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A review of the epidemiology, prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection in Nigeria BJID
Entonu,P.E.; Agwale,S.M..
In order to amalgamate research findings on HIV/AIDS in Nigeria as well as the trend of the infection in a concise manner, we reviewed published articles on the HIV/AIDS situation in Nigeria. We categorized this review into several subheadings. The HIV prevalence rate has continued to rise steadily from less than 0.1% in 1987, to 5.8% in 2001, with a slight decrease in 2003 to 5.0%. Although the knowledge about HIV and its mode of transmission is widespread, it is however disheartening to note that this did not result into appreciable attitudinal change and behavior modification among Nigerians. Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been identified in Nigeria, with HIV-1 being the predominant type. Furthermore, several subtypes like subtypes A, B, C, G and J have been...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: HIV; Review; Nigeria.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702007000600011
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Abacavir-induced liver toxicity BJID
Pezzani,Maria Diletta; Resnati,Chiara; Di Cristo,Valentina; Riva,Agostino; Gervasoni,Cristina.
Abstract Abacavir-induced liver toxicity is a rare event almost exclusively occurring in HLA B*5701-positive patients. Herein, we report one case of abnormal liver function tests occurring in a young HLA B*5701-negative woman on a stable nevirapine-based regimen with no history of liver problems or alcohol abuse after switching to abacavir from tenofovir. We also investigated the reasons for abacavir discontinuation in a cohort of patients treated with abacavir-lamivudine-nevirapine.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/report Palavras-chave: HIV; Abacavir; Liver toxicity.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000500502
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Acute HIV infection with rapid progression to AIDS BJID
Silva,Marcio de Oliveira; Bastos,Milena; Martins Netto,Eduardo; Gouvea,Nancy Alves de Lima; Torres,Alex Jose Leite; Kallas,Esper; Watkins,David I; Altfeld,Marcus; Brites,Carlos.
Acute HIV infection is rarely recognized as the signs and symptoms are normally unspecific and can persist for days or weeks. The normal HIV course is characterized by a progressive loss of CD4+ cells, which normally leads to severe immunodeficiency after a variable time interval. The mean time from initial infection to development of clinical AIDS is approximately 8-10 years, but it is variable among individuals and depends on a complex interaction between virus and host. Here we describe an extraordinary case of a man who developed Pneumocisits jiroveci pneumonia within one month after sexual exposure to HIV-1, and then presented with 3 consecutive CD4 counts bellow 200 cells/mm³ within 3 months, with no other opportunistic disease. Although...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/report Palavras-chave: HIV; Acute infection; Progression; AIDS.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702010000300016
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Acute kidney injury in AIDS: frequency, RIFLE classification and outcome BJMBR
Libório,A.B.; Mota,R.M.S.; Abreu,K.L.S.; Silva,A.E.B.; Araújo,S.M.H.A.; Daher,E.F..
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the characteristics of acute kidney injury (AKI) in AIDS patients and the value of RIFLE classification for predicting outcome. The study was conducted on AIDS patients admitted to an infectious diseases hospital inBrazil. The patients with AKI were classified according to the RIFLE classification: R (risk), I (injury), F (failure), L (loss), and E (end-stage renal disease). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the factors associated with AKI. A total of 532 patients with a mean age of 35 ± 8.5 years were included in this study. AKI was observed in 37% of the cases. Patients were classified as "R" (18%), "I" (7.7%) and "F" (11%). Independent risk factors for AKI were thrombocytopenia...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Acute kidney injury; HIV; AIDS; Prognosis; Mortality; RIFLE.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2010001100013
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Adolescents growing with HIV/AIDS: experiences of the transition from pediatrics to adult care BJID
Machado,Daisy Maria; Galano,Eliana; de Menezes Succi,Regina Célia; Vieira,Carla Maria; Turato,Egberto Ribeiro.
Abstract The main objective of this work is to describe the formation of the Transition Adolescent Clinic (TAC) and understand the process of transitioning adolescents with HIV/AIDS from pediatric to adult care, from the vantage point of individuals subjected to this process. A qualitative method and an intentional sample selected by criteria were adopted for this investigation, which was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. An in-depth semi-structured interview was conducted with sixteen HIV-infected adolescents who had been part of a transitioning protocol. Adolescents expressed the need for more time to become adapted in the transition process. Having grown up under the care of a team of health care providers made many participants have reluctance toward...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: HIV; AIDS; Health care transition; Adolescent.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000300002
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Aging, neurocognitive impairment and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals BJID
Pinheiro,Cezar Arthur Tavares; Souza,Luciano Dias de Mattos; Motta,Janaína Vieira dos Santos; Kelbert,Evelin Franco; Martins,Clarissa de Souza Ribeiro; Souza,Marília Silva de; Pinheiro,Karen Amaral Tavares; Coelho,Fábio Monteiro da Cunha; Pinheiro,Ricardo Tavares.
