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Registros recuperados: 15
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Collective Action for Watershed Management: Field Experiments in Colombia and Kenya AgEcon
Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Rodriguez, Luz Angela; Johnson, Nancy L..
The dilemma of collective action around water use and management involves solving both the problems of provision and appropriation. Cooperation in the provision can be affected by the rival nature of the appropriation and the asymmetries in the access. We report two field experiments conducted in Colombia and Kenya. The Irrigation Game was used to explore the provision and appropriation decisions under asymmetric or sequential appropriation, complemented with a Voluntary Contribution Mechanism experiment which looks at provision decisions under symmetric appropriation. The overall results were consistent with the patterns of previous studies: the zero contribution hypotheses is rejected whereas the most effective institution to increase cooperation was...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Collective Action; Watersheds; Field Experiments; Colombia; Kenya; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Q0; Q2; C9; H3; H4.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91169
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Combining Rate-Based and Cap-and-Trade Emissions Policies AgEcon
Fischer, Carolyn.
Rate-based emissions policies (like tradable performance standards) fix average emissions intensity, while cap-and-trade policies fix total emissions. This paper shows that unfettered trade between rate-based and cap-and-trade programs always raises combined emissions, except when product markets are related in particular ways. Gains from trade are fully passed on to consumers in the rate-based sector, resulting in more output and greater emissions allocations. We consider a range of policy options to offset the expansion, including unilateral ones when jurisdictional differences require. The cap-and-trade jurisdiction could impose an "exchange rate" to adjust for relative permit values, but marginal abatement cost equalization is sacrificed. Still, that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Permit allocation; Tradable performance standards; Climate; Greenhouse gases; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; H3; Q2; Q48.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10713
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Corruption and Environmental Policy: An Alternative Perspective AgEcon
Lapatinas, Athanasios; Litina, Anastasia; Sartzetakis, Eftichios S..
We construct an overlapping generations model in which agents live through two periods; childhood and adulthood. Each agent makes choices only as an adult, based on her utility that depends on her own consumption and the human capital and environmental quality endowed to her offspring. Entering adulthood, agents choose randomly between two occupations: citizens and politicians. Citizens are the only producers of a single good and choose the proportion of their income to declare to the tax authorities. Politicians decide upon the allocation of the tax revenue between environmental protection and education activities, taking as given the rates of peculation in each activity. In this context, two self-fulfilling stable equilibria can emerge, one associated...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corruption; Environmental Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; H2; H26; H3; Q56; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101377
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Evolution of Income and Fiscal Disparity in Rural China AgEcon
Yao, Yi; Fan, Shenggen.
This paper's goal is to increase the understanding of the income and fiscal inequality trends in rural China. Using a comprehensive county-level panel dataset between 1993 and 2002, we describe the dynamic changes in national, regional and provincial inequality measures for income, fiscal spending and local revenues respectively. We examine how the coastal-inland gap, the inter-province gap, and the gap between poor and non-poor counties contribute to the growth of inequality, and devise a decomposition approach to investigate the order of inter-group inequality's contribution to the overall inequality in a multi-tier hierarchical economy. Our major finding reveals that after a turning point, 1998, most income and fiscal inequality trends started to grow...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Regional inequality; Inequality decomposition; Fiscal equalization; Fiscal decentralization; Soft budget constraint; Community/Rural/Urban Development; D3; O18; H3.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25671
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International Energy R&D Spillovers and the Economics of Greenhouse Gas Atmospheric Stabilization AgEcon
Bosetti, Valentina; Carraro, Carlo; Massetti, Emanuele; Tavoni, Massimo.
It is widely recognized that technological change has the potential to reduce GHG emissions without compromising economic growth; hence, any better understanding of the process of technological innovation is likely to increase our knowledge of mitigation possibilities and costs. This paper explores how international knowledge flows affect the dynamics of the domestic R&D sector and the main economic and environmental variables. The analysis is performed using WITCH, a dynamic regional model of the world economy, in which energy technical change is endogenous. The focus is on disembodied energy R&D international spillovers. The knowledge pool from which regions draw foreign ideas differs between High Income and Low Income countries. Absorption...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Policy; Energy R&D; International R&D Spillovers; Stabilization; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; H0; H2; H3.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8217
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Low-dose thioperamide injected into the cerebellar vermis of mice immediately after exposure to the elevated plus-maze impairs their avoidance behavior on re-exposure to the apparatus BJMBR
Costa Neto,J.; Serafim,K.R.; Gianlorenço,A.C.L.; Mattioli,R..
