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Registros recuperados: 10
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Are there customary rights to plants? An inquiry among the Baganda (Uganda), with special attention to gender AgEcon
Howard, Patricia L.; Nabanoga, Gorettie.
Debates around Common Property Resources and Intellectual Property Rights fail to consider traditional and indigenous rights regimes that regulate plant resource exploitation, establish bundles of powers and obligations for heterogeneous groups of users, and create differential entitlements to benefits that are related to social structures. Such rights regimes are important to maintaining biodiversity and to human welfare; failing to recognize them presents dangers. The case study investigates the gendered nature of informal rights to selected tree and plant species that are distinct from, but related to, customary rights to land and trees, and are embedded in cosmology and social norms.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Common Property Resources; Intellectual Property Rights; Plant resources; Gender; Africa; Uganda; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50033
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Cross-Border Intellectual Property Rights: Contract Enforcement and Absorptive Capacity AgEcon
Naghavi, Alireza; Tsai, Yingyi.
Current version uploaded April 2013.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual Property Rights; TRIPS; Nash Bargaining; Contract Enforcement; Development; Absorptive Capacity; Monitoring; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O34; F13; F53; D78; L10; O33; C70.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122864
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Evidence for increasing concentration in plant breeding industries in the United States and the European Union AgEcon
Nolan, Elizabeth; Santos, Paulo.
There is evidence of an increase in market concentration and in the importance of private plant breeding in the seed industry following the widespread adoption of Intellectual Property Rights regimes for the industry in the developed world. We use data from the US Patent and Trademark Office, US Plant Variety Protection Office and various European Plant Variety Protection databases to estimate the extent of these changes in the seed corn industry.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Intellectual Property Rights; R&D; Market concentration; Germplasm.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48060
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INDIA'S PLANT VARIETY AND FARMERS' RIGHT LEGISLATION: POTENTIAL IMPACT ON STAKEHOLDER ACCESS TO GENETIC RESOURCES AgEcon
Ramanna, Anitha.
The demand for extending intellectual property protection to agriculture in developing countries has met with counterclaims for granting farmers' rights. Developing countries are currently attempting to fulfill these demands by evolving new IPR regimes that simultaneously protect the rights of breeders and farmers. What are the possible implications of establishing such a system of multiple rights on the utilization and exchange of genetic resources among various actors? Could the attempt to distribute ownership rights to various stakeholders pose the threat of an "anticommons", where resources are underutilized due to multiple ownership? The answers to these questions have important implications for the future of agricultural growth in developing...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Farmers' Rights; Intellectual Property Rights; Plant Breeders' Rights; India; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16105
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Intellectual Property and Biodiversity: When and Where are Property Rights Important? AgEcon
Sarr, Mare; Swanson, Timothy.
An important issue in the life sciences industries concerns the nature of the incentive mechanism that should govern the production of innovation within this R&D sector. We look at the specific problem of coordinating the supply of inputs across very different agents - North and South - that must each supply inputs in order to generate innovations from the industry. The current arrangement in this industry provides for a single property right at “end of the pipeline”, i.e. where marketing of the innovation occurs. This property rights scenario raises two problems, one of efficiency and one of equity. The key question asked here pertains to the number and placement of property rights that should be instituted to address this property rights failure....
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Biodiversity Prospecting; Traditional Knowledge; Genetic Resources; Intellectual Property Rights; Sequential R&D; Production Economics; Q56; O34; L24.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119101
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Intellectual Property Rights, Product Complexity, and the Organization of Multinational Firms (Previously titled: International Sourcing, Product Complexity and Intellectual Property Rights) AgEcon
Naghavi, Alireza; Spies, Julia; Toubal, Farid.
Current version uploaded April 2013.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Sourcing Decision; Product Complexity; Intellectual Property Rights; Fractional Logit Estimation; Production Economics; F12; F23; O34.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119100
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Optimal Patentability Requirements with Fragmented Property Rights AgEcon
Denicolo, Vincenzo; Halmenschlager, Christine.
We study the effect of the fragmentation of intellectual property rights on optimal patent design. The major finding is that when several complementary innovative components must be assembled to operate a new technology, the patentability requirements should be stronger than in the case of stand-alone innovation. This reduces the fragmentation of intellectual property, which is socially costly. However, to preserve the incentives to innovate, if a patent is granted the strength of protection should be generally higher than in the stand-alone case.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual Property Rights; Fragmentation; Patent Requirements; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O3; O34.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98051
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Parallel Imports and Innovation in an Emerging Economy AgEcon
Mantovani, Andrea; Naghavi, Alireza.
This paper studies the consequences of parallel import (PI) on process innovation of firms heterogeneous in their production technology. In an international setting where foreign markets differ with respect to their intellectual property rights regime, a move by a technologically inferior firm to exploit a new unregulated market can result in imitation and PI. The impact of PI on innovation is determined by the degree of heterogeneity between firms and trade costs. Increasing trade costs shifts from the market share losses brought by PI from the more to the less productive firm. This induces the former to invest more in R&D. At this point, sales in the foreign market become a determinant of the R&D decision by the technologically inferior firm. For...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual Property Rights; Parallel Imports; Innovation; Trade Costs; Welfare; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; F12; F13; L11.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60688
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THE ECONOMICS OF GENERATING AND MAINTAINING PLANT VARIETY RIGHTS IN CHINA AgEcon
Koo, Bonwoo; Pardey, Philip G.; Qian, Keming; Zhang, Yi.
Notwithstanding the ambiguous research and productivity promoting effects of plant variety protections (PVPs), even in developed countries, many developing countries have adopted PVPs in the past few years to comply with their Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) obligations. Seeking and maintaining PVPs reserves options to an expected revenue stream from the future sale of protected varieties, the value of which varies for a host of reasons. In this paper we empirically examine the pattern of plant variety protection applications in China since its PVP laws were first introduced in 1997. We place those PVP rights in the context of China's present and likely future seed markets to identify the economic incentives and institutional...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual Property Rights; Crop Improvement; Option Value; Seed Markets; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16052
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The International Trends in Plant Variety Protection AgEcon
Srinivasan, Chittur S..
This paper examines international trends in plant variety protection, a form of intellectual property rights for plant varieties akin to patents. The TRIPs Agreement under the WTO has given a strong impetus for the universalisation of plant variety protection regimes with common standards of protection across countries. This paper argues that developed and developing countries are likely to adopt widely divergent approaches to the development of intellectual property rights for plant varieties. The special features of plant variety protection constrain the appropriability of economic returns from protected plant varieties. Consequently, in developed countries PVP is being seen as a relatively weak intellectual property right instrument. As stronger forms...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Intellectual Property Rights; Plant Variety Protection; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/110134
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