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Registros recuperados: 33
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A Human-Like Approach to Footstep Planning InTech
Yasar Ayaz; Khalid Munawar; Mohammad Bilal Malik; Atsushi Konno; Masaru Uchiyama.
Our algorithm successfully demonstrates a novel global reactive footstep planning strategy with a human-like approach. Incremental graph expansion from simpler to more complex paths ensures formation of a simpler and more useful graph as compared to that formed by approaches such as the visibility graph. The trajectory generated is more energy-efficient since the robot does not have to lift its foot to a high location in every step as in case of game theory based approaches. The algorithm is considerably fast and reduces computational complexity by minimizing the number of alternate steps considered after planning each step. However, basing the cost of each step on energy or time optimisation criteria instead of just the complexity level of the stepping...
Tipo: 15 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_human-like_approach_to_footstep_planning
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A Novel Anthropomorphic Robot Hand and its Master Slave System InTech
Tetsuya Mouri; Haruhisa Kawasaki.
We have presented the newly developed anthropomorphic robot hand named the KH Hand type S and its master slave system using the bilateral controller. The use of an elastic body has improved the robot hand in terms of weight, the backlash of the transmission, and friction between the gears. We have demonstrated the expression of the Japanese finger alphabet. We have also shown an experiment of a peg-in-hole task controlled by the bilateral controller. These results indicate that the KH Hand type S has a higher potential than previous robot hands in performing not only hand shape display tasks but also in grasping and manipulating objects in a manner like that of the human hand. In our future work, we are planning to study dexterous grasping and manipulation...
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_novel_anthropomorphic_robot_hand_and_its_master_slave_system
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Affective Communication Model with Multimodality for Humanoids InTech
Hyun Seung Yang; Yong-Ho Seo; Il-Woong Jeong; Ju-Ho Lee.
This chapter presented the affective communication model for humanoids that is designed to lead human robot interactions by recognizing human emotional status and expressing its emotion through multimodal emotion channels like a human, and behaves appropriately in response to human emotions. We designed and implemented an affective human-robot communication model for a humanoid robot, which makes a robot communicate with a human through dialogue. Through this proposed model, a humanoid robot can communicate with humans by preserving emotional memories of users and topics, and it naturally engages in dialogue with humans. With explicit emotional memories on users and topics, in the proposed system, we successfully improved the affective interaction between...
Tipo: 28 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/affective_communication_model_with_multimodality_for_humanoids
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An Adaptive Biped Gait Generation Scheme Utilizing Characteristics of Various Gaits InTech
Kengo Toda; Ken Tomiyama.
A Sensor-Based Gait Generation method was introduced and an experimental system was built. Then, the system was implemented onto an original humanoid robot to evaluate operations and to demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results exhibited successful gait selection corresponding to the road surface condition obtained from sensor information. Additionally, walking velocity and the energy efficiency are both enhanced without reducing the success rate of walking. The design approach for Gait Selector based on both ZMP and the angular momentum adopted in this study is a sufficiently general and valid one. The developed Gait Selector should be applicable to many gaits and humanoids. However, more conditional branchings based not only...
Tipo: 11 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/an_adaptive_biped_gait_generation_scheme_utilizing_characteristics_of_various_gaits
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Artificial Muscles for Humanoid Robots InTech
Bertrand Tondu.
The functioning of natural skeletal muscle is based on microscopic phenomena that no technology is at present able to reproduce. The notion of artificial muscle is as a consequence mainly founded on a macroscopic model of the skeletal muscle. The mimicking of both tension-length and tension-velocity characteristics is aimed at giving future humanoid robots touch ability which is so fundamental in the `relational life' of human beings. No definitive technology has as yet emerged in the design of artificial muscle. It is, however, interesting to note that the most promising ones are based on the use of polymers whose physical properties (responses to chemical or physical agents, elasticity, etc.) mimic some dynamic properties of animal tissues. In particular...
