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A fitopatologia nos cenários de aquecimento global. Repositório Alice
LOPES, C. A..
O objetivo deste capítulo não é de ser mais uma revisão sobre o tema em patossistemas específicos, e sim de comentar informações sobre assuntos relacionados à epidemiologia e controle de doenças de plantas diante da eventual perspectiva do aquecimento global. O desenvolvimento do tema é organizado, para fins didáticos, nos conceitos da epidemiologia, definida como "qualquer mudança na intensidade da doença, numa população de hospedeiros, no tempo e no espaço" (AMORIM et al., 2011). Dessa maneira, os fatores "patógeno" e "hospedeiro" são influenciados pelo componente "ambiente".
Tipo: Capítulo em livro científico (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Doença de planta; Mudança climática; Climate change; Global warming; Plant diseases and disorders.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1077819
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Agroclimatic zoning for eucalyptus in the state of Paraná and the new scenarios defined by global climate change. Repositório Alice
WREGE, M. S.; CARAMORI, P. H.; FRITZSONS, E.; PARTALA, A.; CHRISTENSEN, G. L..
Brazil is a country with one the largest areas of forest plantations in the world. The state of Paraná (PR) has the largest area of designated plantations in the country. The main cultivated species belong to the genus Eucalyptus. In this work, the areas of better favorability for planting the main species of commercial value eucalyptus were defined. Additionally, changes may also occur in these zones in the coming decades, due to global climate change. For this purpose, future scenarios were elaborated using a stochastic time series simulation software, to assess the possible changes of the climate and indicate potential consequences regarding the changes of eucalyptus plantation zones. The results show that there will be an increase in areas favorable to...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Zoneamento agroclimático; Rural credit; Agricultural insurance; Agricultural risk; Eucalipto; Reflorestamento; Aptidão climática; Eucalyptus; Reforestation; Global warming.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1075188
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Air Emissions of Ammonia and Methane from Livestock Operations: Valuation and Policy Options AgEcon
Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Siikamaki, Juha.
The animal husbandry industry is a major emitter of methane, which is an important greenhouse gas. The industry is also a major emitter of ammonia, which is a precursor of fine particulate matter, arguably the number-one environment-related public health threat facing the nation. We present an integrated process model of the engineering economics of technologies to reduce methane and ammonia emissions at dairy operations in California. Three policy options are explored: greenhouse gas offset credits for methane control, particulate matter offset credits for ammonia control, and expanded net metering policies to provide revenue for the sale of electricity generated from captured methane gas. Individually, any of these policies appears to be sufficient to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Methane; Ammonia; Carbon dioxide; Greenhouse gases; Climate change; Offset; Particulate matter; Net metering; Environmental policy; CAFO; Manure management; Biodigester; Electricity; Global warming; Cost-benefit; Incentive approach; Livestock Production/Industries; Q2; Q4; Q53.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10749
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Allocation of CO2 Emissions Allowances in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Program AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Kahn, Danny.
Cap-and-trade programs for air emissions have become the widely accepted, preferred approach to cost-effective pollution reduction. One of the important design questions in a trading program is how to initially distribute the emissions allowances. Under the Acid Rain program created by Title IV of the Clean Air Act, most emissions allowances were distributed to current emitters on the basis of a historic measure of electricity generation in an approach known as grandfathering. Recent proposals have suggested two alternative approaches: allocation according to a formula that is updated over time according to some performance metric in a recent year (the share of electricity generation or something else) and auctioning allowances to the highest bidders....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Allowance allocations; Electricity; Air pollution; Auction; Grandfathering; Generation performance standard; Output-based allocation; Cost-effectiveness; Greenhouse gases; Climate change; Global warming; Carbon dioxide; Sulfur dioxide; Nitrogen oxides; Mercury; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25; Q4; L94.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10650
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Amazon Forest maintenance as a source of environmental services Anais da ABC (AABC)
Fearnside,Philip M..
Amazonian forest produces environmental services such as maintenance of biodiversity, water cycling and carbon stocks. These services have a much greater value to human society than do the timber, beef and other products that are obtained by destroying the forest. Yet institutional mechanisms are still lacking to transform the value of the standing forest into the foundation of an economy based on maintaining rather than destroying this ecosystem. Forest management for commodities such as timber and non-timber forest products faces severe limitations and inherent contradictions unless income is supplemented based on environmenta lservices. Amazon forest is threatened by deforestation, logging, forest fires and climate change. Measures to avoid...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Amazonia; Avoided deforestation; Brazil; Carbon; Deforestation; Global warming; Greenhouse effect; Rainforest.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652008000100006
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Aquecimento global e problemas fitossanitários. Repositório Alice
BETTIOL, W.; HAMADA, E.; ANGELOTTI, F.; AUAD, A. M.; GHINI, R..