ABSTRACT Background/objective: There is an increasing number of older patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection due to the success of antiretroviral therapy, the improved prognosis and life expectancy of patients, and the higher number of new infections among older individuals. The main objective of the present study was to compare the characteristics of older human immunodeficiency virus patients with those of younger patients. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients who were treated at the Specialized Care Service (Serviço de Assistência Especializada) for human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS in the city of Pelotas, South Brazil. Sociodemographic information as well as data...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Aging; HIV; Neurocognitive impairment; Adherence.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000600599
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Aging with HIV: a practical review BJID
Cardoso,Sandra Wagner; Torres,Thiago Silva; Santini-Oliveira,Marilia; Marins,Luana Monteiro Spindola; Veloso,Valdiléa Gonçalves; Grinsztejn,Beatriz.
The worldwide elderly population is expected to grow by an additional 694 million people by 2025. By that time, there will be approximately two billion elderly people in the world, most of whom (80%) will be living in developing countries. Based on recent estimates, this population will number over 40 million in 2030 in Brazil and a consequent increase in governmental spending for this population can be expected. Since highly active antiretroviral therapy became available in the mid-1990s, the life expectancy of people living with HIV has increased significantly. Approximately 12 million life years were added to the world between 1996 and 2008 as a consequence of wider access to highly active antiretroviral therapy. In Brazil, the incidence of AIDS among...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: HIV; AIDS; Aging; Elderly; Brazil; Comorbidity; HAART.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702013000400013
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Aging with HIV: an overview of an urban cohort in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) across decades of life BJID
Torres,Thiago Silva; Cardoso,Sandra Wagner; Velasque,Luciane de Souza; Marins,Luana Monteiro Spindola; Oliveira,Marília Santini de; Veloso,Valdilea Gonçalves; Grinsztejn,Beatriz.
The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy during the 1990s was crucial to the decline in the rates of morbidity and death related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and turned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic condition. Consequently, the HIV/AIDS population is becoming older. The aim of this study was to describe the immunological, clinical and comorbidity profile of an urban cohort of patients with HIV/AIDS followed up at Instituto de Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Retrospective data from 2307 patients during January 1st, 2008 and December 31st, 2008 were collected. For continuous variables, Cuzick's non-parametric test was used. For categorical...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: HIV; AIDS; Aging; Elderly; Brazil; Comorbidity; HAART.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702013000300004
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AIDS-associated diarrhea and wasting in northeast Brazil is associated with subtherapeutic plasma levels of antiretroviral medications and with both bovine and human subtypes of Cryptosporidium parvum BJID
Brantley,Richard K.; Williams,K. Robert; Silva,Terezinha M.J.; Sistrom,Maria; Thielman,Nathan M.; Ward,Honorine; Lima,Aldo A. M.; Guerrant,Richard L..
Advanced HIV infection is frequently complicated by diarrhea, disruption of bowel structure and function, and malnutrition. Resulting malabsorption of or pharmacokinetic changes in antiretroviral agents might lead to subtherapeutic drug dosing and treatment failure in individual patients, and could require dose adjustment and/or dietary supplements during periods of diarrheal illness. We determined the plasma levels of antiretroviral medications in patients that had already been started on medication by their physicians in an urban infectious diseases hospital in northeast Brazil. We also obtained blood samples from patients hospitalized for diarrhea or AIDS-associated wasting, and we found reduced stavudine and didanosine levels in comparison with...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: HIV; Malabsorption; DdI; D4T; Pharmacokinetics.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702003000100003
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Aluminum hydroxy-interlayered minerals and chemical properties of a subtropical Brazilian Oxisol under no-tillage and conventional tillage Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo
Inda,Alberto Vasconcellos; Torrent,José; Barrón,Vidal; Bayer,Cimélio.
