas de melhoramento no Brasil. Repositório Alice
PRIOLLI, R.H.G.; MENDES-JUNIOR, C.T.; SOUSA, S.M.B.; SOUSA, N.E.A.; CONTEL, E.P.B..
O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar os efeitos do melhoramento sobre a diversidade do germoplasma da soja cultivada nas três ultimas décadas, por meio da comparação de seis programas de melhoramento e períodos de lançamento de cultivares, utilizando locos microssatélites. Em relação aos programas de melhoramento, todos os locos apresentaram diferenças significativas em suas distribuições alélicas. Alguns locos eram compostos de alelos exclusivos em alguns programas de melhoramento, enquanto outros foram compostos sempre dos mesmos alelos em maior freqüência para todos os programas. A AMOVA indicou maior porção da variância devido a cultivares dentro de programas e somente 5,3% (p<0,05) devido à diferença entre programas. Quando comparados os...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Glycine max; SSR; Germoplasma; Erosão genética; Germplasm; Genetic erosion.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/112539
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First collection of landrace vegetable crops cultivated in Valle Fértil, Argentina Agriscientia (Córdoba)
Asprelli,P.D.; Lorello,I.M.; Occhiuto,P.N.; Togno,L.S.; Makuch,M.A.; García Lampasona,S.C.; Peralta,I.E..
The richness of the cultural values found in the Argentinean Andean communities is integrated by a varied diversity of genetic resources, the development of a sustainable agriculture, and the conservation of the producer's own seeds. Local agriculture is a family economic activity, in which traditional varieties of vegetable landraces are highly appreciated for their flavour, colour and aromas. However; social, economic and environmental factors have an effect on crop diversity conservation. The main aim of this work was to retrieve and maintain a representative collection of traditional crop genetic resources still cultivated in the District of Valle Fértil, San Juan Province, Argentina, and to document the farmers' crop experiences and uses. Fifty...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Vegetable landraces; Agricultural biodiversity; Genetic erosion; Germplasm conservation.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-298X2012000100005
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Fisheries-induced neutral and adaptive evolution in exploited fish populations and consequences for their adaptive potential ArchiMer
Marty, Lise; Dieckmann, Ulf; Ernande, Bruno.
Fishing may induce neutral and adaptive evolution affecting life-history traits, and molecular evidence has shown that neutral genetic diversity has declined in some exploited populations. Here we theoretically study the interplay between neutral and adaptive evolution caused by fishing. An individual-based eco-genetic model is devised that includes neutral and functional loci in a realistic ecological setting. In line with theoretical expectations, we find that fishing induces evolution towards slow growth, early maturation at small size, and higher reproductive investment. We show, first, that the choice of genetic model (based on either quantitative genetics or gametic inheritance) influences the evolutionary recovery of traits after fishing ceases....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Eco-genetic model; Effective population size; Fisheries-induced evolution; Genetic drift; Genetic erosion; Genetic markers; Life-history traits; Natural selection and contemporary evolution.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00228/33964/33473.pdf
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Plant Genetic Resources: Selected Issues from Genetic Erosion to Genetic Engineering JARTS
Hammer, Karl; Teklu, Yifru.
Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) continue to play an important role in the development of agriculture. The following aspects receive a special consideration: 1. Definition. The term was coined in 1970. The genepool concept served as an important tool in the further development. Different approaches are discussed. 2. Values of Genetic Resources. A short introduction is highlighting this problem and stressing the economic usfulness of PGR. 3. Genetic Erosion. Already observed by E. Baur in 1914, this is now a key issue within PGR. The case studies cited include Ethiopia, Italy, China, S Korea, Greece and S. Africa. Modern approaches concentrate on allelic changes in varieties over time but neglect the landraces. The causes and consequences of genetic erosion...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Ecology Evolution Behaviour and Systematics; Plant Science; Agronomy and Crop Science Plant Genetic Resources (PGR); Crop plants; Genetic erosion; Genetic resources conservation; GMO.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.jarts.info/index.php/jarts/article/view/72
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Risk of genetic vulnerability and aspects of the reproductive biology of Psychotria ipecacuanha (Rubiaceae), a threatened medicinal plant species of Brazilian forests Acta Botanica
Silva,Patrícia Campos da; Nascimento,Talita Oliveira; Krause,Willian; Chaves,Douglas Siqueira de Almeida; Silva,Celice Alexandre.
ABSTRACT Psychotria ipecacuanha, commonly known as Ipeca, is a medicinal plant of pharmacological and economic value. The species is distylous; it has populations with two floral morphs, one with long and one with short styles. Apart from the presence of two floral morphs in a balanced ratio (1:1), reciprocal herkogamy of the reproductive organs between alternative morphs is desirable to maintain cross-pollination. The risk factors for genetic erosion and conditions for sexual reproduction in natural populations of P. ipecacuanha were investigated. The main risks for genetic erosion in four populations studied were: habitat change in the forest fragment where they occurred and in the surrounding area over the last 20 years; proximity to agricultural areas;...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Distyly; Floral morphs; Genetic erosion; Ipeca; Reciprocal herkogamy.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-33062019000300548
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The genetics and conservation of Araucaria angustifolia: I. Genetic structure and diversity of natural populations by means of non-adaptive variation in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil Genet. Mol. Biol.
Auler,Neiva Maria Frizon; Reis,Maurício Sedrez dos; Guerra,Miguel Pedro; Nodari,Rubens Onofre.
The objective of this study was to generate information relative to the allele distribution and dynamics within and among populations of Araucaria angustifolia, a naturally-occurring conifer in the south of Brazil, being known popularly as "pinheiro-do-Paraná", "araucaria" or pine tree. In order to elucidate the levels and the distribution of the genetic variability, the population's genetic structure and the genetic distance among natural populations of this species with different levels of disturbance in different geographical areas were studied in detail. For this, samples of leaf tissue were collected from 328 adult individuals in nine natural populations in Santa Catarina State. To analyze the samples, the allozyme technique was applied in starch gel...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Pinheiro; Forest degradation; Genetic diversity; Genetic erosion.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572002000300014
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