Este livro tem como tema principal a avaliação do impacto das mudanças climáticas sobre doenças, pragas e plantas invasoras de importantes culturas para o agronegócio brasileiro, visando ao desenvolvimento de alternativas de adaptação para o controle dos problemas fitossanitários predominantes nos cenários climáticos futuros. São apresentadas e discutidas projeções de variáveis climáticas de interesse agrícola para o Brasil ao longo do século 21; as interações das mudanças climáticas e os problemas fitossanitários; a Fitopatologia e a Entomologia nos cenários de aquecimento global; o efeito do aquecimento global sobre doenças de plantas, na quebra de resistência genética, na comunidade microbiana do solo, nas ferrugens do cafeeiro, do milho e do eucalipto,...
Tipo: Livro científico (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Aquecimento global; Mudança climática; Doença de planta; Praga de planta; Impacto ambiental; Global warming; Climate change; Plant diseases and disorders; Plant pests.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1077623
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Aspectos institucionais e econômicos de atividades de florestamento/reflorestamento sob o âmbito do mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo. Infoteca-e
MOREIRA, J. M. M. A. P.; MOZZER, G. B..
2009
Tipo: Documentos (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Florestamento; Reflorestamento; Aquecimento global; Forestation; Reforestation; Global warming.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/697559
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Assessing the sensitivity of bivalve populations to global warming using an individual-based modelling approach ArchiMer
Thomas, Yoann; Bacher, Cedric.
Climate change exposes benthic species populations in coastal ecosystems to a combination of different stressors (e.g. warming, acidification and eutrophication), threatening the sustainability of the ecological functions they provide. Thermal stress appears to be one of the strongest drivers impacting marine ecosystems, acting across a wide range of scales, from individual metabolic performances to geographic distribution of populations. Accounting for and integrating the response of species functional traits to thermal stress is therefore a necessary step in predicting how populations will respond to the warming expected in coming decades. Here, we developed an individual‐based population model using a mechanistic formulation of metabolic processes...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Benthic species; Biogeography; Climate scenario; Dynamic energy budget; Global warming; Phenology; Population dynamics; Temperature tolerance.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00450/56163/57710.pdf
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Bioenergetic transcriptomic responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) populations in contrasted environments: impacts of pollution and global warming ArchiMer
Borcier, Elodie; Charrier, G.; Amerand, A.; Theron, M.; Loizeau, Veronique; Pedron, Nicolas; Laroche, J..
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: European flounder; Platichthys flesus; Pollution; Global warming.
Ano: 2016 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00376/48688/49019.pdf
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Cambio climático en Uruguay, posibles impactos y medidas de adaptación en el sector agropecuario. AgEcon
Gimenez, Agustin; Castano, Jose Pedro; Baethgen, Walter E.; Lanfranco, Bruno A..
El presente trabajo presenta un resumen de información sobre cambio climático observado en Uruguay y la región y posibles escenarios futuros. Dicha información se basa fundamentalmente en estudios conducidos y finalizados recientemente (2005-2009) en el país, en el marco del programa “Assessment of Impacts and Adaptation to Climate Change” (AIACC-START, TWAS, GEF) ( AIACC, 2006), en el “Análisis de la Estadística Climática y Desarrollo y Evaluación de Escenarios Climáticos e Hidrológicos de las principales Cuencas Hidrográficas del Uruguay y la Zona Costera” (Unidad de Cambio Climático de la DINAMA del MVOTMA de Uruguay, PNUD, GEF, 2005), en el estudio de “Identificación de Posibles Impactos del Cambio Climático en la Producción de Pasturas Naturales y de...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Global warming; Agriculture and livestock production; Public policy; Extreme climate events.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Risk and Uncertainty; Q01; Q54; Q55; Q58.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121759
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Can an Effective Global Climate Treaty Be Based on Sound Science, Rational Economics, and Pragmatic Politics AgEcon
Stavins, Robert N..
