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A Facial Expression Imitation System for the Primitive of Intuitive Human-Robot Interaction InTech
Do Hyoung Kim; Kwang Ho An; Yeon Geol Ryu; Myung Jin Chung.
This Chapter has attempted to deal with the issues on establishing a facial expression imitation system for natural and intuitive interactions with humans. Several real-time cognition abilities are implemented to a robotic system such as face detection, face tracking, and facial expression recognition. Moreover, a robotic system with facial components is developed, which is able to imitate human's facial expressions. A method of recognizing facial expressions is proposed through the use of an innovative rectangle feature. Using the AdaBoost algorithm, an expanded version of Viola and Jones' method has been suggested as a new approach. We deal with 7 facial expressions: neutral, happiness, anger, sadness, surprise, disgust, and fear. For each facial...
Tipo: 11 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_facial_expression_imitation_system_for_the_primitive_of_intuitive_human-robot_interaction
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Adaptive Personal Space for Humanizing Mobile Robots InTech
Janaka Chaminda Balasuriya; Chandrajith Ashuboda Marasinghe; Keigo Watanabe.
In this book chapter, a construction method for an automated system to generate a personal space for specific environmental condition has been attempted. Although the considered parameters were limited to only three namely, height, appearance, and familiarity, it will be possible to expand the system for any number of considerable parameters, once a very basic model has been created as performed by this research. The constructed system gave encouraging results as were seen by the comparison of test output values with the trained ANFIS output values for the same set of input environmental conditions (i.e. same input values of height, appearance, and familiarity gave very close output values of original output data values to that of active PS system output...
Tipo: 01 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/adaptive_personal_space_for_humanizing_mobile_robots
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Augmented Reality for Human-Robot Collaboration InTech
Scott A. Green; Mark Billinghurst; XiaoQi Chen; J. Geoffrey Chase.
This chapter began by establishing a need for human-robot collaboration. Human-human communication was discussed; a model for human-human collaboration created and this model was used as a reference model for human-robot collaboration. The state of humanrobot interaction was reviewed and how this interaction fits into the model of human-robot collaboration was explored. Augmented Reality technology was introduced, reviewed and how AR could be used to enhance human-robot collaboration was explored. Research directions were discussed and then design guidelines were outlined. Finally, a holistic architecture using AR as an enabling device for human-robot collaboration was presented. The model developed for human communication is based on three components; the...
Tipo: 04 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/augmented_reality_for_human-robot_collaboration
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Automatic Speech Recognition of Human-Symbiotic Robot EMIEW InTech
Masahito Togami; Yasunari Obuchi; Akio Amano.
We explained noise reduction technique and automatic speech recognition (ASR) under noisy environments. Human symbiotic robot EMIEW succeeded recognition under noisy environment at EXPO 2005 AICHI JAPAN. For high accuracy of ASR under noisy environment, noise reduction technique is necessary. In this chapter, robust noise reduction technique with a microphone array was proposed. Proposed Modified Delay and Sum Beam-Former (MDSBF) can localize sources more accurately than conventional Delay and Sum Beam-Former (DSBF) . A novel adaptation method of Minimum Variance Beam-Former (MVBF) with time-variant coefficient (SBMVBF) is proposed. Performance of ASR with proposed method was shown to be higher than conventional MVBF.
Tipo: 22 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/automatic_speech_recognition_of_human-symbiotic_robot_emiew
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Can robots replace dogs? Comparison of Temporal Patterns in Dog-Human and Robot-Human Interactions InTech
Andrea Kerepesi; Gudberg K. Jonsson; Eniko Kubinyi; Adam Miklosi.
