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A concern about low relative income, and the alignment of utilitarianism with egalitarianism AgEcon
Stark, Oded; Kobus, Martyna; Jakubek, Marcin.
A utilitarian social planner who maximizes social welfare assigns the available income to those who are most efficient in converting income into utility. However, when individuals are concerned about their income falling behind the incomes of others, the optimal income distribution under utilitarianism is equality of incomes.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Utilitarianism; Income equality; Social welfare maximization; Relative income; Labor and Human Capital; H0; I0; I30; I31.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117257
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A REVIEW OF FOOD SECURITY AND HUMAN NUTRITION ISSUES IN NEPAL AgEcon
Shively, Gerald E.; Gars, Jared; Sununtnasuk, Celeste.
Nepal faces multiple development challenges, including chronic and widespread food insecurity and adult and child malnutrition. Due to population growth, agricultural stagnation and a range of institutional failures, the threat of a serious food crisis in Nepal is substantial. The recent scaling back of WFP assistance means that food security conditions in some parts of Nepal will undoubtedly worsen in the near future. This paper presents a brief review of topics and available evidence regarding food security, malnutrition and related subjects in Nepal. It is intended to document important source material and provide an overview of topics for non-specialists or those moving into new areas of concern.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Health; Nutrition; Nepal; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; I12; I31; O19; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116190
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A SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF QUALITY OF LIFE INDICES ACROSS COUNTRIES AgEcon
Rahman, Tauhidur; Mittelhammer, Ronald C.; Wandschneider, Philip R..
This paper attempts to provide a comprehensive analysis of interrelationships among the determinants of the Quality of Life (QOL). We show that various measures of well-being are highly sensitive to domains of QOL that are considered in the construction of comparative indices, and how measurable inputs into the well-being indicators are aggregated and weighted to arrive at composite measures of QOL. We present a picture of conditions among the 43 countries of the world with respect to such interrelated domains of QOL as the relationship with family and friends, emotional well-being, health, work and productivity, material well-being, feeling part of one's community, personal safety, and the quality of environment. On the basis of Borda Rule and the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Quality of life; Domains; Borda rule; Principal components; And rankings; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; I31; D60; D63.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/22045
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Being Poor, Feeling Poorer: Combining Objective and Subjective Measures of Welfare in Albania AgEcon
Carletto, Calogero; Zezza, Alberto.
As shown empirically for many transition economies, even small changes in assumptions on economies of size and adult equivalence scales are likely to produce significant changes in the analysis of poverty and its distribution across households and individuals. Since such exercises are then used to orient and prioritize policy actions (e.g. the targeting of scarce social assistance resources) it is important to refine our understanding of the extent to which poverty measures and the resulting profiles are sensitive to specific assumptions. In this paper we investigate how combining objective and subjective measures of welfare can provide insights that are helpful in addressing these questions, particularly with respect to the presence of economies of scale...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Poverty; Poverty Measurement; Subjective Poverty; Equivalence Scales; Economies of Scale in Consumption; Albania.; Food Security and Poverty; I31; I32; O52; D60.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23801
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Country Patterns of Behavior on Broader Dimensions of Human Development AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav; Stewart, Frances; Samman, Emma.
This paper adopts a more expansive definition of Human Development than that encompassed by the Human Development Index in order to explore diverse country patterns of behavior in relation to these broadened dimensions. We proceed by first identifying the dimensions to be investigated and subsequently present the methodology adopted for clarifying country behavior with respect to these dimensions. Countries are shown to differ substantially in terms of their choices among the independent dimensions of well-being which may or may not be constrained by history or culture. We then group countries by level of per capita income, experience with internal conflict, region of the world, oil, wealth, distance from the equator, distance from the sea, in the search...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Human Development; Quality of Life; Happiness; Capabilities; Country Behavior; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; I31; O15; O57.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6877
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Employment, Income and Labour Supply Decision of Rural Households : An Economic Analysis of MGNREGS in Tamil Nadu AgEcon
Devi, T. Sivasakthi; Balasubramanian, R.; Kumar, B. Ganesh.
In India, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGMGNREGS) is one of the major rural development programmes. It provides guaranteed employment to the rural households for 100 days in a year. This paper has attempted to find out the employment status, income and labour supply decision of the participants and non-participants of MGNREGS in Tamil Nadu. It has also studied the household nutritional security of these households. The study has revealed that the number of migrants in the family, number of livestock units owned, and number of person-days employed in agriculture, nonagriculture and MGNREGS are significantly influenced by the household income of the participants and non-participants of MGNREGS. The analysis of household...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: MGNREGS; Employment; Income; Labour supply; Agricultural and Food Policy; J21; J22; H23; I31.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119400
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Gender Differences in Pro-social Behaviour: The Case of Fair-trade Food Consumers AgEcon
De Devitiis, Biagia; De Luca, Anna Irene; Maietta, Ornella Wanda.
