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Registros recuperados: 35
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Aligning Key Concepts for Global Change Policy: Robustness, Resilience, and Sustainability Ecology and Society
Anderies, John M; Arizona State University; m.anderies@asu.edu; Folke, Carl; Beijer Institute for Ecological Economics; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University; carl.folke@beijer.kva.se; Walker, Brian; CSIRO Ecosystem Science; Brian.Walker@csiro.au; Ostrom, Elinor; Indiana University; ostrom@indiana.edu.
Globalization, the process by which local social-ecological systems (SESs) are becoming linked in a global network, presents policy scientists and practitioners with unique and difficult challenges. Although local SESs can be extremely complex, when they become more tightly linked in the global system, complexity increases very rapidly as multi-scale and multi-level processes become more important. Here, we argue that addressing these multi-scale and multi-level challenges requires a collection of theories and models. We suggest that the conceptual domains of sustainability, resilience, and robustness provide a sufficiently rich collection of theories and models, but overlapping definitions and confusion about how these conceptual domains articulate with...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Fragility; Global change; Governance; Institutions; Resilience; Robustness; Sustainability.
Ano: 2013
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An overview of the 2017 report of the French academy of Sciences on biodiversity Anais da ABC (AABC)
LAVOREL,SANDRA; LEBRETON,JEAN-DOMINIQUE; MAHO,YVON LE.
Abstract: In the present context of concerns for biodiversity, the French Academy of Sciences produced in 2017 a report entitled “Mechanisms of adaptation of biodiversity to climate change and their limits”. We briefly review here the production process and structure of the report, and summarize its conclusions and recommendations. The conclusions emphasize the role of habitat fragmentation in the expected impact of climate change on biodiversity, in particular for organisms with limited dispersal abilities, and the disparities in species responses which must be taken to understand the future of species assemblages (“communities”) under different scenarios of climate change. The recommendations cover the organization of biodiversity research and monitoring...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Biodiversity; Climate change; Global change; Adaptation.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652019000600612
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An Overview of the Implications of Global Change for Natural and Managed Terrestrial Ecosystems Ecology and Society
Walker, Brian; CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems; Brian.Walker@csiro.au; Steffen, Will; ; Will.Steffen@dwe.csiro.au.
Global change is the net effect of individual and interactive effects of changes in land use, atmospheric composition, biological diversity, and climate. A synthesis of the past six years' activities of the Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems project of the IGBP (International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme) deals with global change effects as ecosystem responses and living with global change. Ecosystem responses are considered in terms of changes in function and vegetation composition/structure. Field experiments of elevated CO2 effects on aboveground biomass show, on average, a positive effect on biomass, ranging from -20% to +80%. Some early predictions of CO2 effects (C3 vs. C4 plants, N-fixers, C:N in litter) are not generally supported, and it...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Biomes; Carbon dioxide; Climate; Dynamics; Ecosystem functioning; Global change; Impacts; Land use; Terrestrial biosphere; Vegetation changes..
Ano: 1997
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Book of abstracts of the IUFRO landscape ecology working group international conference: forest landscapes and global change: new frontiers in management, conservation and restoration IPB - Escola Superior Agrária
Azevedo, João (Ed.); Feliciano, Manuel (Ed.); Castro, José (Ed.); Pinto, M. Alice (Ed.).
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Landscape ecology; Forestry; Global change; Portugal.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10198/2695
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Carbon sequestration in the rain forest: alternatives using environmentally friendly biotechnology Biota Neotropica
Buckeridge,Marcos S.; Aidar,Marcos P.M..
As carbon dioxide increases on Earth atmosphere, the rise in average temperatures may provoke changes in the environment that could damage civilisation as we know it. As a result, the need to sequester carbon becomes urgent, and one of the options we have is to use the potential of the forests to do it by enhancing assimilation of CO2 through photosynthesis. However, if we consider the use of plants to increase carbon sequestration, a problem that looms is that species often acclimate and actually reduce CO2 assimilation through feedback mechanisms of the sugars that are the product. In the present article, we propose that some biochemical pathways, such as those in control of photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and assimilation, and cellulose and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Global change; Carbon Sequestration; Photosynthesis; Rain Forest; Sugar Sensing; Cellulose synthesis; Gene therapy.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1676-06032002000100002
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Climate and land-use changes effects on the distribution of a regional endemism: Melanophryniscus sanmartini (Amphibia, Bufonidae) Iheringia, Sér. Zool.
Rosenstock,Nicole; Toranza,Carolina; Brazeiro,Alejandro.