Tipo: 5 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/artificial_muscles_for_humanoid_robots
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Bilinear Time Delay Neural Network System for Humanoid Robot Software InTech
Fumio Nagashima.
In this chapter, I describe the neural network suitable for building the total humanoid robot software system and show some applications. This method is characterized by • uniform implementation for wide variety of applications • simplicity for dynamically structure modification The software system becomes flexible by these characteristics. Now, I’m working on the general learning technique for this neural network. There is a possibility free from NFL problem (Wolper, 1997). This chapter is originally written for the RSJ paper in Japanese (Nagashima, 2006).
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/bilinear_time_delay_neural_network_system_for_humanoid_robot_software
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Bipedal Walking Pattern Design by Synchronizing the Motions in the Sagittal and Lateral Planes InTech
Chi Zhu; Atsuo Kawamura.
In this paper, a new design approach of bipedal walking pattern based on the synchronization of the motions in the sagittal and lateral planes are presented. With the discussion on the motions in these two planes, the fact is clarified that the motions in the sagittal and lateral planes are tightly coupled together. The motion parameters in the sagittal plane such as walking speed, walking time, and phase stride can be easily adjusted by altering the start and finish points of the double support phase in the lateral plane. Therefore, an approach for adjusting the walking speed by controlling the double support phase is naturally developed. Moreover, it is pointed out that a smooth and fast walking can be obtained by shortening the double support phase...
Tipo: 17 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/bipedal_walking_pattern_design_by_synchronizing_the_motions_in_the_sagittal_and_lateral_planes
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Communication Robots in Real Environments InTech
Masahiro Shiomi; Takayuki Kanda; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Norihiro Hagita.
We have developed an interactive robot system that combines autonomous robots and ubiquitous sensors. The system guided visitors through a science museum with human-like interaction, such as calling their names in a free-play behaviour and explaining exhibits with voice and gestures. In a two-month exhibition, 91,107 people visited the Osaka Science Museum, 11,927 of whom wore RFID tags to participate in the field trial. The results from questionnaires revealed that almost all of the visitors evaluated these robots highly.
Tipo: 29 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/communication_robots_in_real_environments
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Design of an Assistive Gait Device for Strength Endurance and Rehabilitation InTech
K. H. Low; Xiaopeng Liu; Haoyong Yu.
8.1 Conclusion This chapter has presented the development and control of a wearable lower exoskeleton system for augmentation of human walking ability, which incorporates human as the integral part of the control system and can relieve humans physical fatigue caused by excessive walking and heavy payloads. In this work, xPC Target, together with other toolboxes from MATLAB have been used so as to provide a real-time operating system and an integrated development environment for controlling the exoskeleton. Real-time control of the exoskeleton is implemented in this environment. At last, walking experiments are performed and demonstrated. 8.2 Future Work The first prototype is only a test bed to verify the control algorithms. It looks bulky and rough....
Tipo: 1 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/design_of_an_assistive_gait_device_for_strength_endurance_and_rehabilitation
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Development of a CORBA-based Humanoid Robot and its Applications InTech
Yasuo Nasu; Genci Capi; Hanafiah Yussof; Mitsuhiro Yamano; Masahiro Ohka.
We have developed anthropomorphic prototype humanoid robot; Bonten-Maru I and Bonten-Maru II. The Bonten-Maru humanoid robot series are one of few research prototype humanoid robots in the world which can be utilized in various aspects of studies. In this research, we utilized the Bonten-Maru in development of the CORBA-based humanoid robot control architecture, the optimal gait strategy and the teleoperation via internet. 7.1 CORBA-Based Humanoid Robot Control Architecture (HRCA) In this section, we proposed a new robot control architecture called HRCA. The HRCA is developed as a CORBA client/server system and is implemented on the Bonten-Maru I humanoid robot. The HRCA allows easy addition, deletion, and upgrading of new modules. We have carried out...
