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Registros recuperados: 55
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A Cross-Country Analysis of Household Responses to Adult Mortality in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications For HIV/AIDS Mitigation And Rural Development Policies. AgEcon
Mather, David; Donovan, Cynthia; Jayne, Thomas S.; Weber, Michael T.; Chapoto, Antony; Mazhangara, Edward; Bailey, Linda; Yoo, Kyeongwon; Yamano, Takashi; Mghenyi, Elliot W..
This paper summarizes and synthesizes across the results of a set of country studies on the effects of prime-age adult mortality on rural households in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, and Zambia. Each study is based on large representative rural household surveys. These findings have implications for the design of efforts to mitigate some of the most important effects of rural adult mortality, and for key development policies and priorities.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Sub-Saharan Africa; Mortality; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Health Economics and Policy; Downloads July 2008 - July 2009: 21; I11.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54571
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A Global Hunger Index: Measurement Concept, Ranking of Countries, and Trends AgEcon
Wiesmann, Doris M..
Progress in combating hunger and undernutrition has been lagging for decades. Best practices to fight hunger and undernutrition have been available for a long while, but lack of political will among leaders and a lack of political power among the poor have hampered their implementation. Since indices have proven to be powerful tools for advocacy and are able to capture multifaceted phenomena, the Global Hunger Index (GHI) was developed to increase attention to the hunger problem and mobilize the political will to speed up urgently needed progress in the fight against hunger. The GHI captures three dimensions of hunger: insufficient availability of food, shortfalls in the nutritional status of children, and child mortality, which is to a large extent...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Hunger; Undernutrition; Child malnutrition; Child mortality; Food availability; Indicators; HIV/AIDS; Conflict; War; Developing countries; Countries in transition; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55891
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A Test of the New Variant Famine Hypothesis: Panel Survey Evidence from Zambia AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Jayne, Thomas S.; Chapoto, Antony; Myers, Robert J..
Replaced with revised version of paper 08/04/09.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Food security; Rural livelihoods; New variant famine hypothesis; Zambia; Africa; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Q12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51485
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AIDS-related lymphomas in Nigeria BJID
Bolarinwa,R.A.; Ndakotsu,M.A.; Oyekunle,A.A.; Salawu,L.; Akinola,N.O.; Durosinmi,M.A..
Aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), including primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma and non-endemic Burkitt's lymphoma have been recognized as AIDS-defining cancers in most developed countries. However, HIV/AIDS epidemics appear not to have been associated with higher incidence of lymphomas in Africa. We therefore carried out this study to highlight the significance or otherwise of HIV/AIDS epidemics in the pathogenesis of lymphomas in a population of Nigerians with the disease. Since January 1993 to the present, all patients with haematologic cancers are routinely screened (following appropriate counseling) for HIV infection. Patients with a histological diagnosis of malignant chronic lymphoproliferative diseases...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Lymphoma; Nigerians.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702009000500009
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An assessment of the casual relationship between poverty and HIV/AIDS in Uganda AgEcon
Denis, Akankunda Bwesigye.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Health systems; Uganda; EPRC; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113625
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Análise de Mortalidade de Adultos em Agregados Familiares Rurais em Moçambique e as Implicações para as Políticas AgEcon
Mather, David; de Marrule, Higino Francisco; Donovan, Cynthia; Weber, Michael T.; Alage, Albertina.
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Directorate of Economics, Republic of Mozambique
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; Adult mortality; HIV/AIDS; Rural economic policy; Mozambique; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Health Economics and Policy; Q18.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56063
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Analysis of Adult Mortality Within Rural Households in Mozambique and Implications for Policy AgEcon
Mather, David; de Marrule, Higino Francisco; Donovan, Cynthia; Weber, Michael T.; Alage, Albertina.
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Directorate of Economics, Republic of Mozambique
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; Adult mortality; HIV/AIDS; Rural economic policy; Mozambique; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Health Economics and Policy; Q18.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56062
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Characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimen and treatment adherence BJID
Silveira,Vera Lúcia da; Drachler,Maria de Lourdes; Leite,José Carlos de Carvalho; Pinheiro,Cézar Arthur Tavares.
The relationship between characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimens and treatment adherence was studied in adolescent and adult patients who underwent antiretroviral therapy from January 1998 to September 2000, at the Service for Specialized Assistance in Pelotas. The patients were interviewed on two occasions, and the use of antiretrovirals during the previous 48 hours was investigated by a self-report. Adherence was defined as use of 95% or more of the prescribed medication. Social-demographic variables were collected through direct questionnaires. The antiretroviral regimen and clinical data were copied from the patients' records. Associations between the independent variables and adherence were analyzed by means of logistic regression. The...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Adherence; Antiretroviral therapy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702003000300004
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Characteristics of Individuals Afflicted by AIDS-related Mortality in Zambia AgEcon
Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, Thomas S..
