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Registros recuperados: 13
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Community Pressure and Clean Technology in the Informal Sector: An Econometric Analysis of the Adoption of Propane by Traditional Mexican Brickmakers AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Bannister, Geoffrey J..
In many developing countries the informal sector, comprised of low-technology unlicensed micro-enterprises, is a major source of pollution. Environmental management in this sector is exceptionally challenging. Though clean technologies offer a means of mitigating the problem, to our knowledge there has been no rigorous empirical research on why informal (or even small-scale) firms do and do not adopt them. As a first step towards filling this gap, this paper presents the results of an econometric analysis of the diffusion of propane among informal 'traditional' brickmakers in Cd. Juárez, Mexico--a leading source of air pollution owing to their reliance on cheap, highly polluting fuels such as used tires and scrap wood. The two key policy implications of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environment; Community pressure; Clean technology; Informal sector; Technology adoption; Brickmaking; Mexico; Environmental Economics and Policy; O17; O22; O33; Q25; C25; L61.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10529
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¿Crisis real o crisis de expectativas?: el empleo en el Perú antes y después de las reformas estructurales AgEcon
Saavedra Chanduvi, Jaime.
En esta investigación se analizan los mecanismos de ajuste del mercado de trabajo entre 1986 y 1997. Luego de un estancamiento del empleo entre 1988 y 1992, periodo recesivo en el cual el mercado de trabajo se ajustó a través de una reducción en los ingresos reales y una menor tasa de participación laboral, a partir de 1993, el empleo empezó a crecer junto con el nivel de actividad económica. El mercado de trabajo fue capaz de absorber el aumento de la oferta de empleo en ese periodo. El aumento del empleo fue generado íntegramente por el sector privado, ya que el empleo público se redujo. Sin embargo, hay grupos demográficos específicos, como los hombres de mayor edad, para quienes el crecimiento del empleo ha sido muy pequeño, y las probabilidades de...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Empleo; Desempleo; Ingreso; Mercado de trabajo; Sector informal; Ajuste estructural; Employment; Unemployment; Income; Labour market; Informal sector; Structural adjustment; Peru; Labor and Human Capital; E24; D31; J2; J4.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37981
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Cross-Border Environmental Management and the Informal Sector: The Ciudad Juarez Brickmakers' Project AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Bannister, Geoffrey J..
The considerable difficulties associated with cross-border environmental management are compounded when polluters are unlicensed micro-enterprises such as auto repair shops and traditional brick kilns; such "informal sector" firms are virtually impossible to regulate in the conventional manner. This paper describes an example of an innovative and promising approach to the problem: the Cd. Juarez Brickmakers' Project, a private-sector-led, binational initiative aimed at abating highly polluting emissions from Cd. Juarez's approximately 350 informal brick kilns. We draw three lessons from the Project's history. First, private-sector-led cross-border initiatives can work -- indeed they may be more effective than public sector initiatives -- but they require...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: US-Mexican border; Informal sector; Environment; Brickmaking; Environmental Economics and Policy; O17; O54; L61; Q25; Q28.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10600
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Determinants of the Informal Economy: The Importance of Regional Factors AgEcon
Krakowski, Michael.
This paper analyses the determinants of the size of the informal economy using cross-country regressions. Two sets of global data using indirect estimation techniques and the perception of business leaders for 109 countries as well as a regional set for Latin America based on direct data are used to estimate the size of the informal economies. Indirect estimation techniques arrive at higher estimates of the size of the informal economy than the perceptions of business leaders because they include not only the (fundamentally legal) activities of the informal sector, but also those activities which are illegal per se. Both kinds of estimate show strong regional differences in the size of the informal economies. Regressions on a set of indicators covering the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Informal sector; Tax evasion; Business regulation; Political Economy; O17; H26.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26313
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Enhancing contributions of the informal sector to national development: The case of Uganda AgEcon
Muwonge, Abdu; Obwona, Marios; Nambwaayo, Victoria.