Tipo: 6 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/development_of_a_corba-based_humanoid_robot_and_its_applications
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Development of Biped Humanoid Robots at the Humanoid Robot Research Center, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) InTech
Ill-Woo Park; Jung-Yup Kim; Jungho Lee; Min-Su Kim; Baek-Kyu Cho; Jun-Ho Oh.
In this chapter, The HUBO-series robot platform development is introduced. HUBO, Albert HUBO, and HUBO FX-1 are biped humanoids. Each robot has its own character. HUBO is a biped humanoid robot. The major function of this robot is to walk with its two legs and imitate the human's motions such as hand shaking, bowing, and communicating in sign language. The system components of the control hardware are connected using a CAN communication line. The control system of HUBO is based on the distributed control
Tipo: 3 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/development_of_biped_humanoid_robots_at_the_humanoid_robot_research_center__kaist_
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Dexterous Humanoid Whole-Body Manipulation by Pivoting InTech
Eiichi Yoshida; Vincent Hugel; Pierre Blazevic; Kazuhito Yokoi; Kensuke Harada.
In this paper a pivoting manipulation method has been presented to realize dexterous manipulation that enables precise displacement of heavy or bulky objects. Through this application, we believe that the application area of humanoid robot can be significantly extended. A sequence of pivoting motion composed of two phases has been proposed, manipulation control and robot stepping motion. In the former phase, an impedance control and balancing control framework was introduced to control the required contact force for grasping and to maintain stability during manipulation respectively. Resolved momentum control is adopted for stepping motion in the latter phase. We then showed a sequence of pivoting motion to transport the objects towards the desired...
Tipo: 24 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/dexterous_humanoid_whole-body_manipulation_by_pivoting
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Generating Natural Motion in an Android by Mapping Human Motion InTech
Daisuke Matsui; Takashi Minato; Karl F. MacDorman; Hiroshi Ishiguro.
This paper has proposed a method of implementing humanlike motions by mapping their three-dimensional appearance to the android using a motion capture system. By measuring the android's posture and comparing it to the posture of a human subject, we propose a new method to evaluate motion sequences along bodily surfaces. Unlike other approaches that focus on reducing joint angle errors, we consider how to evaluate differences in the android's apparent motion, that is, motion at its visible surfaces. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the evaluation: the method can transfer human motion. However, the method is restricted by the speed of the motion. We have to introduce a method to deal with the dynamic characteristics (Ben=Amor et al., 2007)...
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/generating_natural_motion_in_an_android_by_mapping_human_motion
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Hierarchical Reactive Control for Soccer Playing Humanoid Robots InTech
Sven Behnke; Jorg Stuckler; Hauke Strasdat; Michael Schreiber.
This chapter described the design of the behavior control software for our humanoid soccer robots, which successfully took part as team NimbRo at the RoboCup 2006 competitions. We implemented the control software in a framework that supports a hierarchy of reactive behaviors. This structure restricts interactions between the system variables and thus reduces the complexity of behavior engineering. A kinematic interface for body parts made it possible to abstract from individual joints when implementing basic skills like omnidirectional walking. These basic skills made it possible to abstract from body parts when implementing more complex soccer behaviors. At this player level, our humanoid robots are very similar to wheeled or four-legged soccer robots....
Tipo: 33 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/hierarchical_reactive_control_for_soccer_playing_humanoid_robots
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Imitation Learning Based Talking Heads in Humanoid Robotics InTech
Enzo Mumolo; Massimiliano Nolich.
The estimation of articulatory static and dynamic configuration is one of the most difficult problems in voice technology. Several approaches have been attemped during the past years, and most of the difficulties are due to the fact that the articulatory-acoustic relation is not unique: different articulatory configurations can produce the same signal. The problem can be faced with suitable constraints which are needed to avoid the unrealistic configurations. One on the last work in this area has been reported in [60], which estimated articulatory parameters by finding the maximum a posteriori estimate of articulatory parameters for a given speech spectrum and the state sequence of a HMM--based speech production model. This model consists of HMMs of...