To investigate whether humans interact with AIBO as a non-living toy rather than a living dog, we have analyzed the temporal patterns of these interactions. We have found that similarly to human interactions (Borrie et al 2002, Magnusson 2000, Grammer et al 1998) and human-animal interactions (Kerepesi et al 2005), human-robot interactions also consist of complex temporal patterns. In addition the numbers of these temporal patterns are comparable to those T-patterns detected in dog-human interactions in similar contexts. One important finding of the present study was that the type of the play partner affected the initialization and termination of T-patterns. Adults initialized T-patterns more frequently when playing with dog while T-patterns terminated by...
Tipo: 10 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/can_robots_replace_dogs_comparison_of_temporal_patterns_in_dog-human_and_robot-human_interactions
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Cognitive Robotic Engine: Behavioral Perception Architecture for Human-Robot Interaction InTech
Sukhan Lee; Seung-Min Baek; Jangwon Lee.
In this paper, we described the robotic architecture for dependable perception and action for service robot in dynamic environment. This architecture is organized to accomplish perception mission in spite of the integration of imperfect perception processes, and updated for managing multi-missions. The next step, we are planning to research on automatic discrimination method of system dependability.
Tipo: 13 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/cognitive_robotic_engine__behavioral_perception_architecture_for_human-robot_interaction
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Collective Motion of Multi-Robot System based on Simple Dynamics InTech
Ken Sugawara; Yoshinori Hayakawa; Tsuyoshi Mizuguchi; Masaki Sano.
In this article, we proposed a mathematical model which show several types of collective motions, and validated it. Firstly we constructed a model in which each element obeys the Newton equation with resistive and interactive force and has a degree of freedom of the heading vector which is parallel to the element axis, in addition to its position and velocity. Performance of the model was confirmed by numerical simulation, and we obtained several types of collective behavior, such as regular cluster motions, chaotic wandering and swarming of cluster without introducing random fluctuations. By introducing a set of dimensionless parameters, we formulated the collective motions and obtained the phase diagram and a new dimensionless parameter G. Lastly, we...
Tipo: 20 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/collective_motion_of_multi-robot_system_based_on_simple_dynamics
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Contact Task by Force Feedback Teleoperation Under Communication Time Delay InTech
Masahiro Nohmi; Thomas Bock.
This paper discusses our proposed strategy for space teleoperation under communication time delay, which makes it possible to know conditions of a remote manipulator through force reflection. In the proposed approach, the communication time delay and a contact force are displayed to the operator by the force reflection, and the remote manipulator can be operated as if the operator moves it through a virtual spring. By experimenting example tasks, characteristics and effectiveness of the proposed approach have been clarified. From experiment of vertical contact with target, it is noted that an operator notices contact more accurately when; (i) force reflection is calculated based on telemetry of force sensor; (ii) command input by velocity. Also, it is...
Tipo: 14 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/contact_task_by_force_feedback_teleoperation_under_communication_time_delay
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Designing Simple and Effective Expression of Robot's Primitive Minds to a Human InTech
Seiji Yamada; Takanori Komatsu.
6.1 Coverage of SE4PM We conducted psychological experiment to verify the effectiveness of SE4PM design policy, and it can be said that the results eventually supported our proposed SE4PM. However these results are concerned with just case studies and just one example of various SE4PM realizations. Hence we need to discuss the coverage of the experimental results. We consider the generality as to the following. First the results in this work show a concrete example that SE4PM-based robot design outperformed conventional one, with life-like and complicated appearance and expression, in expressing primitive minds. This also shows that another direction to design effective social robot without expensive appearance and actuators. Second, by developing various...
Tipo: 27 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/designing_simple_and_effective_expression_of_robot_s_primitive_minds_to_a_human
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Development of Service Robot System With Multiple Human User Interface InTech
Songmin Jia; Kunikatsu Takase.
We have been developing a network distributed multi-functional robotic system in order to improve care cost and the QoL of the elderly people. We proposed a novel method of localization of mobile robot using RFID system with a camera as it is flexible and easy to use. Because the information of obstacle or environment can be written in ID tags, the proposed method enables the localization easily and quickly compared with the other method. A video/audio conference system was also developed to improve the interaction among the users and enable web-user o get a better understanding of what is going on in the local environment. Considering multi-type user of the developed system, we have implemented various kinds of user interfaces that enable different users...