The Kyoto Protocol (1997) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) may come into force without U.S. participation, but its effects on climate change will be trivial. At the same time, the economic and scientific consensus points to the need for a credible international approach. A reasonable starting point is the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which was signed by 161 nations and ratified by 50, including the United States, and entered into force in 1994. In this paper, I remain agnostic on the question of the Kyoto Protocol's viability. Some analysts see the agreement as deeply flawed, while others see it as an acceptable or even excellent first step. But virtually everyone agrees that the Protocol is not...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Global climate change; Global warming; Policy architecture; Kyoto Protocol; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q54; Q58; Q48; Q39.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10720
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Can Carbon Sinks Be Operational? RFF Workshop Proceedings AgEcon
Sedjo, Roger A.; Toman, Michael.
An RFF Workshop brought together experts from around the world to assess the feasibility of using biological sinks to sequester carbon as part of a global atmospheric mitigation effort. The chapters of this proceeding are a result of that effort. Although the intent of the workshop was not to generate a consensus, a number of studies suggest that sinks could be a relatively inexpensive and effective carbon management tool. The chapters cover a variety of aspects and topics related to the monitoring and measurement of carbon in biological systems. They tend to support the view the carbon sequestration using biological systems is technically feasible with relatively good precision and at relatively low cost. Thus carbon sinks can be operational.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon; Sinks; Global warming; Sequestration; Forests; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q10; Q15; Q21; Q23; Q24.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10480
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Caractérisation des effets du réchauffement climatique sur l'océan superficiel au cours des 50 dernières années ArchiMer
Hamon, Mathieu.
To identify and characterize the effects of global warming is one of the major scientific challenges of this new century. The rise of sea level, the hydrological changes are some consequences of this phenomenon which will influence all forms of life on Earth. Due to its high thermal capacity, it is estimated that 84% of the energy developed by global warming is stored in the first layers of the ocean. However, it is rather difficult to assess its overall impact over the last 50 years because the ocean is not warming uniformly and the inhomogeneous sampling (spatial and temporal) of oceanographic observations, instrumental errors (XBT) and biases related to the estimation process of global indicators can affect our assessment of the evolution of ocean...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Réchauffement climatique; Observations in situ; Biais XBT; Reconstruction de champs; Contenu thermique; Contenu d’eau douce; Global warming; In situ measurement; XBT bias; Field reconstruction; Heat content; Freshwater content.
Ano: 2012 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00498/60957/64360.pdf
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Carbon footprint: สำคัญอย่างไรสำหรับการค้าข้าวในอนาคต? Thai Agricultural
Yothin Konboon.
Term "carbon footprint" has become tremendously popular over the last few years. With climate change high up on the political and corporate agenda, carbon footprint calculations are in strong demand. Numerous approaches have been proposed to provide estimates, ranging from basic online calculators to sophisticated Life Cycle Assessments (LCA). Despite its widely use however, there is a lack of information of what exactly carbon footprint is meant to be and what exactly the concept of carbon footprint is. This article was reviewed the background information of carbon footprint and its opportunities and threats on international goods trading, including paddy rice. An opportunity for research in this area in paddy rice production was also proposed.
Tipo: Collection Palavras-chave: Carbon footprint; Rice trading; Research; Global warming; สินค้าข้าว; การค้าข้าว; การวิจัย; ภาวะโลกร้อน; คาร์บอน ฟุตพริ้นท์; ฉลากคาร์บอน; การแข่งขันทางการตลาด.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://anchan.lib.ku.ac.th/agnet/handle/001/5096
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Cenários climáticos para a temperatura média do ar durante o ciclo da uva na região do Circuito das Frutas, São Paulo. Repositório Alice
BARDIN-CAMPAROTTO, L.; BLAIN, G. C.; PEDRO JÚNIOR, M. J.; HAMADA, E..
Resumo: Na determinação da aptidão climática de uma região para o cultivo de uva para vinho são utilizados diferentes índices biometeorológicos, sendo a temperatura média do ciclo um dos elementos meteorológicos mais importantes para o desenvolvimento dos vinhedos. Os vinhos elaborados com uvas produzidas sob condições climáticas apropriadas apresentam tipicidade e melhor qualidade. No entanto, o impacto das mudanças climáticas nas regiões vitícolas tem preocupado produtores de todo mundo. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto das mudanças climáticas na temperatura média do ciclo da uva para vinho na região do Circuito das Frutas, SP. Foram gerados mapas de temperatura média durante ciclo da videira para o período de 1961-1990,...