Objective of this paper is to analyse the presence of gender differences in the purchase motivations of Fair Trade (FT) food products sold in the Italian World Shops (WS). At this end, a questionnaire has been distributed to a sample of consumers in four Italian regions. A bivariate ordered probit analysis has been performed in order to identify the determinants of the two main ethical motivations in the purchase: worker guarantees and solidarity. The variables used as determinants are individual and municipal characteristics. Among individual characteristics, gender is significant; among the municipal characteristics, the rate of female job market participation is also significant. These results give evidence of a gender gap in the preferences for public...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Ethical consumerism; Gender preferences; Fair trade; Consumer/Household Economics; Labor and Human Capital; D12; I31; L31; Z13.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114372
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Human Development: Beyond the HDI AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav; Stewart, Frances; Samman, Emma.
This paper explores ways of enlarging the measurement and understanding of Human Development (HD) beyond the relatively reductionist Human Development Index. From the extensive literature on well-being, we derived eleven categories of HD. Within each category, we then identified a potential set of indicators which were measurable and reflect performance with respect to that category. In order to reduce the number of indicators representing each category, we included only one for any set highly rank order correlated with each other, as well as including indicators not correlated with any other indicator in that category. Our aim was to retain only indicators which are broadly independent of each other. We subsequently investigated the extent of correlation...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Human development; Quality of life; Comparative country performance; Labor and Human Capital; I31; O15; O57.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28389
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Life Satisfaction Over Time Among Rural Low-income Mothers AgEcon
Mammen, Sheila; Bauer, Jean W.; Lass, Daniel A..
Replaced with revised version of paper 11/05/09. Former title: Life Satisfaction among Rural Low-income Mothers: The Influence of Health, Human, Personal, and Social Capital
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Satisfaction with life; Rural low-income mothers; Health capital; Human capital; Personal capital; Social capital; Homeostatis; Labor and Human Capital; I30; I31; I32; I39.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47511
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Local Food Impacts on Health and Nutrition AgEcon
Ferrer, Myra Clarisse R.; Fonsah, Esendugue Greg; Ramirez, Octavio A.; Escalante, Cesar L..
Prevalence of local foods is believed to answer several food issues one of which is health and nutrition. This study focused on the on the availability of local foods to consumers and see its relationship with two specific diet-related diseases namely, obesity and diabetes. Other variables were included in the analysis to provide additional evidence to previous findings. Factors considered are divided into 5 groups namely diet-, local food-, environment-, education- and gender-related factors. Diet- and environment-related variables provide the most perceptive findings while local food variables provided significant however weak evidence of positive impacts to health and nutrition.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Local foods; Diabetes; Obesity; Food environment; Farmers' market; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; I15; I31.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103664
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Migration, Household Composition, and Child Welfare in Rural Northeast Thailand AgEcon
Cameron, Michael P.; Lim, Steven.
In many developing countries the composition of rural households is influenced by the migration of adult household members to urban locations in search of employment. Children may be left in the care of their mother alone, or in the care of grandparents when both parents have migrated. Using representative data from a household survey conducted in rural Northeast Thailand in 2003, this paper investigates whether household composition has any effect on the welfare of children, as measured by anthropometric measurements including height-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight-for-height. Our findings suggest that household types other than nuclear families result in some significantly worse child nutritional outcomes. The implication is that governments should...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Migration; Household composition; Children; Thailand; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Environmental Economics and Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; I31; O15; O18.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98508
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THE DETERMINANTS OF HAPPINESS AMONG RACE GROUPS IN SOUTH AFRICA AgEcon
Ebrahim, Amina.
This paper tests for happiness differences among race groups in South Africa and also investigates the determinants of happiness for each race group. Using data from the 2008 National Income Dynamics Survey, the results indicate that reported happiness differs substantially among race groups, with Blacks being the least happy. The determinants of happiness also differ between race groups. While Whites attached greater importance to physical health, employment status and absolute income matter greatly for Blacks. For Coloureds and Blacks, relative income is an important determinant of happiness, with religious importance significantly contributing to the happiness of Indians/Asians.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Happiness; Race; Determinants; South Africa; Health Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Public Economics; I31; D60.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107588
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The influence of the natural environment and climate on life satisfaction in Australia AgEcon
Ambrey, Christopher L.; Fleming, Christopher M..
The narrative of the twentieth century is dominated by three key trends: population growth, economic growth and urbanisation. Moreover, these trends are expected to continue well into the twenty-first century. Australia has not been immune to these trends. Australia’s population is projected to increase by 65% to over 35 million by 2049, and be accompanied by an average growth in per-capita Gross Domestic Product of 1.5% per annum. Much of this population and economic growth will be concentrated in an already highly urbanised environment. As a consequence, the natural environment in which the majority of Australians live is likely to undergo rapid change. It is useful therefore, to better understand our relationship with this environment. Using data from...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C21; I31; R10.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100548
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