The present study investigated the effect of thioperamide (THIO), an H3 histaminergic receptor antagonist, microinjected into the cerebellar vermis on emotional memory consolidation in male Swiss albino mice re-exposed to the elevated plus-maze (EPM). We implanted a guide cannula into the cerebellar vermis using stereotactic surgery. On the third day after surgery, we performed behavioral tests for two consecutive days. On the first day (exposure), the mice (n=10/group) were exposed to the EPM and received THIO (0.06, 0.3, or 1.5 ng/0.1 µL) immediately after the end of the session. Twenty-four hours later, the mice were re-exposed to the EPM under the same experimental conditions, but without drug injection. A reduction in the exploration of the open arms...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Histaminergic system; Cerebellum; H3; Emotional memory; Memory consolidation; Elevated plus-maze.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2013001100943
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Mycological Diversity Description I Acta Botanica
Bezerra,Jadson Diogo Pereira; Machado,Alexandre Reis; Firmino,André Luiz; Rosado,André Wilson Campos; Souza,Carlos Alberto Fragoso de; Souza-Motta,Cristina Maria de; Freire,Karla Torres Lins de Sousa; Paiva,Laura Mesquita; Magalhães,Oliane Maria Correia; Pereira,Olinto Liparini; Crous,Pedro W.; Oliveira,Thays Gabrielle Lins de; Abreu,Vanessa Pereira de; Fan,Xinlei.
ABSTRACT Here, Quambalaria fabacearum and Neopestalotiopsis brasiliensis are introduced as new species from Brazil, isolated as endophyte from Mimosa tenuiflora and causing post-harvest rot disease on fruits of Psidium guajava, respectively. Diaporthe inconspicua is emended to include a more detailed morphological description. Neopestalotiopsis egyptiaca is reported as new to the Americas and as causing post-harvest rot disease on fruits of Psidium guajava, while Umbelopsis isabellina is reported as endophyte.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Amphisphaeriales; CaM; Diaporthales; H3; ITS rDNA; LSU rDNA; Microstromatales; Tef1-α; TUB2; Umbelopsidales.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-33062018000400656
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Optimal Energy Investment and R&D Strategies to Stabilise Greenhouse Gas Atmospheric Concentrations AgEcon
Carraro, Carlo; Bosetti, Valentina; Massetti, Emanuele; Tavoni, Massimo.
The stabilisation of GHG atmospheric concentrations at levels expected to prevent dangerous climate change has become an important, global, long-term objective. It is therefore crucial to identify a cost-effective way to achieve this objective. In this paper we use WITCH, a hybrid climate-energy-economy model, to obtain a quantitative assessment of some cost-effective strategies that stabilise CO2 concentrations at 550 or 450 ppm. In particular, this paper analyses the energy investment and R&D policies that optimally achieve these two GHG stabilisation targets (i.e. the future optimal energy mix consistent with the stabilisation of GHG atmospheric concentrations at 550 and 450 ppm). Given that the model accounts for interdependencies and spillovers...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Policy; Energy R&D; Investments; Stabilisation Costs; Environmental Economics and Policy; H0; H2; H3.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7435
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Risk Diversification and Tax Competition: The Influence of Risk Correlations and Tax Provisions on Tax Competition AgEcon
Berndt, Markus; Reichl, Bettina.
From standard-portfolio-models the authors derive demand elasticities for risky assets, and combine the results with a simple non-cooperative model of tax competition between capital importing countries. They find that tax rates resulting from tax competition depend heavily on the correlations of capital market indices. If investment alternatives are not correlated, the outcome of both tax competition and a cooperative solution of tax harmonization are identical. The results suggest regional cooperation among capital importing countries. Compared to the exemption method provisions like tax sparing aggravates the harms of tax competition. Die Autoren leiten aus dem Standard-Portfolio-Modell Nachfrageelastizitäten nach riskanten Anlagealternativen her und...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Public Economics; H3; G1.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26215
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Social Norms and Behavior in the Local Commons Through the Lens of Field Experiments AgEcon
Cardenas, Juan-Camilo.
