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Registros recuperados: 16
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Adapting to Climate Change: Social-Ecological Resilience in a Canadian Western Arctic Community Ecology and Society
Berkes, Fikret; University of Manitoba; berkes@cc.umanitoba.ca; Jolly, Dyanna; University of Manitoba; dyjolly@ihug.co.nz.
Human adaptation remains an insufficiently studied part of the subject of climate change. This paper examines the questions of adaptation and change in terms of social-ecological resilience using lessons from a place-specific case study. The Inuvialuit people of the small community of Sachs Harbour in Canada's western Arctic have been tracking climate change throughout the 1990s. We analyze the adaptive capacity of this community to deal with climate change. Short-term responses to changes in land-based activities, which are identified as coping mechanisms, are one component of this adaptive capacity. The second component is related to cultural and ecological adaptations of the Inuvialuit for life in a highly variable and uncertain environment; these...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Social-ecological systems; Sustainability science; Arctic; Canadian North; Inuit; Inuvialuit; Adaptive strategies; Climate change; Community-based research; Coping mechanisms; Human ecology; Participatory research; Participatory research; Resilience; Social-ecological systems.
Ano: 2001
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Eating up the world's food web and the human trophic level ArchiMer
Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Dubroca, Laurent; Le Pape, Olivier; Barde, Julien; Kaplan, David; Chassot, Emmanuel; Nieblas, Anne-elise.
Trophic levels are critical for synthesizing species' diets, depicting energy pathways, understanding food web dynamics and ecosystem functioning, and monitoring ecosystem health. Specifically, trophic levels describe the position of species in a food web, from primary producers to apex predators (range, 1-5). Small differences in trophic level can reflect large differences in diet. Although trophic levels are among the most basic information collected for animals in ecosystems, a human trophic level (HTL) has never been defined. Here, we find a global HTL of 2.21, i.e., the trophic level of anchoveta. This value has increased with time, consistent with the global trend toward diets higher in meat. National HTLs ranging between 2.04 and 2.57 reflect a...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Human ecology; Nutrition transition; Trophic ecology.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00171/28190/26609.pdf
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Education level and income are important for good environmental awareness: a case study from south Brazil Ecología austral
Strieder Philippssen,Juliana; Soares Angeoletto,Fábio H; Santana,Rosangela G.
The relationship between people and the environment is critical for the development of projects and actions towards the sustainable use of nature resources. This study investigated the relationship between a number of socio-demographic variables and environmental awareness in two cities of southern Brazil (Maringá and Sarandí). We found that levels of education and income were positively associated with environmental awareness. Individuals with higher level of education were 3.2 times more likely to have good environmental awareness than individuals with a lower level. Our results contribute to understand social-ecological interactions of urban citizens from this region and to develop management actions to involve urban residents into environmental...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Generalized linear models; Human ecology; Multinomial regression; Socio-demographic; Urban ecology.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1667-782X2017000100005
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Egan, D., and E.A. Howell, editors. 2001. The Historical Ecology Handbook: a Restorationist's Guide to Reference Ecosystems. Island Press, Washington. D. C., USA Ecology and Society
Pfeiffer, Jeanine; University of California at Davis; jmpfeiffer@ucdavis.edu; Espeland, Erin; ; ekespeland@ucdavis.edu.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Archaeology; Cultural ecology; Historical ecology; Human ecology; Paleobotany; Paleoecology; Reference ecosystems; Restoration ecology.
Ano: 2003
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Espaço, território e fronteira: elaboração e interpretação de mapas em assentamento de reforma agrária. Infoteca-e
VILELA, M. de F.; SOARES, V. P.; COELHO, F. M. G.; PEREIRA, R. de A..
0
Tipo: Fôlder / Folheto / Cartilha (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Caracterização ambiental; Geografia humana; Reforma agrária; Ocupação; Terra; Mapa; Geography; Human ecology; Ambient characterization; Agrarian reform; Ocupation; Land; Cartography.
URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/568325
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Fishermen's local ecological knowledge on Southeastern Brazilian coastal fishes: contributions to research, conservation, and management Neotropical Ichthyology
Silvano,Renato A. M.; Begossi,Alpina.
We analyzed fishermen's local ecological knowledge (LEK) about the feeding habits, trophic interactions, habitats, fishing grounds, migration, and reproduction of nine coastal fishes in Búzios Island, southeastern Brazilian coast. We interviewed 39 fishermen using standardized questionnaires. Fishermen's LEK on habitat use and trophic interactions for the studied fishes agreed with the scientific literature, allowing the organization of reef and pelagic food webs. The interviewed fishermen mentioned that submerged rock formations would be important habitats for some large commercial fishes, such as Seriola spp., Caranx latus and Epinephelus marginatus. In some instances there was no scientific data to be compared with fishermen's LEK, and thus this kind of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Ethnobiology; Fish behavior; Fish ecology; Human ecology; Small-scale fisheries.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-62252012000100013
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Folk taxonomy of fishes of artisanal fishermen of Ilhabela (São Paulo/Brazil) Biota Neotropica
Ramires,Milena; Clauzet,Mariana; Begossi,Alpina.