No tillage systems significantly influence the soil system, but knowledge about the effects on the mineralogy of tropical and subtropical soils is limited. This study evaluated the long-term effects (26 years) of no-tillage (NT) on aluminum hydroxy-interlayered minerals of a subtropical Oxisol in Southern Brazil (Guarapuava, PR), compared to the same soil under conventional tillage (CT). The clay fraction (< 2 µm) in soil samples of the surface horizons of a field experiment under both management systems was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify and characterize Al hydroxy-interlayered minerals before and after treatment with sodium citrate to remove intra-layer material. Soil liquid (solution) and solid phases were also characterized. The...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: HIS; HIV; Organic carbon; Soil management systems; Mineral stability.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-06832010000100004
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Análise da Mortalidade de Adultos Nos Agregados Familiares Rurais em Moçambique e Implicações para Políticas. AgEcon
Mather, David; de Marrule, Higino Francisco; Donovan, Cynthia; Weber, Michael T.; Alage, Albertina.
Resultados de pesquisa do Departmento de Análise de Políticas, MADER, Direcção de Economia
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; Mozambique; AIDS; HIV; Health Economics and Policy; Q18.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55240
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Analysis of Adult Mortality Within Rural Households in Mozambique and Implication For Policy AgEcon
Mather, David; de Marrule, Higino Francisco; Donovan, Cynthia; Weber, Michael T.; Alage, Albertina.
Research results from the Department of Policy Analysis, MADER, Directorate of Economics
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; Mozambique; AIDS; HIV; Health Economics and Policy; Q18.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55239
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Analysis of the CCR5 gene coding region diversity in five South American populations reveals two new non-synonymous alleles in Amerindians and high CCR5*D32 frequency in Euro-Brazilians Genet. Mol. Biol.
Boldt,Angelica B.W.; Culpi,Lodércio; Tsuneto,Luiza T.; Souza,Ilíada R.; Kun,Jürgen F.J.; Petzl-Erler,Maria Luiza.
The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) molecule is an important co-receptor for HIV. The effect of the CCR5*D32 allele in susceptibility to HIV infection and AIDS disease is well known. Other alleles than CCR5*D32 have not been analysed before, neither in Amerindians nor in the majority of the populations all over the world. We investigated the distribution of the CCR5 coding region alleles in South Brazil and noticed a high CCR5*D32 frequency in the Euro-Brazilian population of the Paraná State (9.3%), which is the highest thus far reported for Latin America. The D32 frequency is even higher among the Euro-Brazilian Mennonites (14.2%). This allele is uncommon in Afro-Brazilians (2.0%), rare in the Guarani Amerindians (0.4%) and absent in the Kaingang...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: CCR5; Brazilian; Amerindian; HIV; Polymorphism.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572009000100002
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Anogenital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in HIV-infected men and women in Salvador, Brazil BJID
Travassos,Ana Gabriela; Xavier-Souza,Eveline; Netto,Eduardo; Dantas,Eda Vinhaes; Timbó,Maiara; Nóbrega,Isabella; Haguihara,Tatiana; Neumayer,Júlia; Lisboa,Nathalia; Soidan,Maria Angela; Ferreira,Fábio; Brites,Carlos.
ABSTRACT Background: Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections throughout the world. These sexually transmitted infections are a growing problem in people living with HIV/AIDS. However, the presence of these agents in extra genital sites, remains poorly studied in our country. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae anal and genital infection in people living with HIV/AIDS followed in a reference center in Salvador, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study, from June 2013 to June 2015. Proven HIV-infected people attending this reference center were invited. Clinical and epidemiological data were...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: HIV; Chlamydia trachomatis; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Sexually transmitted infections; Anogenital infections.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000600569
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Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis in an HIV positive patient: case report BJID
Monteiro,Eduardo José Bellotto; Caron,Daiane; Balda,Carlos Alberto; Franco,Marcello; Pereira,Aparecido Bernardo; Kirsztajn,Gianna Mastroianni.
We report on a case of a patient with HIV infection, diagnosed 18 months prior to the development of an anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis; this is probably the first report of such an association. A 30-year-old white man presented with elevation of serum creatinine (1.3 - 13.5 mg/dL within one month). At admission, the urinalysis showed proteinuria of 7.2 g/L and 8,000,000 erythrocytes/mL. Renal biopsy corresponded to a crescentic diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis mediated by anti-GBM, and serum testing for anti-GBM antibodies was positive; antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) were also positive. The patient underwent hemodyalisis and was treated with...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/report Palavras-chave: Anti-GBM glomerulonephritis; HIV; Urinary abnormalities.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702006000100011
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Antiretroviral agents and acid-base balance at delivery of the neonate BJMBR
El-Beitune,P.; Duarte,G.; Morais,E.N. de; Campbell,O.; Spara-Gadelha,P.; Mauad-Filho,F.; Quintana,S.M.; Rodrigues,L.C..