Tipo: 25 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/imitation_learning_based_talking_heads_in_humanoid_robotics
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Inertial Forces Posture Control for Humanoid Robots Locomotion InTech
Victor Nunez; Nelly Nadjar-Gauthier; Kazuhito Yokoi; Pierre Blazevic; Olivier Stasse.
In order to consider a whole body control approach capable of treating different kinds of locomotion modes, the consideration of a motion planing and a the posture controller stages is important. In this paper this approach is presented for the locomotion of a humanoid robot. With the proposed approach motions including aerial phases, can be considered. The inertial force posture controller presented here requires the locomotion to be specified using generalized inertial force, besides the trajectory of the extremities not in contact with the ground. This inertial forces can be planed for having zmp stable motion or desired angular momentum.
Tipo: 8 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/inertial_forces_posture_control_for_humanoid_robots_locomotion
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Intuitive Multimodal Interaction with Communication Robot Fritz InTech
Maren Bennewitz; Felix Faber; Dominik Joho; Sven Behnke.
In this chapter, we presented our humanoid communication robot Fritz. Fritz communicates in an intuitive, multimodal way. He employs speech, an animated face, eyegaze, and gestures to interact with people. Depending on the audio-visual input, our robot shifts its attention between different communication partners in order to involve them into an interaction. Fritz performs human-like arm and head gestures, which are synchronized to the speech synthesis. He generates pointing gestures with its head, eyes, and arms to direct the attention of its communication partners towards objects of interest. Fritz changes its emotional state
Tipo: 32 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/intuitive_multimodal_interaction_with_communication_robot_fritz
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Limit Cycle Walking InTech
Daan G.E. Hobbelen; Martijn Wisse.
In this chapter we have introduced the paradigm `Limit Cycle Walking'. This paradigm has been used for some time by a group of bipedal robotics researchers, but the concept had not been properly defined before: Limit Cycle Walking is a nominally periodic sequence of steps that is stable as a whole but not locally stable at every instant in time. Limit Cycle Walking releases the unnecessary stability constraint of sustained local stability that is often applied in bipedal robots. It only requires the much less restrictive cyclic
Tipo: 14 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/limit_cycle_walking
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Methods for Environment Recognition Based on Active Behaviour Selection and Simple Sensor History InTech
Takahiro Miyashita; Reo Matsumura; Kazuhiko Shinozawa; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Norihiro Hagita.
In this paper, we proposed a method for recognizing environment and selecting appropriate behaviours for humanoid robots based on sensor histories. By using the method, the robot could select effective behaviours to recognize current environment. For ten different environments that are typical in a Japanese family's house, the results of these experiments indicated that the robot successfully recognized them by five basic motions shown in Table 3. However, we should consider the case when number of candidates of current environment does not converge to one. In the case, the robot should acquire new sensor data and rebuild the decision trees, then recognize the environment, again. After these processes, when the number of candidates of the environment...
Tipo: 20 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/methods_for_environment_recognition_based_on_active_behaviour_selection_and_simple_sensor_history
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Mixed Logic Dynamical Modeling and On Line Optimal Control of Biped Robot InTech
Yingjie Yin; Shigeyuki Hosoe.
In this study, we proposed a MLD modeling and MPC approach for the on line optimization of biped motion. Such modeling approach possesses advantage that it describes both the continuous dynamics and the impact event within one framework, consequently it provides a unified approach for mathematical, numerical and control investigations. This MLD model allows model predictive control (MPC) and subsequent stability from the numerical analysis viewpoints, by powerful MIQP solver. Hence the biped robot can be on line controlled without pre-defined trajectory. The optimal solution corresponds to the optimal gait for current environment and control requirement. The feasibility of the MLD model based predictive control is shown by simulations. How to effectively...
Tipo: 16 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/mixed_logic_dynamical_modeling_and_on_line_optimal_control_of_biped_robot
Registros recuperados: 33
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