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Aquecimento global; Sistema CCM; MCC system; Mudanças climáticas; Viticultura; Uva; Clima; Temperatura; Viticulture; Global warming; Climate change.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1035875
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Cenários futuros para cana-de-açúcar no Estado de São Paulo baseados em projeções regionalizadas de mudanças climáticas. Repositório Alice
MARIN, F. R.; PELLEGRINO, G. Q.; ASSAD, E. D.; NASSIF, D. S. P.; VIANA, M. S.; SOARES, F. A.; CABRAL, L. L.; GUIATTO, D..
Após a divulgação das projeções de mudanças climáticas globais pelo IPCC, a avaliação de impacto das mudanças climáticas sobre a agricultura para tornouse uma necessidade para a quantificação da vulnerabilidade dos sistemas agrícolas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo simular cenários futuros para a cana-de-açúcar no Estado de São Paulo em função de cenários regionalizados de projeções climáticas, utilizando um banco de dados de 78 estações meteorológicas com séries de, pelo menos, nove anos. Para cada estação meteorológica foi associado um determinado perfil do solo e todas as séries foram expandidas para 30 anos utilizando geradores de dados. As simulações foram feitas para a variedade RB72454, considerando dois cenários futuros de mudanças climáticas...
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Modelagem; Aquecimento global; CANEGRO; DSSAT; Cana-de-açúcar; Simulação; Clima; Projeto Canasat/INPE; Modelo CANEGRO/DSSAT; São Paulo; Modeling; Global warming; Sugarcane; Climate.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/513488
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Changes in chromosomal polymorphism and global warming: the case of Drosophila subobscura from Apatin (Serbia) Genet. Mol. Biol.
Zivanovic,Goran; Mestres,Francesc.
In this study, chromosomal inversion polymorphism data for a natural population of Drosophila subobscura from a swampy region near the town of Apatin (Serbia) were compared with data for the same population collected approximately 15 years earlier. The pattern of chromosomal inversion polymorphism changed over time. There were significant increases in the frequency of characteristic southern latitude ("warm" adapted) chromosomal arrangements and significant decreases in the frequency of characteristic northern latitude ("cold" adapted) chromosomal arrangements in the O and U chromosomes. The chromosomal arrangements O3+4 and O3+4+22 (derived from the O3+4 arrangement) showed significant increases in 2008 and 2009 with regard to the 1994 sample. There was...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Chromosomal inversions; Drosophila subobscura; Global warming; Karyotypes.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572011000300020
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Climate change and agroecosystems: the effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on crop growth, development, and yield Ciência Rural
Streck,Nereu Augusto.
The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) of the Earth´s atmosphere is increasing, which has the potential of increasing greenhouse effect and air temperature in the future. Plants respond to environment CO2 and temperature. Therefore, climate change may affect agriculture. The purpose of this paper was to review the literature about the impact of a possible increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature on crop growth, development, and yield. Increasing CO2 concentration increases crop yield once the substrate for photosynthesis and the gradient of CO2 concentration between atmosphere and leaf increase. C3 plants will benefit more than C4 plants at elevated CO2. However, if global warming will take place, an increase in temperature may offset the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Global warming; Photosynthesis; Agriculture; Food supply.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782005000300041
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Climate change and plant diseases Scientia Agricola
Ghini,Raquel; Hamada,Emília; Bettiol,Wagner.
Human activities are altering greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and causing global climate change. In the near future, there will certainly be changes in the Brazilian phytosanitary scenario attributed to global climate change. The impacts of climate change can be positive, negative or neutral, since these changes can decrease, increase or have no impact on diseases, depending on each region or period. These impacts will also be observed on plants and other organisms as well as on other agroecosystem components. However, these impacts are not easily determined, and consequently, specialists from several areas must go beyond their disciplinary boundaries and placing the climate change impacts in a broader context. This review focuses on the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: CO2; Global climate change; Global warming; Spatial analysis; Control.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162008000700015
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Climate Change Catastrophes AgEcon
Pizer, William A..
Most studies that compare price and quantity controls for greenhouse gas emissions under uncertainty find that price mechanisms perform substantially better. In these studies, the benefits from reducing emissions are proportional to the level of reductions, and such linear benefits strongly favor price policies (Weitzman 1974). Catastrophic damages, however, challenge that intuition as consequences become highly nonlinear. Catastrophe avoidance offers huge benefits, and incremental adjustments on either side of the associated threshold are relatively unimportant, suggesting a strong preference for quantity controls. This paper shows that with catastrophic damages, both price and quantity mechanisms offer large gains over the business-as-usual alternative,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Global warming; Prices versus quantities; Stock externalities; Integrated assessment; Uncertainty; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; D81; C68.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10499
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