This study analyzes Uganda's informal sector size, contribution, formal-informal sector linkages, causes, constraints, and policies aimed at formalizing or enhancing its contribution. The methodology used involved a review of relevant policy documents, including UBOS's survey reports on the informal sector. Of particular relevance are the 2002/03 household survey (UNHS) which incorporated an informal sector module and the 2000/2001 Uganda Business Inquiry (UBI) and the 2001/2002 Uganda Business Register. the household surveys documenting the informal sector in Uganda define the informal sector as an enterprise employing less than 5 persons...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Informal sector; Muwonge; EPRC; Employment; Job seekers; Consumer/Household Economics; Industrial Organization; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Public Economics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54711
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Enhancing contributions of the informal sector to National development: The case of Uganda AgEcon
Muwonge, Abdu; Obwona, Marios; Nambwaayo, Victoria.
Regardless of the definition of the informal sector, there is wide spread consensus that the sector is important to the developing world. The International Lab-our Organization estimated that in 1990, 21 percent of the Sub-Saharan Africa's 227 million labour force was working in the informal economy. As the informal sector continued to grow both in urban and rural areas, there was a decline or stagnation in the growth of formal employment. The informal sector's contribution to gross domestic product (GDP) is increasing, although not much is known in most countries because the sector hardly enters the official statistical records. This study analyzes Uganda's informal sector size, contribution, formal-informal sector linkages, causes, constraints and...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Informal sector; Employment; Informal markets; EPRC; Muwonge; Nambwaayo; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Financial Economics; Industrial Organization; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Political Economy; Production Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93813
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Informal Sector Pollution Control: What Policy Options Do We Have? AgEcon
Blackman, Allen.
In developing countries, urban clusters of informal firms such as brick kilns and leather tanneries can create severe pollution problems. However, these firms are quite difficult to regulate for a variety of technical and political reasons. Drawing on the literature, this paper first develops a list of feasible environmental management policies. It then examines how these policies have fared in four independent efforts to control emissions from informal brick kilns in northern Mexico. The case studies suggest that: (i) conventional command and control process standards are generally only enforceable when buttressed by peer monitoring, (ii) surprisingly, clean technologies can be successfully diffused even when they raise variable costs, in part because...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Informal sector; Environmental policy; Latin America; Mexico; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10634
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Pollution Control in the Informal Sector: The Ciudad Juarez Brickmakers' Project AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Bannister, Geoffrey J..
Low-technology unlicensed micro-enterprises known as "informal" firms are a significant source of pollution in developing countries that are virtually impossible to regulate in the conventional manner. This paper describes an example of an innovative and promising approach to the problem: the Ciudad Juarez Brickmakers' Project, a private-sector-led initiative aimed at abating highly polluting emissions from Ciudad Juarez, Mexico's approximately 300 informal brick kilns. We draw four lessons from the Project's history. First, private-sector-led initiatives can work -- indeed they may be more effective than public-sector-initiatives -- but they require strong public sector support. Second, necessary conditions for effective environmental management in the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Informal sector; Air pollution; Mexico; Brickmaking; Community pressure; Environmental Economics and Policy; O17; O22; O33; O54; Q25; L61.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10478
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Seed Value Chains for Sorghum and Millet in Mali: A State-Based System in Transition AgEcon
Diakite, Lamissa; Sidibe, Amadou; Smale, Melinda; Grum, Mikkel.
This paper reviews the structure and performance of the sorghum and millet seed sector in Mali. The Sahel is the origin of pearl millet and sorghum, seed selection and management of these crops is embedded in local cultures, and most producers of these crops are subsistence oriented. Despite seed sector reform, no certified seed of these crops is sold in local markets and farmers prefer to rely on themselves or each other for seed. The dominant source of certified seed is the national seed service. Certified seed is multiplied by contracted farmers and seed producer groups, and supplied to farmers through farmers’ associations, development organizations, and extension services. The informal sector supplies farmers with non-certified seed directly and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Seed; Formal sector; Informal sector; Millet; Sorghum; Mali; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42348
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The Ancillary Carbon Benefits of SO2 Reductions from a Small-Boiler Policy in Taiyuan, PRC AgEcon
Morgenstern, Richard D.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Zhang, Xuehua.