Tipo: 07 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/development_of_service_robot_system_with_multiple_human_user_interface
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Effect of Robot and Screen Agent Recommendations on Human Decision-Making InTech
Kazuhiko Shinozawa; Junji Yamato.
Figure 5 shows that the dimensionality of the ESA causes differences in the recommendation's effect on user decision-making. The 3D body was not always superior to the 2D body for recommendation, and on-screen agents seem to have weak points, too. Those differences cannot be explained only by the advantages or disadvantage of pointing. In the 2D world condition, the color region was presented on the computer display. The display was in 3D space, so the color region was presented in the 3D space. From this point of view, there should be no difference between the 2D and 3D world conditions and therefore no difference in the effect. There must therefore be some other reasons. The results changed according to the combination of the location pointed to and the...
Tipo: 19 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/effect_of_robot_and_screen_agent_recommendations_on_human_decision-making
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"From Saying to Doing" - Natural Language Interaction with Artificial Agents and Robots InTech
Christel Kemke.
In this paper we presented a framework for action descriptions and its connection to natural language interfaces for artificial agents. The core point of this approach is the use of a generic action/object hierarchy, which allows interpretation of natural language command sentences, issued by a human user, as well as planning and reasoning processes on the conceptual level, and connects to the level of agent executable actions. The linguistic analysis is guided by a case frame representation, which provides a connection to actions (and objects) represented on the conceptual level. Planning processes can be implemented using typical precondition and effect descriptions of actions in the conceptual hierarchy. The level of primitive actions (leaf nodes of...
Tipo: 09 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/_from_saying_to_doing__-_natural_language_interaction_with_artificial_agents_and_robots
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Human-Robot Interface for End Effectors InTech
Marcin Kaczmarski.
This work presented aspects connected with the structure and control of a five finger, anthropomorphic gripper, working under the supervision of a vision system. The presented construction is characterized by some simplifications in comparison to the real human hand, as it has only 9 Degrees Of Freedom. However, those limitations do not reduce its grasping possibilities, which was shown in the paper. This hand had no problem with grasping objects of different shapes by adapting the position of fingertips to the shape of body edge. The mechanical construction has an additional DOFs which could make its manipulating possibilities closer to the human hand; however, they are blocked to simplify the algorithms of the vision control feedback loop. Examples...
Tipo: 08 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/human-robot_interface_for_end_effectors
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Intelligent Space as a Platform for Human Observation InTech
Takeshi Sasaki; Hideki Hashimoto.
In this paper, we propose that environmental design for mobile robots and human observation are important tasks to develop robots for daily life, and that utilization of many intelligent devices embedded in the environment can realize both of these tasks. As an illustration, we investigate a mobile robot navigation system which can localize the mobile robot correctly and navigate based on observation of human walking in order to operate in the human shared space with minimal disturbance to humans. The human walking paths are obtained from a distributed vision system and frequently used paths in the environment are extracted. The mobile robot navigation based on observation of human is also performed with the support of the system. The position and...
Tipo: 17 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/intelligent_space_as_a_platform_for_human_observation
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Mixed-initiative Multirobot Control in USAR InTech
Jijun Wang; Michael Lewis.
In this experiment, the first of a series investigating control of cooperating teams of robots, cooperation was limited to deconfliction of plans so that robots did not re-explore the same regions or interfere with one another. The experiment found that even this limited degree of autonomous cooperation helped in the control of multiple robots. The results showed that cooperative autonomy among robots helped the operators explore more areas and find more victims. The fully autonomous control condition demonstrates that this improvement was not due solely to autonomous task performance as found in (Schurr et al. 2005) but rather resulted from mixed initiative cooperation with the robotic team. The superiority of mixed initiative control was far from a...