Behavior in the local commons is usually embedded in a context of regulations and social norms that the group of users face. Such norms and rules affect how individuals value material and non-material incentives and therefore determine their decision to cooperate or over extract the resources from the common-pool. This paper discusses the importance of social norms in shaping behavior in the commons through the lens of experiments, and in particular experiments conducted in the field with people that usually face these social dilemmas in their daily life. Through a large sample of experimental sessions with around one thousand people between villagers and students, I test some hypothesis about behavior in the commons when regulations and social norms...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Social norms; Regulations; Cooperation; Collective action; Common-pool resources; Experimental economics; Field experiments.; Public Economics; D71; Q0; Q2; C9; H3; H4.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91168
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Subsidizing Education in the Economic Periphery: Another Pitfall of Regional Policies? AgEcon
Sudekum, Jens.
One of the most prominent instruments of regional policy is to foster education and human capital formation in economically lagging regions. However, regional policy of this type can actually hurt instead of help the poor areas. The reason is that individual geographical mobility increases with the personal skill level. Through education subsidies, particularly if targeted on relatively high skilled workers, individuals can cross some threshold level of qualification beyond which emigration accrues. Regional policies then result in a human capital flight harmful to individuals remaining in the economic periphery. This fatal result does not hold for such policies that foster basic education and focus on the relatively low skilled.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Regional Policy; Education Subsidies; Human Capital; Labour Mobility; European Union; Labor and Human Capital; H3; F4; R1.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26130
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The Food Prices / Body Mass Index Relationship: Theory and Evidence from a Sample of French Adults AgEcon
Boizot-Szantai, Christine; Etile, Fabrice.
What would be the effect of a "fat tax" on obesity? This paper shows that the sign of the price-weight correlation is unclear, as variations of food price have a direct effect on weight through changes in energy intakes, and an indirect (income) effect that affects energy expenditure. Food expenditures data are used to examine the link between the prices of 16 food groups and the distribution of the Body Mass Index among French adults. We find positive correlations for ready-meals and snacks, and negative correlations for sea products and fruits. It is thus unlikely that the epidemic of obesity will react in the short-term to nutritional taxes.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Obesity; Fat tax; Price policies; Quantitle regressions; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; D1; H3; I1.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24734
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The Role of R&D and Technology Diffusion in Climate Change Mitigation: New Perspectives Using the Witch Model AgEcon
Bosetti, Valentina; Carraro, Carlo; Duval, Romain; Sgobbi, Alessandra; Tavoni, Massimo.
This paper uses the WITCH model, a computable general equilibrium model with endogenous technological change, to explore the impact of various climate policies on energy technology choices and the costs of stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations. Current and future expected carbon prices appear to have powerful effects on R&D spending and clean technology diffusion. Their impact on stabilisation costs depends on the nature of R&D: R&D targeted at incremental energy efficiency improvements has only limited effects, but R&D focused on the emergence of major new low-carbon technologies could lower costs drastically if successful – especially in the non-electricity sector, where such low-carbon options are scarce today. With emissions coming...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate policy; Energy R&D; Fund; Stabilisation costs; Environmental Economics and Policy; H0; H2; H3; H4; O3; Q32; Q43; Q54.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50363
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What Should We Expect from Innovation? A Model-Based Assessment of the Environmental and Mitigation Cost Implications of Climate-Related R&D AgEcon
Bosetti, Valentina; Carraro, Carlo; Duval, Romain; Tavoni, Massimo.
This paper addresses two basic issues related to technological innovation and climate stabilisation objectives: i) Can innovation policies be effective in stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations? ii) To what extent can innovation policies complement carbon pricing (taxes or permit trading) and improve the economic efficiency of a mitigation policy package? To answer these questions, we use an integrated assessment model with multiple externalities and an endogenous representation of technical progress in the energy sector. We evaluate a range of innovation policies, both as a stand-alone instrument and in combination with other mitigation policies. Even under fairly optimistic assumptions about the funding available for, and the returns to R&D, our...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; Environmental Policy; Energy R&D Fund; Stabilisation Costs; Environmental Economics and Policy; H0; H2; H3; H4; O3; Q32; Q43; Q54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60745
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Will Local Foods Influence American Diets? AgEcon
Thilmany, Dawn D.; Low, Sarah A..
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Dietary Guidelines; Consumer Behavior; Local Foods; Fruit and Vegetable Production; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Q1; I1; H3.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122797
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