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Registros recuperados: 19
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Biotech--Who Wins? Economic Benefits and Costs of Biotechnology Innovations in Agriculture AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
The conceptual model necessary for an assessment of biotechnology's economic benefits and costs is outlined, emphasizing the need to account for the proprietary nature of biotechnology innovations. The model is illustrated with an application to Roundup Ready soybeans. The estimated value of this innovation is sizeable, with consumers and innovators claiming the largest shares of net benefits. Also, disparities in intellectual property rights protection across countries affect the distribution of benefits. Consumer resistance toward GMOs and the issue of labelling and market segregation complicate the economic evaluation of biotechnology innovations; a number of related regulation and public policy issues are discussed. Emerging output-trait GMOs are...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Genetically modified organisms; Identity preservation; Intellectual property rights; R&D; Transgenic crops; Welfare evaluation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23862
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COOPERATIVE MARKETING IN SPECIALTY GRAINS AND IDENTITY PRESERVED GRAIN MARKETS AgEcon
Janzen, Edward L.; Wilson, William W..
Marketing of specialty and identity preserved grains has become an important strategy in the grain marketing industry and is being driven, in part, by consumer and processor demand and an interest in non-GM products. This study provides background and practices of numerous organizations involved in marketing of specialty/identity preserved grains. Supporting marketing activities are reviewed. Key factors in the success (or failure) of their efforts are identified. Major challenges facing the participants in the specialty/IP grain marketing industry are discussed. The primary focus is on the role of agricultural cooperatives and producer owned alliances.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Identity preservation; IP; Segregation; Traceability; Specialty products; Genetically modified; GM; Non-GM; Cooperative; Alliance.; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23558
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Cost and benefits for the segregation of GM and non-GM compound feed AgEcon
Gryson, N.; Eeckhout, M.; Neijens, T..
Measures are being developed and implemented enabling the co-existence of conventional, genetically modified (GM) and organic cropping systems. In order to segregate GM from conventional crops in the entire supply chain, a food or feed company has to reorganise its production. This may involve for dedication of the production line to non-GM, or production can be organised on the same plant, using spatial or temporal segregation. In practice, only the latter method is used in the feed industry, as no investments in new machinery are necessary in the case. The segregation and identity preservation of GM and non-GM crops has to be well organised. An important tools used to proof the identity of the imported raw materials is the batch or product declaration...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: GMO; Co-existence; Costs; Segregation; Identity preservation; Compound feed; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44418
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COSTS AND RISKS OF TESTING AND SEGREGATING GM WHEAT AgEcon
Wilson, William W.; Dahl, Bruce L..
Development of genetically modified crops is challenging the functions of the grain marketing system with many participants arguing for Identity Preservation systems prior to release of GM varieties. In this study, a stochastic optimization model was developed to determine optimal testing strategies. The model chooses the optimal testing strategy that maximizes utility (minimizes disutility) of additional system costs due to testing and rejection and allows estimation of the risk premium required for sellers to undertake a dual marketing system with GM/Non-GM segregations over the current Non-GM system. Elements of costs (testing costs, rejection costs, and risk premium) were estimated for a base model representing a grain export chain. The model...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Genetically modified organisms; Biotechnology; Wheat; Risk; Segregation; Identity preservation; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23480
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COSTS AND RISKS OF TESTING AND SEGREGATING GM WHEAT - SUMMARY AgEcon
Wilson, William W.; Dahl, Bruce L..
Development of genetically modified crops is challenging the functions of the grain marketing system with many participants arguing for Identity Preservation (IP) systems prior to release of GM varieties. In this study, a stochastic optimization model was developed to determine optimal testing strategies. The model chooses the optimal testing strategy that maximizes utility (minimizes disutility) of additional system costs due to testing and rejection and allows estimation of the risk premium required for sellers to undertake a dual marketing system with GM/Non-GM segregations over the current Non-GM system. Elements of costs (testing costs, rejection costs, and risk premium) were estimated for a base model representing a grain export chain. The model...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Genetically modified organisms; Biotechnology; Wheat; Risk; Segregation; Identity preservation; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23502
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Does On-Farm Quality Assurance Pay? A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Grainsafe Program AgEcon
Karaca, Umit; Alexander, Corinne E.; Maier, Dirk E..