ABSTRACT Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrate group according to the IUCN. Land-use and land cover change (LULCC) and climate change (CC) are two of the main factors related to declining amphibian populations. Given the vulnerability of threatened and rare species, the study of their response to these impacts is a conservation priority. The aim of this work was to analyze the combined impact of LULCC and CC on the regionally endemic species Melanophryniscus sanmartini Klappenbach, 1968. This species is currently categorized as near threatened by the IUCN, and previous studies suggest negative effects of projected changes in climate. Using maximum entropy methods we modeled the effects of CC on the current and mid-century distribution of M....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Species distribution modeling; Global change; Conservation; Threatened species.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0073-47212015000200209
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CO2 and N2O emissions from an Andisol in Chile under a no-till system using non-fixed closed chambers Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Muñoz,Cristina; Paulino,Leandro; Vera,Jenniffer; Zagal,Erick.
Chile has different types of soil and climate conditions that favor a wide range of agricultural activities that can generate potential atmospheric contamination like greenhouse gases (GHG). Nevertheless, the contribution of agricultural soils to atmospheric emissions has yet to be measured in Chile. The aim of this study was to assess seasonal variability of CO2 and N2O effluxes in situ from a volcanic ash-derived soil under different agronomic management practices. Gas samples were obtained from headspaces of non-fixed closed chambers in an annual crop rotation under a no-till system in an Andisol in southern Chile (36° S). Two N-sources (NH4+ and NO3-) and ammonium fertilization plus two lime doses (0.5 and 1 Mg ha-1) were considered for soil treatments...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Greenhouse gases; Agriculture; Nitrogen; Global change; Air pollution.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392011000200013
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Colonization by mites of glacier-free areas in King George Island, Antarctica. Repositório Alice
GRYZIAK, G..
Abstract ? This work aimed to investigate the ratio of colonization by terrestrial mites on ice-free areas created by the ongoing climate-induced melting of Antarctic glaciers. Glacier retreat opens new ice-free areas for the colonization by vegetation and animals. The study was undertaken on the Antarctic Specially Protected Area no. 128 (West Coast of the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, South Shetlands Islands). Transects marked between the Ecology, Baranowski and Windy Glaciers, and a sea shore were used to collect soil samples. Oribatid mites were found only on near-shore areas, on patches of vegetation of more than 30 years of age. The colonization by mite communities is strongly determined by the presence of plants.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Global change; Glacier melting; Oribatid mites.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/660603
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Colonization by mites of glacier-free areas in King George Island, Antarctica PAB
Gryziak,Grzegorz.
This work aimed to investigate the ratio of colonization by terrestrial mites on ice-free areas created by the ongoing climate-induced melting of Antarctic glaciers. Glacier retreat opens new ice-free areas for the colonization by vegetation and animals. The study was undertaken on the Antarctic Specially Protected Area no. 128 (West Coast of the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, South Shetlands Islands). Transects marked between the Ecology, Baranowski and Windy Glaciers, and a sea shore were used to collect soil samples. Oribatid mites were found only on near-shore areas, on patches of vegetation of more than 30 years of age. The colonization by mite communities is strongly determined by the presence of plants.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Oribatid mites; Global change; Glacier melting.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-204X2009000800013
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Constructing Consistent Multiscale Scenarios by Transdisciplinary Processes: the Case of Mountain Regions Facing Global Change Ecology and Society
Brand, Fridolin Simon; Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich; fridolin.brand@env.ethz.ch; Seidl, Roman; Natural and Social Science Interface; Institute for Environmental Decisions; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich; roman.seidl@env.ethz.ch; Le, Quang Bao; Natural and Social Science Interface; Institute for Environmental Decisions; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich; quang.le@env.ethz.ch; Scholz, Roland Werner; Natural and Social Science Interface; Institute for Environmental Decisions; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich; roland.scholz@env.ethz.ch.
Alpine regions in Europe, in particular, face demanding local challenges, e.g., the decline in the agriculture and timber industries, and are also prone to global changes, such as in climate, with potentially severe impacts on tourism. We focus on the Visp region in the Upper Valais, Switzerland, and ask how the process of stakeholder involvement in research practice can contribute to a better understanding of the specific challenges and future development of mountainous regions under global change. Based on a coupled human-environment system (HES) perspective, we carried out a formative scenario analysis to develop a set of scenarios for the future directions of the Visp region. In addition, we linked these regional scenarios to context scenarios...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Global change; Human-environment systems; Mountain regions; Scenario analysis; Sustainability science; Switzerland; Transdisciplinarity.
Ano: 2013
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Crop Production Functions for Analysis of Global Change Impacts in Spain AgEcon
Gomez, Sonia Quiroga; Iglesias, Ana.