Limited evidence is available regarding antiretroviral (ARV) safety for uninfected infants exposed to these drugs in utero. Our objective was to determine if ARV administered to pregnant women is associated with decreasing umbilical arterial pH and base excess in uninfected infants. A prospective study was conducted on 57 neonates divided into three groups: ZDV group, born to mothers taking zidovudine (N = 20), triple therapy (TT) group, born to mothers taking zidovudine + lamivudine + nelfinavir (N = 25), and control group (N = 12), born to uninfected mothers. Umbilical cord blood was used to determine umbilical artery gases. A test was performed to calculate the sample by comparing means by the unpaired one-tailed t-test, with a = 0.05 and ß = 20%,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: HIV; Infant toxicity; Pregnancy; Umbilical arterial pH; Apgar scores.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2007000700010
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Antiviral activity of animal venom peptides and related compounds J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.
Mata,Élida Cleyse Gomes da; Mourão,Caroline Barbosa Farias; Rangel,Marisa; Schwartz,Elisabeth Ferroni.
Abstract Viruses exhibit rapid mutational capacity to trick and infect host cells, sometimes assisted through virus-coded peptides that counteract host cellular immune defense. Although a large number of compounds have been identified as inhibiting various viral infections and disease progression, it is urgent to achieve the discovery of more effective agents. Furthermore, proportionally to the great variety of diseases caused by viruses, very few viral vaccines are available, and not all are efficient. Thus, new antiviral substances obtained from natural products have been prospected, including those derived from venomous animals. Venoms are complex mixtures of hundreds of molecules, mostly peptides, that present a large array of biological activities and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Antiretroviral agents; Antiviral agents; HIV; Scorpion venom; Snake venom; Amphibian venom; Insect venom; Marine animal peptides.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992017000100200
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Are traditional body fat equations and anthropometry valid to estimate body fat in children and adolescents living with HIV? BJID
Lima,Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de; Martins,Priscila Custódio; Alves Junior,Carlos Alencar Souza; Castro,João Antônio Chula de; Silva,Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski,Edio Luiz.
Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the validity of traditional anthropometric equations and to develop predictive equations of total body and trunk fat for children and adolescents living with HIV based on anthropometric measurements. Forty-eight children and adolescents of both sexes (24 boys) aged 7-17 years, living in Santa Catarina, Brazil, participated in the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used as the reference method to evaluate total body and trunk fat. Height, body weight, circumferences and triceps, subscapular, abdominal and calf skinfolds were measured. The traditional equations of Lohman and Slaughter were used to estimate body fat. Multiple regression models were fitted to predict total body fat (Model 1) and trunk fat...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Body fat; HIV; Skinfold thickness; Anthropometry; DXA.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000400448
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Assessment of cytokine values in serum by RT-PCR in HIV-1 infected individuals with and without highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.
Meira,DA; Almeida,RAMB; Barbosa,AN; de Souza,LR; Olivo,TET; Henriques,RMS; Golim,MA; Araújo Jr,JP; Nagoshi,LR; Orikaza,CM; Calvi,SA.
A cross-sectional study was performed on HIV-1 infected individuals with or without antiretroviral treatment (ARV) in the AIDS Day Hospital, Botucatu Medical School, UNESP. Between August 2004 and October 2005, 73 HIV-1 infected individuals were divided into three groups: infected individuals with or without AIDS who had never received ARV (G1 = 15); patients on HAART that had had plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) equal to or greater than 50 copies/mL (G2 = 27); and patients on HAART with undetectable VL for at least the past six months (G3 = 31). There was also an additional group that comprised blood donors without any sign of the disease and with negative HIV serum tests (G4 = 20), which was the control group. Serum cytokine levels (values in pg/mL) were...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: RT-PCR; ELISA; Cytokines; HIV; AIDS; HAART; Apoptosis.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992008000400011
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Audiological and electrophysiological evaluation of children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) BJID
Matas,Carla Gentile; Leite,Renata Aparecida; Magliaro,Fernanda Cristina Leite; Gonçalves,Isabela Crivellaro.
We examined the peripheral auditory system and the auditory brainstem pathway of children with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). One hundred and one children, 51 with AIDS diagnosis and 50 normal children were evaluated. Audiological assessment included immittance measures, pure tone and speech audiometry and auditory brainstem response (ABR). The children with AIDS more frequently had abnormal results than did their matched controls, presenting either peripheral or auditory brainstem impairment. We suggest that AIDS be considered a risk factor for peripheral and/or auditory brainstem disorders. Further research should be carried out to investigate the auditory effects of HIV infection along the auditory pathway.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Children; Hearing; Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR); HIV.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702006000400010
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