Since the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops, the commodity grain system has been under pressure to segregate GM and non-GM crops. Starting at the level of the grain handler, members of the grain supply chain have successfully used quality assurance and identity preservation programs to segregate non GM crops. Producers delivering high-value, identity-preserved crops have become interested in implementing these quality management systems at the farm level. We conduct a cost-benefit analysis that shows that quality assurance program may be profitable for producers, depending on their farm size and equipment management strategy.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Risk; Cost-benefit analysis; Identity preservation; On-farm quality assurance; Crop Production/Industries; Risk and Uncertainty; Q12; Q16.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6057
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Economic Benefits and Costs of Biotechnology Innovations in Agriculture AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
The conceptual model necessary for an assessment of biotechnology's economic benefits and costs is outlined, emphasizing the need to account for the proprietary nature of biotechnology innovations. The model is illustrated with an application to Roundup Ready soybeans. The estimated value of this innovation is sizeable, with consumers and innovators claiming the larger share of net benefits. Also, disparities in intellectual property rights protection across countries affect the distribution of benefits. Consumer resistance toward genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the issues of labeling and market segregation complicate the economic evaluation of biotechnology innovations, and a number of related regulation and public policy issues are discussed....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Genetically modified organisms; Identity preservation; Intellectual property rights; R&D; Transgenic crops; Welfare evaluation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18413
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ECONOMIC ISSUES IN AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY AgEcon
Shoemaker, Robbin A.; Harwood, Joy L.; Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Dunahay, Terry; Heisey, Paul W.; Hoffman, Linwood A.; Klotz-Ingram, Cassandra; Lin, William W.; Mitchell, Lorraine; McBride, William D.; Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge.
Agricultural biotechnology has been advancing very rapidly, and while it presents many promises, it also poses as many questions. Many dimensions to agricultural biotechnology need to be considered to adequately inform public policy. Policy is made more difficult by the fact that agricultural biotechnology encompasses many policy issues addressed in very different ways. We have identified several key areas — agricultural research policy, industry structure, production and marketing, consumer issues, and future world food demand — where agricultural biotechnology is dramatically affecting the public policy agenda. This report focuses on the economic aspects of these issues and addresses some current and timely issues as well as longer term issues.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Economics; Adoption; Patents; Research policy; Markets; Market segmentation; Identity preservation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33735
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GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROP INNOVATIONS AND PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION: TRADE AND WELFARE EFFECTS IN THE SOYBEAN COMPLEX AgEcon
Sobolevsky, Andrei; Moschini, GianCarlo; Lapan, Harvey E..
We develop a new partial equilibrium, four-region world trade model for the soybean complex comprising soybeans, soybean oil, and soybean meal. In the model, some consumers view genetically modified Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans and products as weakly inferior to conventional ones; the RR seed is patented and sold worldwide by a U.S. firm; and producers employ a costly segregation technology to separate conventional and biotech products in the supply chain. The calibrated model is solved for equilibrium prices, quantities, production patterns, trade flows, and welfare changes under different assumptions regarding regional government's production and trade policies, differentiated consumer tastes, and several other demand and supply parameters. Incomplete...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Differentiated demand; Food labeling; Genetically modified products; Identity preservation; Innovations; Intellectual property rights; International trade; Loan deficiency payments; Market failure; Monopoly; Roundup Ready soybeans; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18348
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How do GM / non GM coexistence regulations affect markets and welfare? AgEcon
Desquilbet, Marion; Poret, Sylvaine.