Tipo: 23 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/mixed-initiative_multirobot_control_in_usar
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Modeling and Control of Piezoelectric Actuators for Active Physiological Tremor Compensation InTech
U-Xuan Tan; Win Tun Latt; Cheng Yap Shee; Cameron Riviere; Wei Tech Ang.
Human hand is the best manipulator available. However, its manual positioning accuracy is limited due to the involuntary tremor motion. Most of the current methods are non-active compensating methods like filtering of the tremor motion. Examples include the master and slave systems and the third hand. In this chapter, since humans are in possession of a high dexterity manipulator with an unbeatable user interface, instead of replacing the human hand with a robotic manipulator, active compensation of the physiological tremor is proposed. Piezoelectric actuators are used to compensate the tremor motion. Two main contributions are made in this chapter, namely: (1) a rate-dependent feedforward controller; and (2) a solution to the inverse of an ill-conditioned...
Tipo: 21 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/modeling_and_control_of_piezoelectric_actuators_for_active_physiological_tremor_compensation
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Playing Games with Robots - A Method for Evaluating Human-Robot Interaction InTech
Min Xin; Ehud Sharlin.
From the description of our game-based HRI testbed above, we would like to provide some lessons learned in terms of the benefits and challenges of our approach and application. First and foremost, this testbed is relatively simple to construct and cost effective. Using readily available products such as the AIBO and the RolaBoardTM, we were able to rapidly construct and prototype our testbed. This again speaks to the flexible nature of games which can be created with whatever is easily assessable or modified to make implementation easier. Second, because the game has simple and well defined rules and is played within a bounded environment, we can rapidly prototype new games and design new user studies. In fact, we are currently in the second iteration of...
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/playing_games_with_robots_-_a_method_for_evaluating_human-robot_interaction
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Possibilities of Force based Interaction with Robot Manipulators InTech
Alexander Winkler; Jozef Suchy.
In this paper some possibilities and features of force based human robot interaction were presented. First, it was assumed that the robot manipulator is equipped with a six component force/torque wrist sensor to measure the interaction forces and torques caused by an operator. He or she tries to guide the robot throughout the work space by taking the
Tipo: 25 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/possibilities_of_force_based_interaction_with_robot_manipulators
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Posture and Movement Estimation Based on Reduced Information. Application to the Context of FES-based Control of Lower-Limbs InTech
Nacim Ramdani; Christine Azevedo-Coste; David Guiraud; Philippe Fraisse; Rodolphe Heliot; Gael Pages.
In this chapter we have introduced several approaches for the estimation, detection and classification of the posture or movement of disabled patients. They are founded on nonintrusive sensors and are meant for closed-loop control in the context of functional restoration via electrical stimulation. While taking advantage of an available walker, we have investigated the potential of using only arm support measurements. Then, we found that we can reconstruct patients standing postures only with a fairly large uncertainty. However, we found that these measurements can be used for detecting patients trunk movement. When miniature sensors are attached onto the patient's body, then it is possible to efficiently detect transitions such as sit-to-stand or classify...
Tipo: 16 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/posture_and_movement_estimation_based_on_reduced_information__application_to_the_context_of_fes-base
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Recognizing Human Pose and Actions for Interactive Robots InTech
Odest Chadwicke Jenkins; German Gonzalez Serrano; Matthew M. Loper.
We have presented a neuro-inspired method for monocular tracking and action recognition for movement imitation. Our approach combines vocabularies of kinematic motion learned offline with online estimation of a demonstrator's underlying virtual trajectory. A modular approach to pose estimation is taken for computational tractability and emulation of structures hypothesized in neuroscience. Our current results suggest our method can perform tracking and recognition from partial observations at interactive rates. Our current system demonstrates robustness with respect to the viewpoint of the camera, the speed of performance of the action, and recovery from ambiguous situations.
Tipo: 06 Palavras-chave: Human Robot Interaction.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/recognizing_human_pose_and_actions_for_interactive_robots
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