This article investigates the folk taxonomy of four artisanal fisheries communities in Ilhabela/SP. The local folk taxonomy shows how these fishermen identify, name and classify fish resources in the environment exploited by them. Forty-two fishermen from four different local communities of Ilhabela were interviewed through a structured questionnaire and photographs of fish species with occurrence for the southeast region of Brazil. Respondents identified the 24 species listed as 50 generic names and 27 binominal specific names, mainly related to aspects of fish species morphology such as color, shape and size. These fish were classified into eight groups according to local criteria related to the morphology, ecology and fishing forms associated with the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Ichthyofauna; Biodiversity; Biological classification; Human ecology; Ethnoecology; Fisheries resources.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1676-06032012000400002
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Local ecological knowledge on the goliath grouper epinephelus itajara (teleostei: serranidae) in southern Brazil Neotropical Ichthyology
Gerhardinger,Leopoldo Cavaleri; Marenzi,Rosemeri Carvalho; Bertoncini,Áthila Andrade; Medeiros,Rodrigo Pereira; Hostim-Silva,Maurício.
The goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara is a large sized (> 400 kg) and critically endangered marine fish, which is protected in many countries, including Brazil. Through the application of semi-structured interviews, we investigated the local ecological knowledge of seven fishermen specialist on catching E. itajara from the Babitonga bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Local long-line fisheries for E. itajara seemed to be a disappearing tradition in the studied site, with a detailed inherent local ecological knowledge system, which is also being lost. Our study also showed that fishermen engaged in recent fisheries, such as spear-fishing, can also possess a detailed local ecological knowledge system. Through the analysis of fishermen local ecological...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Ethnoecology; Marine conservation; Artisanal fisheries; Reef fish; Human ecology.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-62252006000400008
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Pluralism, Resilience, and the Ecology of Survival: Case Studies from the Pamir Mountains of Afghanistan Ecology and Society
Kassam, Karim-Aly S; Department of Natural Resources and the American Indian Program, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Cornell University ; ksk28@cornell.edu.
As resilience is observed under circumstances of systemic stress, the various ecological zones of the Pamir Mountains of Afghanistan and the cultural diversity contained within this milieu provide an appropriate setting from which to ask "How can a dynamic concept of pluralism inform adaptation, survival, and resilience in the face of dramatic socio-cultural and environmental change?" This paper asserts that understanding of resilience in coupled socio-cultural and ecological systems is enhanced by the concept of pluralism. The idea of ecological niche is enriched by sensitivity to culture, religion, ethnicity, lifestyle, and habitat. Facilitative relations between the ethnically diverse Kyrgyz and Wakhi, as well as the Pashtu and Shugni, contribute to...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Afghanistan; Arab Pashtu; Coupled systems; Human ecology; Kyrgyz; Pluralism; Pamir Mountains; Resilience; Shugni; Wakhi.
Ano: 2010
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The role of kinship in knowledge about medicinal plants: evidence for context-dependent model-based biases in cultural transmission? Acta Botanica
Brito,Camilla de Carvalho de; Ferreira-Júnior,Washington Soares; Albuquerque,Ulysses Paulino; Ramos,Marcelo Alves; Silva,Taline Cristina da; Costa-Neto,Eraldo Medeiros; Medeiros,Patrícia Muniz de.
ABSTRACT The similarity in traditional knowledge of medicinal plants was evaluated to draw inferences about the most important models for local knowledge transmission. The following questions were addressed: (1) Do related individuals possess greater similarity in knowledge of medicinal plants than unrelated individuals? (2) Do related individuals of the same generation possess greater similarity in knowledge than do related individuals of different generations? Semi-structured interviews were conducted on the medicinal plants known by the residents of a rural community in western Bahia. Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare Jaccard similarity values between related and unrelated individuals and between relatives of the same generation and relatives of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Cultural evolution; Cultural transmission; Ethnobotany; Evolutionary ethnobiology; Human ecology.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-33062019000200370
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The use of firewood in protected forests: collection practices and analysis of legal restrictions to extractivism Acta Botanica
Nascimento,Luciana Gomes de Sousa; Ramos,Marcelo Alves; Albuquerque,Ulysses Paulino; Araújo,Elcida de Lima.