Studies conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa during the 1980s generally found a positive correlation between socioeconomic characteristics such as education, income, and wealth and subsequent contraction of HIV. However, as the disease has progressed, the relationship between socioeconomic status and HIV contraction may have changed in many areas of Sub Saharan Africa, although there is little hard evidence to support this. This paper seeks to determine the ex ante socioeconomic characteristics of individuals who die between the ages of 15 to 59 years of age, using nationally representative panel data on 18,821 individuals surveyed in 2001 and 2004 in rural Zambia. The findings from this study will help policy-makers and development agencies better...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; HIV/AIDS; Socioeconomic status; Zambia; Health Economics and Policy; Q18.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54472
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Diagnostic methods for prevention of anal cancer and characteristics of anal lesions caused by HPV in men with HIV/AIDS BJID
Pereira,Araiz Cajueiro Carneiro; Lacerda,Heloísa Ramos de; Barros,Romualda Castro do Rêgo.
Abnormalities found with anuscopy under colposcopic vision, anal cytology and anal biopsy were evaluated in 21 men with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) at the Federal University of Pernambuco Hospital in Brazil. Mean age was 38.4 ± 6.0 years, and mean time of HIV infection was 8.3 ± 5.1 years; 95.2% of the patients had been on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for an average of 6.6 ± 4.5 years. Mean CD4+ cell count was 482.2 ± 173.75 cells/mm³, and 80.9% presented a HIV viral load of < 5,000 copies/mL. Reported sexual preference was 52.4% homosexuals, 28.6% bisexuals, and 19.0%heterosexuals; 81% reported having had receptive anal intercourse and 61.9% reported more than 10 sexual partners of the same...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; HPV; Anuscopy; Anal cytology; Anal biopsy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702008000400007
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Dyslipidemia in HIV-infected individuals BJID
Sprinz,Eduardo; Lazzaretti,Rosmeri Kuhmmer; Kuhmmer,Regina; Ribeiro,Jorge Pinto.
Metabolic complications continue to play a major role in the management of HIV infection. Dyslipidemia associated with HIV infection and with the use of combined antiretroviral therapy includes elevations in triglycerides, reduced high-density cholesterol, and variable increases in low-density and total cholesterol. The association between dyslipidemia and specific antiretroviral agents has been underscored. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms by which HIV and antiretroviral agents lead to dyslipidemia have been hypothesized, but they are still controversial. The potential clinical and pathological consequences of HIV-associated hyperlipidemia are not completely known, but several studies reported an increased risk of coronary artery disease in HIV-positive...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Dyslipidemia; Combined antiretroviral therapy; Nutrition; Public Health.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702010000600006
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Effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy using non-brand name drugs in Brazil BJMBR
May,S.B.; Barroso,P.F.; Nunes,E.P.; Barcaui,H.S.; Almeida,M.M.T.; Costa,M.D.; Faulhaber,J.C.; Santoro-Lopes,G.; Schechter,M..
In Brazil, HIV-infected individuals receive drugs (including non-brand name drugs which comprise locally produced generics and drugs that have not been tested in bioequivalence trials) free of charge from the government. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where non-brand drugs are widely used. For this purpose, we estimated the proportion of subjects with virologic failure (plasma HIV viral load greater than 400 copies/mL at 6 months after initiation of treatment). This was a retrospective cohort study of drug-naive HIV-infected subjects who initiated HAART. Subjects were included in the analysis if they were 18 years of age or older, were treatment...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Antiretroviral; Non-brand name drugs; Brazil; Virologic failure.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2007000400014
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Effects of Ill Health and Weather Variability on Savings AgEcon
Ndirangu, Lydia K..
This paper examines the effects of households’ shocks on saving behaviour. It investigates the possibility that households save ex ante to buffer against adverse weather and health shocks. The relatively high prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS in Kenya combined with rain fed agriculture implies great uncertainty for rural livelihoods. Adopting a methodology previously used on cross-sectional data (Paxson, 1992), the paper examines the level of households precautionary behaviour. This is done by estimating the marginal propensity to save out of transitory income over a period of 18 months. The results show that while households may exhibit some level of prudence, the marginal propensity to save out of transitory income is about a third of what the permanent income...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Household; Shocks; Savings; HIV/AIDS; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade; Marketing; Productivity Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52151
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Efficacy and safety of Efavirenz in HIV patients on Rifampin for tuberculosis BJID
Pedral-Sampaio,Diana B.; Alves,Carmosina R.; Netto,Eduardo M.; Brites,Carlos; Oliveira,Adriano S.; Badaro,Roberto.
Forty-nine AIDS patients, most of who were antiretroviral therapy (ARV) naïve, with active tuberculosis, were treated with Rifampin 600mg, Isoniazid 400mg and Pirazinamide 2g daily. They also received ARV, consisting of Efavirenz (600mg/day) plus 2 NRTIs. All patients were prospectively followed for at least 24 months. Baselines were: male/female ratio 2:1, mean age 34.7 ± 9.4 yrs; weight 51 ± 9.0 kg, viral load 5.6 ± 0.6 logs, CD4 cell count 101 ± 128 cells/ mm³. Follow up mean values of data logs of VL and CD4+ cell /mm³ counts were: VL 1.7 and CD4+ 265; VL 1.3 and CD4+ 251; VL 1.4 and CD4+ 326 at 6, 12 and 24 months, respectively. Weight gain changes were: 5 ± 9.9 ± 12 and 21 ± 16 kg respectively at 6, 12 and 24 months. A non-concomitant ARV regimen was...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Tuberculosis; HIV/AIDS; Drug interaction; Rifampin; Efavirenz; Antiretroviral therapy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702004000300004
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Evaluation of HIV/AIDS patients' knowledge on antiretroviral drugs BJID
Almeida,Regina Flávia de Castro; Vieira,Anya Pimentel Gomes Fernandes.