To reduce carbon emissions worldwide, it makes sense to consider the possibility of developed countries paying for carbon reductions in developing countries. Developing countries may be interested in such activities if the ancillary air pollution benefits are large. This paper reports on an RFF survey of the emissions benefits (and costs) of reducing sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from small, coal-burning boilers in Taiyuan, an industrial, northern Chinese city that recently banned uncontrolled coal combustion in certain small boilers in the downtown area. We find significant carbon benefits in percentage terms-on the order of 50% to 95% reduction-associated with this SO2 control policy, with large reduction potential elsewhere in Taiyuan and China. While...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon; Air pollution; Informal sector; Ancillary benefits; Abatement costs; Survey; Environmental Economics and Policy; O12; L2; Q12; Q25; Q48.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10632
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The Benefits and Costs of Informal Sector Pollution Control: Mexican Brick Kilns AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Newbold, Stephen C.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Cook, Joseph H..
In developing countries, urban clusters of manufacturers which are "informal"-small-scale, unlicensed and virtually unregulated-can have severe environmental impacts. Yet pollution control efforts have traditionally focused on large industrial sources, in part because the problem is not well understood. This paper presents a benefit-cost analysis of four practical strategies for reducing emissions from traditional brick kilns in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. To our knowledge, it is the first such analysis of informal sources. We find very significant net benefits for three of the four control strategies. These results suggest that informal polluters should be a high priority for environmental regulators.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Benefit-cost analysis; Informal sector; Air pollution; US-Mexico Border; Brick kiln; Environmental Economics and Policy; O13; O17; O54; Q25; Q28.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10532
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Trading Millet and Sorghum Genetic Resources: Women Vendors in the Village Fairs of San and Douentza, Mali AgEcon
Smale, Melinda; Diakite, Lamissa; Dembele, Brahima; Traore, Issa Seni; Guindo, Oumar; Konta, Bourema.
In Mali, liberalization of seed markets for sorghum and millet, the staple food crops, has not advanced at the same rate or with the same measurable success as liberalization of grain markets. Most seed of these crops is uncertified and continues to be supplied to farmers by farmers, according to clan and ethno-linguistic group. After poor harvests or when replanting after a dry spell, farmers rely on local markets for grain as sources of seed. This paper summarizes the findings of a vendor survey conducted in two marketsheds during weekly fairs. No certified seed is sold. Almost all vendors are women who are also farmers. Variety integrity is maintained particularly for millet seed in the marketshed of the Sahelian zone, where the range of variety...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural development; Informal sector; Seed markets; Traders; Landraces; Millet; Sorghum; Women; Mali; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42352
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Women in fishing activity: A look at the contribution of the platoneras of Buenaventura, Colombia Boletín de Investigaciones
Garay Tapias,Andrea; Contreras Araque,Andrea; Escobar Toledo,Fabián.
ABSTRACT An analysis of the value chain of the trawl fishery in the Pacific, showed that more than 50 % of the jobs generated in this fishery are occupied by women, and that half of these are provided by the platoneras of the Buenaventura district. The platoneras are afro-descendant women who market fish products based on the bycatch of this fishery and who are an integral part of the trawl fishery. Ignoring the contribution to the local economy and the fishing sector, this study describes the role of platoneras in the trawl fishery to map the value chain sensitive to gender and nutrition. For this, 123 direct surveys to platoneras in five marketing points of the district were applied. The analysis showed that they receive an average of $87,500 COP per...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Woman; Fishing industry; Small-scale fishing; Gender roles; Informal sector.
Ano: 2022 URL: http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0122-97612022000200063
Registros recuperados: 13
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