The goal of this paper is to increase the capacity of the agriculture sector to understand and respond to the climate variability, by reducing the uncertainty of the farmers over decisions that are affected for meteorological conditions. To study the yield responses to meteorological variables in the past is crucial to understand the vulnerability of the agriculture to the climate change in the future. We have estimated regression models where the historical yields have been put in dependence of variables that can represent main drivers of global change, such as climate variables and technological ones. In this context we evaluate its influence over the yields. Among the conclusions we find that the adaptation to climate change requires challenges in which...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Spanish agriculture; Climate; Global change; Crop Production/Industries; C50; C52; Q10.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24565
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Developing a Scientific Basis for Managing Earth's Life Support Systems Ecology and Society
Daily, Gretchen C; Stanford University; gdaily@leland.stanford.edu.
Here, I review the motivation and science behind efforts to characterize and manage ecosystems as capital assets. I then describe some recent work to evaluate the potential for sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem services in human-dominated landscapes.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Biodiversity conservation; Countryside biogeography; Ecological economics; Ecosystem Services Framework; Global change; Interdisciplinary collaboration.
Ano: 1999
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From bottom landers to observatory networks ArchiMer
Person, Roland; Aoustin, Yannick; Blandin, Jerome; Marvaldi, Jean; Rolin, Jean-francois.
For a long time, deep-sea investigation relied on autonomous bottom landers. Landers call vary in size from 200 kg weight to more than 2 t for the heaviest scientific landers and are used during exploration cruises oil medium periods, from one week to some months. Today, new requirements appear. Scientists want to understand in detail the phenomena outlined during exploration cruises, to elaborate a model for future forecasting. For this, it is necessary to deploy instrumentation at a precise location often for a long period. A new mode of ocean science investigation Using long-term seafloor observatories to obtain four dimensional data sets has appeared. Although this concept has been proposed for many years, the high level of investment required limits...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Environment; Seismology; Global change; Multidisciplinary long term observatories; Landers.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2006/publication-3604.pdf
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Global change and climate-driven invasion of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) along European coasts: a bioenergetics modelling approach ArchiMer
Thomas, Yoann; Pouvreau, Stephane; Alunno-bruscia, Marianne; Barille, Laurent; Gohin, Francis; Bryere, Philippe; Gernez, Pierre.
Aim The spread of non-indigenous species in marine ecosystems world-wide is one of today's most serious environmental concerns. Using mechanistic modelling, we investigated how global change relates to the invasion of European coasts by a non-native marine invertebrate, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Location Bourgneuf Bay on the French Atlantic coast was considered as the northern boundary of C. gigas expansion at the time of its introduction to Europe in the 1970s. From this latitudinal reference, variations in the spatial distribution of the C. gigas reproductive niche were analysed along the north-western European coast from Gibraltar to Norway. Methods The effects of environmental variations on C. gigas physiology and phenology were studied...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Biogeographical range expansion; Crassostrea gigas; DEB model; European coasts; Functional traits; Global change; Individual-based model; Invasive species; Remote-sensing.
Ano: 2016 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00287/39828/38459.pdf
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Global change and conservation triage on National Wildlife Refuges Ecology and Society
Johnson, Fred A; U.S. Geological Survey; fjohnson@usgs.gov; Eaton, Mitchell J; U.S. Geological Survey; mitchell.eaton@usgs.gov; McMahon, Gerard; U.S. Geological Survey; gmcmahon@usgs.gov; Nilius, Raye; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; raye_nilius@fws.gov; Bryant, Michael R.; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; mike_bryant@fws.gov; Case, David J.; DJ Case & Associates; dave@djcase.com; Martin, Julien; U.S. Geological Survey; julienmartin@usgs.gov; Wood, Nathan J; U.S. Geological Survey; nwood@usgs.gov; Taylor, Laura; North Carolina State University; lotaylor@ncsu.edu.
National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the United States play an important role in the adaptation of social-ecological systems to climate change, land-use change, and other global-change processes. Coastal refuges are already experiencing threats from sea-level rise and other change processes that are largely beyond their ability to influence, while at the same time facing tighter budgets and reduced staff. We engaged in workshops with NWR managers along the U.S. Atlantic coast to understand the problems they face from global-change processes and began a multidisciplinary collaboration to use decision science to help address them. We are applying a values-focused approach to base management decisions on the resource objectives of land managers, as well as...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Adaptive management; Allocation; Decision analysis; Ecosystem valuation; Global change; National Wildlife Refuge; Objectives; Policy; Portfolio analysis; Reserve design; Stakeholders.
Ano: 2015
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Impact of pCO2 on the energy, reproduction and growth of the shell of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera ArchiMer
Le Moullac, Gilles; Soyez, Claude; Vidal-dupiol, Jeremie; Belliard, Corinne; Fievet, Julie; Sham-koua, Manaarii; Lo-yat, Alain; Saulnier, Denis; Gaertner-mazouni, N.; Gueguen, Yannick.