Lack of information on antiretroviral drugs or the misunderstanding of available information can facilitate incorrect use of such drugs. This can result in non-adherence to the prescribed regimen, leading to a great possibility of a therapeutic failure. The aim of this study was to know which information HIV/AIDS patients, who receive their medicines at the pharmacy of a reference hospital in the northeast Brazil, have on the drugs they use, the source of this information and whether there is a need for additional information. A total of 195 HIV/AIDS patients, who were using either zidovudina + lamivudina 300+150mg (AZT+3TC), efavirenz 600mg (EFZ) or lopinavir/ritonavir 133.33/33mg (LPV/r), were interviewed. The mean age was 41 years (SD = 9.55) and 70.8%...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Drug information; Antiretroviral; Adherence; Non-adherence.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702009000300006
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Health and Growth: Causality through Education AgEcon
Huang, Rui; Fulginiti, Lilyan E.; Peterson, E. Wesley F..
Replaced with revised version of paper 08/24/09.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Africa; Life expectancy; Growth; Overlapping generations; Health Economics and Policy; International Development; I18; I20; O15.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51735
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High incidence of co-infection with Malaria and Typhoid in febrile HIV infected and AIDS patients in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria BJM
Agwu,E.; Ihongbe,J.C.; Okogun,G.R.A.; Inyang,N.J..
This survey was designed to determine the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and Salmonella Typhi among febrile HIV/AIDS patients in Ekpoma. Malaria and typhoid risk factors in Ekpoma included occupation, poor health facilities and poor sanitation. Malaria and typhoid are highly prevalent among Ekpoma HIV/AIDS patients.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Malaria; Typhoid; HIV/AIDS; Ekpoma.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822009000200022
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HIV/AIDS and Adolescent's School-Work Choices in Malawi AgEcon
Nankhuni, Flora J..
Malawi is facing a severe HIV/AIDS Pandemic. With an estimated prevalence rate of 14.2%, it ranks eight in the world. About 900,000 Malawians were infected by 2003 and there were110,000 new infections and 87,000 deaths due to HIV/AIDS in 2003. The disease has poten tially devastating impacts. For example, 'taking children out of school' is mentioned as one of the coping mechanisms (Garbus 2003) but evidence is mixed. Doctor (2004) found no statistically significant difference between enrollment of orphans and non-orphans and mentioned an effective extended family structure as explanation. However, HIV/AIDS, poverty, macroeconomic policies, and food shortages are reported to render informal safety networks of the extended family systems irrelevant (Garbus...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Demographic Economics; Time Allocation; Malawi; Labor and Human Capital; 01; J1; J2; Human Capital; 05.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25540
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HIV/AIDS and Agrarian Livelihoods in Zambia: A Test of the New Variant Famine Hypothesis AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, Thomas S.; Myers, Robert J..
Since the southern African food crisis of 2001/02, the ‘new-variant famine’ (NVF) hypothesis first proposed by de Waal and Whiteside (2003) has become an important part of the conventional wisdom surrounding the relationship between HIV/AIDS and food crises in the region. The NVF hypothesis suggests that HIV/AIDS is eroding agrarian livelihoods and exacerbating the effects of drought and other shocks on agrarian communities. These concepts have begun to shape the HIV/AIDS mitigation and food security policies and programs of governments and development agencies. To date, however, there is a dearth of empirical evidence to support the NVF hypothesis, and there have been no studies specifically designed to tests its predictions.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Policy; Zambia; Africa; HIV/AIDS; Crop Production/Industries; Health Economics and Policy; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54489
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HIV/AIDS and Agrarian Livelihoods in Zambia: a Test of the New Variant Famine Hypothesis. AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, Thomas S.; Myers, Robert J..
1. Consistent with the New Variant Famine (NVF) hypothesis, the negative impact of drought on crop output and output per hectare is further exacerbated where HIV prevalence rates are relatively high, particularly in the low- and medium rainfall zones of the country (agro-ecological regions I and II). 2. HIV prevalence rates and AIDS-related mortality rates in Zambia are highest in the lowest rainfall and most drought-prone zone of the country (agro-ecological region I). 3. Only for districts in agro-ecological region I do we find evidence of a robust negative effect of HIV/AIDS on agrarian livelihood indicators. Relatively stable food production zones and/or areas with relatively low HIV prevalence rates appear to be less vulnerable to the adverse effects...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; Zambia; HIV/AIDS; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; Q20.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54629
Registros recuperados: 55
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