This paper presents a theoretical economic model assessing the effect of the level of mandatory genetically modified (GM) / non-GM coexistence regulations on market and welfare outcome. We assume vertical differentiation of GM and non-GM goods on the consumer side. Producers are heterogeneous in their cost savings from GMO adoption. Producers of non-GM crops face a probability of having their harvest downgraded if gene flow from GM fields makes its GMO content above the labeling threshold. The government may impose to GMO producers mandatory ex ante isolation distances from non-GM fields in order to decrease the probability of non-GM harvest downgrading. It may also introduce an ex post compensation to non-GMO farmers for profit losses due to harvest...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Genetically modified organisms; Coexistence; Identity preservation; Regulation; Liability; Vertical differentiation; Law and economics; Marketing; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114757
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IDENTITY PRESERVATION AND LABELING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PRODUCTS: SYSTEM DESIGN AND ENFORCEMENT ISSUES AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo; Lapan, Harvey E..
This paper analyzes economic issues that arise in devising a credible and enforceable system of identity preservation and labeling for genetically modified (GM) and non-GM products. The model represents three stages in the supply chain: farm production, marketing handlers, and final users. The possibility of accidental co-mingling of non-GM products is modeled at the marketing stage. Regulation takes the form of a threshold level of purity for non-GM products, a probability of government testing to verify compliance with the threshold level, and a fine for violators. Uncertainty is modeled explicitly, such that would-be suppliers of non-GM products always face some risk of failing the test and incurring a fine. The paper also presents a novel demand...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Enforcement; Food labeling; Identity preservation; Regulation; Uncertainty; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18355
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IMPACT OF IDENTITY PRESERVATION OF NON-GMO CROPS ON THE GRAIN MARKET SYSTEM AgEcon
Vandeburg, Jennifer M.; Fulton, Joan R.; Dooley, Frank J.; Preckel, Paul V..
The impact of identity preservation (IP) for genetically modified grains (GMOs) on the grain handling system for a typical region in the Eastern Corn Belt is examined. A cost minimizing linear programming model of the transshipment system from farms to grain elevators to grain users tracks shipments and costs through the marketing system. This study compares two different grain segregation strategies: segregating grain within the elevator and designating specific elevators as IP-only facilities. As the cost per unit for grain segregation increases, the designated plant strategy becomes the most cost efficient strategy.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Cooperative; Genetically modified; GMO; Grain segregation; Grain handling; Identity preservation; IP; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28627
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Labeling Regulations and Segregation of First- and Second-Generation Genetically Modified Products: Innovation Incentives and Welfare Effects AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo; Lapan, Harvey E..
We review some of the most significant issues and results on the economic effects of genetically modified (GM) product innovation, with emphasis on the question of GM labeling and the need for costly segregation and identity preservation activities. The analysis is organized around an explicit model that can accommodate the features of both first-generation and second-generation GM products. The model accounts for the proprietary nature of GM innovations and for the critical role of consumer preferences vis-a-vis GM products, as well as for the impacts of segregation and identity preservation and the effects of a mandatory GM labeling regulation. We also investigate briefly a novel question in this setting, the choice of 'research direction' when both...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Identity preservation; Labeling; Market failure; Product differentiation; Welfare; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18535
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MARKETING MECHANISMS TO FACILITATE CO-EXISTENCE OF GM AND NON-GM CROPS AgEcon
Henry, Benjamin; Wilson, William W.; Dahl, Bruce L..
Development of genetically modified (GM) and specialty crops has had a great impact on the grain handling industry during recent years. Added costs associated with handling these crops have become an important issue for grain handlers. For this study, data were collected from a survey of elevators in the Upper Midwest. The information focused on segregation practices, time requirements, and costs. This study shows the different costs (grading and handling) associated with segregation practices at the grain-handler level. The results revealed that the cost of modifying systems to handle GM is of major importance. A stochastic simulation model of an engineering cost function is developed to analyze costs for segregation and testing using results from the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Genetically modified crops; Identity preservation; Segregation; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23557
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On the Segregation of Genetically Modified, Conventional, and Organic Products in European Agriculture: A Multi-market Equilibrium Analysis AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo; Bulut, Harun; Cembalo, Luigi.