The possible consequences of acidification on pearl farming are disruption of oyster metabolism and change in growth. In the laboratory, we studied the impact of pCO2 (3540, 1338 and 541μatm) on the physiology of pearl oysters exposed for 100 days. This experiment was repeated after an interval of one year. Several physiological compartments were examined in pearl oysters: the scope for growth by measuring ingestion, assimilation and oxygen consumption, gametogenesis by means of histological observations, shell growth by measurement and observation by optical and electronic microscopy, and at molecular level by measuring the expression of nine genes of mantle cells implied in the biomineralisation process. Results from both experiments showed that high...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Global change; Pearl oyster; Bioenergetic; Biomineralization; Pacific Ocean; French Polynesia.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00321/43189/42737.pdf
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Integrated management of pearl culture in French Polynesia in the context of global change: Synopsis of existing results ArchiMer
Gueguen, Yannick; Gaertner-mazouni, Nabila; Lo, Cedrik; Le Moullac, Gilles.
The paper presents a state of the art on knowledge of the black pearl oyster aquaculture at the scale of French Polynesia. It also introduces the main results obtained throughout the multi-partners POLYPERL project. The goal of this project was to develop an integrated and participative action-research of the pearl oyster culture system, focusing on the environmental, technological, economical and societal dimensions impacting the industry. The research proposed ranges from the understanding of biological phenomena of the production system to socio-economic aspects and governance of the industry, taking into account the management of anthropogenic, climate and health risks. We introduce here the different papers from the POLYPERL project that are compiled...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pearl culture; Global change; French Polynesia; Pinctada margaritifera.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00346/45698/45320.pdf
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La pêche, une activité ancestrale en mutation ArchiMer
Gros, Philippe.
Fisheries and aquaculture provide at least 15% of their animal protein diet to 4.3 billion persons. The rise of aquaculture dates back to the end of the 1980s, when fisheries’ production rate was beginning to decline, sounding the end of its post World War II growth phase. The volume of official landings culminated 25 years ago, without outlook for any further increase. About 60% of fish stocks are currently exploited at the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) level, most of the other ones being overexploited because of the chronic overcapacity of the fleets and of poorly regulated access to fishing. The ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) emerged as paradigm shift in the 1990s, underpinning the renewal of management objectives and governance along with...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Common fishery policy; Ecological footprint; Ecosystem approach to fisheries; Fisheries; Global change; Good ecological status.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00183/29414/27775.pdf
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Long-term changes in coral assemblages under natural and anthropogenic stress in Jakarta Bay (1920–2005) Naturalis
Meij, S.E.T. van der; Suharsono; Hoeksema, B.W..
Coral reefs in Jakarta Bay have been subjected to scientific studies since the 1920s. Also from that time on biological collections were made. The reefs in the Jakarta Bay have been under long-term natural and anthropogenic stress. With the biological collections and historical documents the coral species richness in Jakarta Bay around 1920 was reconstructed. New data from this bay and the adjacent offshore Thousand Islands archipelago were obtained during a 2005 research expedition. A comparison of the coral assemblages between 1920 and 2005 reveals a clear decline in species numbers. The most prominent results include the near-shore disappearance of species belonging to the families Acroporidae, Milleporidae, and to a lesser extent Poritidae. The overall...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Biodiversity change; Global change; Kepulauan Seribu; Reef degradation; Scientific collections; Scleractinia.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/409044
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Observations on Drivers and Dynamics of Environmental Policy Change: Insights from 150 Years of Forest Management in British Columbia Ecology and Society
Hagerman, Shannon M; Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia; University of Washington, Climate Impacts Group; hshannon@interchange.ubc.ca; Dowlatabadi, Hadi; University of British Columbia; Resources for the Future; Carnegie Mellon University; hadi.d@ubc.ca; Satterfield, Terre; University of British Columbia; satterfd@interchange.ubc.ca.
Human and ecological elements of resource management systems co-adapt over time. In this paper, we examine the drivers of change in forest management policy in British Columbia since 1850. We asked: How has a set of system attributes changed over time, and what drivers contributed to change when it occurred? We simultaneously examined a set of three propositions relating to drivers and dynamics of policy change. We find that factors contributing to the level of impacts, like technology, changed substantially over time and had dramatic impacts. In partial contrast, the institutions used to exercise control (patterns of agency and governance) remained the same until relatively recently. Other system attributes remained unchanged (e.g., the concept of...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: British Columbia; Change; Drivers; Forest management; Global change; Historical analysis; Science and policy; Social– Ecological system; Uncertainty.
Ano: 2010
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