ABSTRACT Restrictions to the collection of timber resources in protected areas have been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to describe the practices of firewood collection in a protected forest and the perceptions of collectors, particularly with regard to their adjustment to the rules of the local management plan. The study involved 102 participants of a rural community adjacent to the Araripe National Forest and employed semi-structured interviews, free-listing and in-situ survey techniques for ethnobiological data collection. The volume of wood stored was measured and monitored using a modification of the weight survey technique. The residents used 69 plant species for firewood Most of the informants self-reported disagreement with the rules...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Conservation unit; Dry forests; Ethnobotany; Forest extraction; Human ecology; Management plans.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-33062019000200292
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The use of fish in Ilhabela (São Paulo/Brazil): preferences, food taboos and medicinal indications Biota Neotropica
Ramires,Milena; Rotundo,Matheus Marcos; Begossi,Alpina.
This study was conducted in three communities of artisanal fishermen from Ilhabela, located on the northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil. The objective was to analyze the preferences, taboos and medicinal indications of fish and thus representing one of the interactions of fishermen with fish stocks. Data collection was conducted through interviews with the aid of semi-structured questionnaires. We interviewed 25 families, 29 residents in three communities studied during our fieldwork for data collection. Five interviews were done in Jabaquara Beach, 6 in Fome Beach and 14 Serraria Beach. During the interviews, 18 species were cited as preferred for consumption, 11 species considered to be taboo (food prohibited), 5 species were cited as avoided as food, and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Use of resources; Artisanal fishermen; Biodiversity; Ethnoecology; Human ecology.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1676-06032012000100002
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Use of Pristis spp. (Elasmobranchii: Pristidae) by Hunter-Gatherers on the Coast of São Paulo, Brazil Neotropical Ichthyology
Gonzalez,Manoel M. B..
Artifacts made from rays (rostral teeth and spine) are very common in shell mounds on the coast of São Paulo, Brazil. The presence of the genus Pristis among the studied species of elasmobranch fishes in this shell mounds reinforces the hypothesis these animals occurred in southeastern Brazil, and were used by hunter-gatherers. I analyzed twelve rostral teeth of the genus Pristis from shell mounds. The teeth have artificial marks left from making arrows and harpoons. The basic function of the teeth found in these shell mounds was the production of tools and ornaments. From the analyzed teeth, ten (83%) were associated to the faunal remain and two (17%) were associated with burials, and they can be considered as ceremonial or votive elements. There had been...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Sawfish; Elasmobranchs; Shell mounds; Zooarchaeology; Human ecology.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-62252005000300010
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What matters in free listing? A probabilistic interpretation of the salience index Acta Botanica
Chaves,Leonardo da Silva; Nascimento,André Luiz Borba do; Albuquerque,Ulysses Paulino.
ABSTRACT Free listing is a data collection technique used in different subject areas to characterize a given cultural domain. Analysis of a set of lists from a human population allows inferences to be made about the cultural salience of the items in that domain. However, the challenge that the salience index presents is establishing a threshold value for determining whether an item can be considered salient or not. The present analysis reveals how to determine which items of a list have non-randomly determined citation frequency and order. Monte Carlo techniques were used to create a hypothetical null scenario. The present analysis not only objectively identifies which items stand out in relation to the others, it also reveals which items can be considered...
Palavras-chave: Cognitive anthropology; Ethnobiology; Ethnobotany; Free-list; Human ecology.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-33062019000200360
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What matters when prioritizing a medicinal plant? A study of local criteria for their differential use Acta Botanica
Santos,Carina Silva; Barros,Fernanda Novais; Paula,Marcelo de; Rando,Juliana; Nascimento,Viviany Teixeira do; Medeiros,Patrícia Muniz de.
ABSTRACT The ethnobotanical literature lacks joint analyses of the factors that may influence the differential use of medicinal plants. This study intends to fill that void by evaluating the local criteria for the differential use of medicinal plants in a rural community in Northeastern Brazil. We chose two health problems (influenza and constipation) characterized as diseases by local (emic) classification to address the following hypotheses: (1) the most important medicinal plants are easier to acquire; (2) the most important medicinal plants are perceived as being more efficient; and (3) the most important medicinal plants taste better (greater palatability). The plants mentioned in interviews were ranked according to the perception of their use...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Differential use; Evolutionary ethnobiology; Human ecology; Socio-ecological systems; Traditional ecological knowledge.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-33062018000200297
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Women and Agroforestry: A Human Ecology Approach to Understanding The Needs and Priorities of Women Farmers in Africa AgEcon
Just, Lesley; Murray, Eloise C..
This study examined rural Ugandan women's lives to discover reasons why they may or may not practice agroforestry. These women are responsible for the triple roles of reproduction, production and community maintenance work, all carried out within the context of a gendered social environment. From the perspective of the social manifestations of gender, six key factors were identified. The findings were used to create a theoretical model of the interaction between rural women's lives and agroforestry systems. The model shows that agroforestry is not only a biophysical farming system; There is a human component in that interacts with other components to determine the success or failure of an agroforestry initiative. The model can be used to identify and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Women in development; Agroforestry programs; Human ecology; Women and work; Crop Production/Industries; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24102
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