Evaluating the possible benefits of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops must address the issue of consumer resistance as well as the complex regulation that has ensued. In the European Union (EU) this regulation envisions the "co-existence" of GM food with conventional and quality-enhanced products, mandates the labelling and traceability of GM products, and allows only a stringent adventitious presence of GM content in other products. All these elements are brought together within a partial equilibrium model of the EU agricultural food sector. The model comprises conventional, GM and organic food. Demand is modelled in a novel fashion, whereby organic and conventional products are treated as horizontally differentiated but GM products are...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Differentiated demand; Genetically modified crops; Identity preservation; Innovation; Welfare; Production Economics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18531
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Ten Conversations about Identity Preservation: Implications for Cooperatives AgEcon
Goldsmith, Peter D.; Bender, Karen.
Motivation: While it appears the modern economy demands ever increasing amounts of differentiation, opportunities for grain producers to create and capture significant new sources of value remains elusive. Opportunities appear to loom large to help remove risk and improve quality in the grain supply chain through preservation of product identity, producers, producer groups, and cooperatives are frustrated at the low level of value available to them from IP demand. Why do premiums remain low? And, what is the role of group action in these new differentiated markets? Objectives: This research report helps to explain this apparent paradox underlying the economics of the value proposition for IP grains. Methodology: Needs assessments were conducted on...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Identity preservation; Supply chain management; Value creation; Group action; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31803
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THE CHANGING FACE OF THE U.S. GRAIN SYSTEM: DIFFERENTIATION AND IDENTITY PRESERVATION TRENDS AgEcon
Elbehri, Aziz.
This report examines current trends in the U.S. grain industry. Many identity preservation(IP) grain systems have emerged recently, driven by a confluence of supply and demand factors. IP grain requirements for specific production protocols, marketing channels, and quality assurance depend on whether the crops are trait-specific, non-GM (genetically modified), organic, or pharmaceutical. Cost structures vary according to the relative importance of segregation and risk management. High information management, greater market coordination, and frequent reliance on contracts characterize IP grains. IP grain markets are also inherently riskier, with volatile supply, inelastic demand, and fluctuating price premiums. Increasing grain differentiation is altering...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Identity preservation; Production differentiation; Specialty grain; Segregation cost; Traceability; Quality assurance; Grain attributes; Risk management; Information management; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7185
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Traceability in the Canadian Red Meat Sector AgEcon
Hobbs, Jill E..
The agri-food chain today is significantly different from that of twenty years ago. Changing consumer demands, knowledge intensive technology, North American integration and globalization have all contributed to the evolution of the different segments of the chain, which include input suppliers, agricultural producers, food processors, and food distributors. The purpose of the performance report series is to create a picture of the economic health of the entire agri-food chain and its various segments, and to identify the challenges and opportunities that they will face in the future. To get a full picture of each component's and the whole chain's economic health, these reports will measure economic performance from several different perspectives;...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: North American integration; Globalization; Performance Report Series; Competitiveness; Profitability; Agri-food value chain; Traceability; Meat and livestock; Traceability systems; Traceback systems; Identity preservation; Quality assurances; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Marketing; Production Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55304
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WILLINGNESS TO PLANT IDENTITY PRESERVED CROPS: THE CASE OF MISSISSIPPI SOYBEANS AgEcon
Hudson, Darren; Jones, Tom.
The willingness to plant identity preserved (IP) crops was examined using Mississippi soybean producers as an example. A contingent valuation framework was used to assess the impacts of offered premiums on a producer's probability of planting IP soybeans. Findings suggest that offered premiums significantly affect planting decisions. In addition, desire to learn more about IP production was found to increase the probability of planting, suggesting that desire to learn leads to experimentation. Finally, prior knowledge or experience planting IP crops significantly decreased the probability of planting.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Identity preservation; Soybeans; Contingent valuation; Experimentation; Logit; Probit; Crop Production/Industries; Q13; Q16.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15444
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